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STRULDBRUG, struld'brug, _n._ one of a class of immortals in _Gulliver's Travels_, born with a special mark in the forehead, kept by the public after eighty.

STRUM, strum, _v.t._ to play on (as a musical instrument) in a coarse, noisy manner:--_pr.p._ strum'ming; _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ strummed. [A variant of _thrum_.]

STRUMA, str[=oo]'ma, _n._ scrofula:--_pl._ STRU'Mae.--_adjs._ STRUMAT'IC, STRU'MOUS, having scrofula: scrofulous--also STRUM[=O]SE'; STRUMIF'EROUS, bearing strumae or swellings; STRU'MIFORM, having the form of a struma.--_ns._ STRUM[=I]'TIS, inflammation of the thyroid gland; STRUM[=O]'SIS, production of struma; STRU'MOUSNESS. [L.

_strumosus_--_struma_, scrofula.]

STRUMPET, strum'pet, _n._ a whore.--_adj._ like a strumpet: inconstant: false.--_v.t._ to make a strumpet of: to call a strumpet. [O. Fr. _strupe_, _stupre_--L. _stuprum_, dishonour, _strupr[=a]re_, to debauch.]

STRUNG, strung, _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ of _string_.

STRUNT, strunt, _v.i._ (_Scot._) to strut.

STRUNT, strunt, _n._ (_Scot._) spirits, a dram of such: a sulky fit.

STRUT, strut, _v.i._ to walk in a pompous manner: to walk with affected dignity:--_pr.p._ strut'ting; _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ strut'ted.--_n._ a proud step or walk: affectation of dignity in walking.--_n._ STRUT'TER, one who struts.--_adv._ STRUT'TINGLY, in a strutting manner. [Scand., Dan.

_strutte_, to strut; Low Ger. _strutt_, rigid; Ger. _strotzen_, to be puffed up.]

STRUT, strut, _n._ a support for a rafter: an instrument for adjusting the plaits of a ruff.--_v.t._ to brace.

STRUTHIO, str[=oo]'thi-[=o], _n._ the sole genus of _Struthionidae_, the African ostriches.--_adjs._ STRU'THIONINE, STRU'THIOUS. [L.,--Gr.

_strouthi[=o]n_, an ostrich.]

STRYCHNINE, strik'nin, _n._ a poisonous alkaloid occurring in crystals, intensely bitter, colourless and inodorous, obtained from the seeds of nux vomica--also STRYCH'NIA.--_adj._ STRYCH'NIC.--_ns._ STRYCH'NINISM, the condition produced by a poisonous dose of strychnine; STRYCH'NISM, the morbid state of the spinal cord produced by strychnine. [Gr. _strychnos_, a kind of nightshade.]

STRYDE, str[=i]d, _n._ (_Spens._) stride.

STUB, stub, _n._ the stump left after a tree is cut down: anything short and thick, a stump or truncated end of anything, a worn horse-shoe nail, esp. in _pl._: the counterfoil in a cheque-book, &c.--_v.t._ to take the stubs or roots of from the ground: to cut to a stub: to strike against a stub:--_pr.p._ stub'bing; _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ stubbed.--_adj._ STUBBED, short and thick like a stump: blunt: obtuse.--_ns._ STUB'BEDNESS; STUB'BINESS, state of being stubby: stubbedness.--_adj._ STUB'BY, abounding with stubs: short, thick, and strong.--_ns._ STUB'-[=I]'RON, that worked up from stubs for gun-barrels; STUB'-NAIL, a short thick nail. [A.S. _styb_; Dut. _stobbe_, Ice. _stubbi_.]

STUBBLE, stub'l, _n._ the stumps or root-ends of the stalks of corn left in the ground by the reaper or mower: anything like this, as a bristly beard, &c.: the sugar-cane in the field after the first year.--_adjs._ STUBB'LED, covered with stubble; STUBB'LE-FED, fed on the natural grass growing among stubble.--_ns._ STUBB'LE-GOOSE, or _Harvest-goose_, the greylag goose; STUBB'LE-RAKE, a rake with long teeth for raking stubble together.--_adj._ STUBB'LY, stubbled: having stubble: covered with stubble. [O. Fr.

_estouble_, prob. Teut. (Old High Ger. _stupfila_), or directly from L.

_stipula_, dim. of _stipes_, a stalk.]

STUBBORN, stub'orn, _adj._ immovably fixed in opinion: obstinate: persevering: steady: stiff: inflexible: hardy: not easily melted or worked.--_v.t._ (_Keats_) to make stubborn.--_adv._ STUBB'ORNLY.--_n._ STUBB'ORNNESS.--_adj._ STUBB'ORN-SHAFT'ED, having strong shafts or trunks.

[A.S. _styb_, a stub.]

STUCCO, stuk'[=o], _n._ a plaster of lime and fine sand, &c., used as a coating for walls, for decorations, &c.: work done in stucco.--_v.t._ to face or overlay with stucco: to form in stucco.--_n._ STUCC'[=O]ER, one who works or deals in stucco. [It. _stucco_; from Old High Ger. _stucchi_, a crust, a shell.]

STUCK, stuk, _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ of _stick_.--_adj._ STUCK'-UP, affectedly vain, self-important.

STUCK, stuk, _n._ (_Shak._) a thrust. [_Stoccado_.]

STUCKLE, stuk'l, _n._ (_prov._) several sheaves set together.

STUD, stud, _n._ a collection of breeding horses and mares, also the place where they are kept: a collection of horses for racing or hunting, also of other animals, even of dogs in America.--_ns._ STUD'-BOOK, a record of the pedigrees of famous animals, esp. horses; STUD'-FARM, a farm where horses are bred; STUD'-GROOM, a groom at a stud, esp. the head-groom; STUD'-HORSE, a stallion. [A.S. _stod_; Ger. _gestut_.]

STUD, stud, _n._ a nail with a large head: an ornamental double-headed button worn in a cuff or shirt-front: one of the intermediate posts in a partition to which laths are nailed: a cross-piece in the links of a chain-cable for strengthening: a small pin in a watch: a trunk, stem.--_v.t._ to adorn with knobs: to set thickly, as with studs:--_pr.p._ stud'ding; _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ stud'ded.--_ns._ STUD'-BOLT, a bolt with a thread on each end, screwed into a fixed part at one end, receiving a nut upon the other; STUD'DING-SAIL, a narrow sail set temporarily at the outer edges of a square sail when the wind is light--also SCUDDING-SAIL; STUD'DLE, a prop supporting a platform in a mine; STUD'-WORK, brickwork walls between studs: studded leather armour. [A.S. _studu_, a post.]

STUDENT, st[=u]'dent, _n._ one who studies, a scholar at a higher school, college, or university: one devoted to the study of any subject: a man devoted to books.--_ns._ ST[=U]'DENTRY, students collectively; ST[=U]'DENTSHIP, an endowment for a student in a college.

STUDIO, st[=u]'di-o, _n._ the workshop of an artist or photographer:--_pl._ ST[=U]'DIOS. [It.]

STUDIOUS, st[=u]'di-us, _adj._ given to study: thoughtful: diligent: careful (with _of_): studied: deliberately planned: favourable for study or meditation.--_adv._ ST[=U]'DIOUSLY.--_n._ ST[=U]'DIOUSNESS.

STUDY, stud'i, _v.t._ to bestow pains upon: to apply the mind to: to examine closely, in order to learn thoroughly: to form and arrange by thought: to con over.--_v.i._ to apply the mind closely to a subject: to try hard: to muse, meditate, reflect: to apply the mind to books:--_pa.t._ and _pa.p._ stud'ied.--_n._ a setting of the mind upon a subject, earnest endeavour, application to books, &c.: absorbed attention: contrivance: any object of attentive consideration: any particular branch of learning: a room devoted to study: a first sketch from nature, a drawing or painting hastily done to facilitate later and more elaborate work, a student's exercise in painting or sculpture: a composition in music intended to help in acquiring mechanical facility: in theatrical phrase, one who commits a part to memory.--_adj._ STUD'IED, qualified by, or versed in, study: learned: planned with study or deliberation: premeditated.--_adv._ STUD'IEDLY, in a studied or premeditated manner.--_n._ STUD'IER, one who studies. [O. Fr. _estudie_ (Fr. _etude_)--L. _studium_, zeal; Gr.

_spoud[=e]_, zeal.]

STUFA, st[=oo]f'a, _n._ a jet of steam issuing from a fissure in the earth.


STUFF, stuf, _n._ materials of which anything is made: that which fills anything: essence, elemental part: textile fabrics, cloth, esp. when woollen: something trifling, worthless, or contemptible: a melted mass of turpentine, tallow, &c. used for paying masts, planks, &c.: a medicinal mixture: boards for building: (_slang_) money: worthless matter: possessions generally, esp. household furniture, &c.--_v.t._ to fill by crowding: to fill very full: to press in: to crowd: to cram, as with nonsense or lies: to obstruct: to cause to bulge out by filling: to fill with seasoning, as a fowl: to fill the skin of a dead animal, so as to reproduce its living form.--_v.i._ to feed gluttonously: to practise taxidermy.--_ns._ STUFF'ER, one who stuffs, esp. the skins of animals; STUFF'-GOWN, a gown of stuff, not silk, esp. that of a junior barrister; STUFF'ING, that which is used to stuff or fill anything--straw, sawdust, feathers, hair, &c.: relishing ingredients put into meat, poultry, &c. in cooking; STUFF'ING-BOX, a contrivance for keeping a piston-rod, &c., air-tight or water-tight by means of closely-fitting packing, while allowing it free motion. [O. Fr. _estoffe_ (Fr. _etoffe_)--L. _stuppa_, tow.]

STUFFY, stuf'i, _adj._ badly ventilated, musty: causing difficulty in breathing: (_Scot._) stout: sturdy: (_slang_) sulky.--_n._ STUFF'INESS. [O.

Fr. _estouffer_, to choke--estoffe, stuff.]

STUG, stug, _n._ (_Scot._) a thorn.

STUGGY, stug'i, _adj._ (_prov._) thick-set, stout.

STULL, stul, _n._ (_prov._) in mining, a cross-timber in an excavation.

STULM, stulm, _n._ a small shaft used to drain a mine.

STULP, stulp, _n._ (_prov._) a post.

STULTIFY, stul'ti-f[=i], _v.t._ to make a fool of: to cause to appear foolish: to destroy the force of one's argument by self-contradiction: (_law_) to allege or prove to be of unsound mind:--_pa.t._ and _pa.p._ stul'tified.--_ns._ STULTIFIC[=A]'TION, act of stultifying or making foolish; STUL'TIFIER, one who stultifies or makes a fool of; STULTIL'OQUENCE, STULTIL'OQUY, foolish talk or discourse, babbling.--_adj._ STULTIL'OQUENT.--_adv._ STULTIL'OQUENTLY. [L. _stultus_, foolish, _fac[)e]re_, to make.]

STUM, stum, _n._ must, grape-juice unfermented: new wine used to revive dead or vapid wine: a mixture used to impart artificial strength, &c., to weak beer or wine: wine revived by the addition of stum or by a second fermentation.--_v.t._ to renew or doctor with stum: to fume, as a cask of liquor, with burning sulphur. [Dut. _stom_, must--_stom_, mute; Ger.

_stumm_, dumb.]

STUMBLE, stum'bl, _v.i._ to strike the feet against something, to trip in walking: to light on by chance (with _upon_): to slide into crime or error.--_v.t._ to cause to trip or stop: to puzzle.--_n._ a trip in walking or running: a blunder: a failure.--_ns._ STUM'BLER, one who stumbles; STUM'BLING-BLOCK, -STONE, a block or stone over which one would be likely to stumble: a cause of error.--_adv._ STUM'BLINGLY.--_adj._ STUM'BLY, apt to stumble. [Skeat explains the _b_ as excrescent, the M. E. _stomblen_, _stomelen_, _stumlen_, also _stomeren_ being from Ice. _stumra_, to stumble. It is thus a doublet of _stammer_.]

STUMMEL, stum'el, _n._ the bowl and stem of a pipe.

STUMP, stump, _n._ the part of a tree left in the ground after the trunk is cut down: the part of a body remaining after a part is cut off or destroyed: (_cricket_) one of the three sticks forming a wicket.--_v.t._ to reduce to a stump, to truncate, to cut off a part of: to strike unexpectedly, as the foot against something fixed: (_cricket_) to knock down the wickets when the batsman is out of his ground: to bring to a stop by means of some obstacle or other, to defeat, ruin: (_U.S._) to challenge to do something difficult: to make stump-speeches throughout a district, constituency, &c.: (_slang_) to pay down, hand over (with _up_).--_v.i._ to walk along heavily: to make stump-speeches.--_ns._ STUMP'ER, one who stumps; STUMP'-OR'ATOR, one who harangues the multitude from a temporary platform, as the stump of a tree: a speaker who travels about the country, and whose appeals are mainly to the passions of his audience; STUMP'-OR'ATORY; STUMP'-SPEECH, an impromptu speech delivered on any improvised platform, any speech made all round a district by some frothy agitator.--_adj._ STUMP'Y, full of stumps, short and thick.--_n._ (_slang_) cash.--STUMP OUT (_cricket_), to put out by knocking down the stump or wicket. [Ice. _stumpr_; Ger. _stumpf_, nasalised form of _stub_.]

STUN, stun, _v.t._ to stupefy or astonish with a loud noise, or with a blow: to surprise completely: to amaze:--_pr.p._ stun'ning; _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ stunned.--_n._ a stroke, shock, stupefying blow.--_ns._ STUN'NER, a person or an action that strikes with amazement; STUN'NING, stupefaction.--_adj._ very striking, astonishing.--_adv._ STUN'NINGLY.

[A.S. _stunian_, to make a din--_stun_, a din.]

STUNDIST, stun'dist, _n._ one of a body of Russian dissenters who reject forms and ceremonies, and base their faith and practice on the Bible alone.--_n._ STUN'DISM, the doctrines of the Stundists. [Ger. _stunde_, an hour, from their stated meetings for Bible-reading.]

STUNG, stung, _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ of _sting_.

STUNK, stungk, _pa.p._ of _stink_.

STUNT, stunt, _v.t._ to hinder from growth, to dwarf, check.--_n._ a check in growth: an animal whose growth is stunted.--_adj._ STUNT'ED, dwarfed.--_n._ STUNT'EDNESS, state of being stunted. [A.S. _stunt_, blunt; Ice. _stuttr_, short.]

STUPA, st[=u]'pa, _n._ a Buddhist monument: a dagoba or shrine of Buddha.


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