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SINEW, sin'[=u], _n._ that which joins a muscle to a bone, a tendon: muscle, nerve: that which supplies vigour.--_v.t._ to bind as by sinews: to strengthen.--_adj._ SIN'EWED, furnished with sinews: (_Shak._) strong, vigorous.--_n._ SIN'EWINESS, the state or quality of being sinewy.--_adjs._ SIN'EWLESS, having no sinews: without strength or power; SIN'EW-SHRUNK, applied to a horse which has become gaunt-bellied from being overdriven; SIN'EWY, SIN'EWOUS, furnished with sinews: consisting of, belonging to, or resembling sinews: strong: vigorous.--SINEWS OF WAR, money. [A.S. _sinu_; Ice. _sin_, Ger. _sehne_.]

SINFONIA, sin-f[=o]-n[=e]'a, _n._ symphony. [It.]

SING, sing, _v.i._ to utter melodious sounds in musical succession: to make a small, shrill sound: to relate in verse: to squeal: to ring: to be capable of being sung.--_v.t._ to utter musically: to chant: to celebrate: to attend on: to effect by singing: to celebrate or relate in verse:--_pa.t._ sang or sung; _pa.p._ sung.--_adj._ SING'ABLE.--_ns._ SING'ABLENESS; SING'ER, one who sings: one whose occupation is to sing; SING'ING, the act or art of singing; SING'ING-BIRD, a bird that sings, a songster; SING'ING-BOOK, a song-book; SING'ING-GALL'ERY, a gallery occupied by singers; SING'ING-HINN'Y, a currant cake baked on a girdle.--_adv._ SING'INGLY.--_ns._ SING'ING-MAN (_Shak._), one employed to sing, as in a cathedral; SING'ING-MAS'TER, a master who teaches singing; SING'ING-SCHOOL, a place where singing is taught; SING'ING-VOICE, the voice as used in singing; SING'ING-WOM'AN, a woman employed to sing.--SING ANOTHER SONG, or TUNE, to change one's tone or attitude, esp. to a humbler manner; SING OUT, to call out distinctly, to shout; SING SMALL, to assume a humble tone: to play a minor part. [A.S. _singan_; Ger. _singen_, Goth. _siggwan_.]

SINGE, sinj, _v.t._ to burn on the surface: to scorch:--_pr.p._ singe'ing; _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ singed.--_n._ a burning of the surface: a slight burn.--SINGED CAT, a person who is better than he looks. [A.S. _besengan_, the causative of _singan_, to sing, from the singing noise produced by scorching.]


SINGLE, sing'gl, _adj._ consisting of one only: individual, unique: separate, private: alone: unmarried: not combined with others: unmixed: having one only on each side: straightforward: sincere: simple, normal: pure.--_v.t._ to separate: to choose one from others: to select from a number.--_adjs._ SING'LE-ACT'ING, acting effectively in one direction only--of any reciprocating machine or implement; SING'LE-BREAST'ED, with a single row of buttons or loops only, of a coat, corsage, &c.--_n._ SINGLE-EN'TRY, a system of book-keeping in which each entry appears only once on one side or other of an account.--_adj._ SING'LE-EYED, having but one eye: devoted, unselfish.--_ns._ SING'LE-FLOW'ER, a flower containing a single set of petals, as a wild rose; SING'LE-FOOT, a gait of horses, the amble.--_adjs._ SING'LE-HAND'ED, by one's self: unassisted: having only one workman; SING'LE-HEART'ED, having a single or sincere heart: without duplicity.--_adv._ SING'LE-HEART'EDLY.--_adj._ SING'LE-MIND'ED, having a single or sincere mind: upright.--_ns._ SING'LE-MIND'EDNESS; SING'LENESS, state of being single or alone: freedom from deceit: sincerity: simplicity.--_adj._ SING'LE-SOLED, having a single sole, as a shoe: poor.--_ns._ SING'LE-STICK, a stick or cudgel for one hand: a fight or game with singlesticks; SING'LET, an undershirt or waistcoat; SING'LETON, in whist, a hand containing one card only of some suit; SING'LETREE (the same as SWINGLETREE); SING'LE-WOM'AN, an unmarried woman: (_obs._) a whore.--_adv._ SING'LY, one by one: particularly: alone: by one's self: honestly: sincerely. [O. Fr.,--L. _sin-gulus_, one to each, separate, akin to _sem-el_, once, Gr. _ham-a_.]

SINGSONG, sing'song, _n._ bad singing: drawling: a convivial meeting where every one must sing.--_adj._ monotonously rhythmical, drawling.--_v.t._ and _v.i._ to make songs: to chant monotonously.

SINGSPIEL, sing'sp[=e]l, _n._ a semi-dramatic representation in which a series of incidents are set forth in alternate dialogue and song, now a kind of opera in which the music is subordinated to the words. [Ger., _singen_, to sing, _spiel_, play.]

SINGULAR, sing'g[=u]-lar, _adj._ alone: (_gram._) denoting one person or thing: single: not complex or compound: standing alone, rare, unusual, uncommon: of more than common value or importance: unique, extraordinary, strange, odd: (_B._) particular.--_n._ that which is singular: (_logic_) that which is not general, that which is here and now, that which is determinate in every respect.--_n._ SINGULARIS[=A]'TION.--_v.t._ SING'ULARISE, to make singular.--_ns._ SING'ULARIST, one who affects singularity; SINGULAR'ITY, the state of being singular: peculiarity: anything curious or remarkable: particular privilege or distinction: (_math._) an exceptional element or character of a continuum.--_adv._ SING'ULARLY, in a singular manner: peculiarly: strangely: so as to express one or the singular number. [Fr.,--L. _singularis_.]

SINGULT, sin'gult, _n._ a sigh.--_adjs._ SINGUL'TIENT, SINGUL'TOUS, affected with hiccup.--_n._ SINGUL'TUS, a hiccup. [L. _singultus_, a sob.]

SINHALESE, sin'ha-l[=e]z, _n._ and _adj._ the same as CINGALESE and SINGHALESE.

SINIC, sin'ik, _adj._ Chinese.--_adj._ SIN'IAN, a widely spread series of rocks in China, containing many trilobites and brachiopods.--_ns._ SIN'ICISM, Chinese manners and customs; SIN'ISM, customs of China generally, esp. its ancient indigenous religion. [L. _Sina_, China, _Sinae_, the Chinese, Gr. _Sinai_, the Chinese.]

SINICAL, sin'ik-al, _adj._ pertaining to, employing, or founded upon sines.

SINISTER, sin'is-t[.e]r, _adj._ left: on the left hand: evil: unfair: dishonest: unlucky: inauspicious, malign.--_adj._ SIN'ISTER-HAND'ED, left-handed.--_advs._ SIN'ISTERLY; SINIS'TRA (_mus._), with the left hand; SIN'ISTRAD, towards the left.--_adj._ SIN'ISTRAL, belonging or inclining to the left: reversed.--_n._ SINISTRAL'ITY.--_adv._ SIN'ISTRALLY.--_n._ SINISTR[=A]'TION, a turning to the left.--_adj._ SIN'ISTROUS, on the left side: wrong: absurd: perverse.--_adv._ SIN'ISTROUSLY. [L.]

SINISTRORSE, sin'is-trors, _adj._ rising from left to right, as a spiral line.--Also SINISTRORS'AL. [L. _sinistrorsus_, _sinistroversus_, towards the left side--sinister, left, _vert[)e]re_, _versum_, to turn.]

SINK, singk, _v.i._ to fall to the bottom: to fall down: to descend lower: to fall gradually: to fall below the surface: to enter deeply: to be impressed: to be overwhelmed: to fail in strength.--_v.t._ to cause to sink: to put under water: to keep out of sight: to suppress: to degrade: to cause to decline or fall: to plunge into destruction: to make by digging or delving: to pay absolutely: to lower in value or amount: to lessen:--_pa.t._ sank, sunk; _pa.p._ sunk, sunk'en.--_n._ a drain to carry off dirty water: a box or vessel connected with a drain for receiving dirty water: an abode of degraded persons: a general receptacle: an area in which a river sinks and disappears: a depression in a stereotype plate: a stage trap-door for shifting scenery: in mining, an excavation less than a shaft.--_ns._ SINK'ER, anything which causes a sinking, esp. a weight fixed to a fishing-line; SINK'-HOLE, a hole for dirty water to run through; SINK'ING, a subsidence: a depression.--_adj._ causing to sink.--_n._ SINK'ING-FUND, a fund formed by setting aside income every year to accumulate at interest for the purpose of paying off debt.--_adj._ SINK'ING-RIPE (_Shak._), dead-ripe, about to fall off.--_n._ SINK'ROOM, a scullery. [A.S. _sincan_; Ger. _sinken_, Dut. _zinken_.]

SINK-A-PACE, singk'-a-p[=a]s, _n._ (_Shak._)=_Cinquepace_.

SINOLOGUE, sin'[=o]-log, _n._ one versed in Chinese.--_adj._ SINOLOG'ICAL (-loj'-).--_ns._ SINOL'OGIST; SINOL'OGY.

SINOPLE, sin'[=o]-pl, _n._ a ferruginous clay yielding the fine red pigment SIN[=O]'PIA or SIN[=O]'PIS. [Gr. _sin[=o]pis_, a red earth brought from _Sinope_.]

SINSYNE, sin-s[=i]n', _adv._ (_Scot._) since, ago.

SINTER, sin't[.e]r, _n._ a name given to rocks precipitated in a crystalline form from mineral waters. [Ger.]

SINTO, SINTOISM=_Shinto_, _Shintoism_.

SINTOC, sin'tok, _n._ a Malayan tree with aromatic bark.--Also SIN'DOC.

SINUATE, -D, sin'[=u]-[=a]t, -ed, _adj._ curved: (_bot._) with a waved margin.--_v.t._ to bend in and out.--_ns._ SINU[=A]'TION; SINUOS'ITY, quality of being sinuous: a bend or series of bends and turns.--_adjs._ SIN'UOUS, SIN'U[=O]SE, bending in and out, winding, undulating: morally crooked.--_adv._ SIN'UOUSLY. [L. _sinuatus_, _pa.p._ of _sinu[=a]re_, to bend.]

SINUPALLIATE, sin-[=u]-pal'i-[=a]t, _adj._ having a sinuous pallial margin on the shell along the line of attachment of the mantle.--Also SINUPALL'IAL. [L. _sinus_, a fold, pallium, a mantle.]

SINUS, s[=i]'nus, _n._ a bending: a fold: an opening: a bay of the sea: a recess on the shore: (_anat._) a cavity or hollow of bone or other tissue, one of the air-cavities contained in the interior of certain bones: a channel for transmitting venous blood: a narrow opening leading to an abscess, &c.--_n._ S[=I]'NUSOID, the curve of sines in which the abscisses are proportional to an angle, and the ordinates to its sine.--_adj._ SINUSOI'DAL.--_adv._ SINUSOI'DALLY. [L. _sinus_, a curve.]

SIOUX, s[=oo], _n._ (_pl._ SIOUX, s[=oo] or s[=oo]z) the principal tribe of the Dakota family of American Indians in South Dakota and Nebraska--also _adj._--Also SIOUAN (s[=oo]'an).

SIP, sip, _v.t._ to sup or drink in small quantities: to draw into the mouth: to taste: to drink out of.--_v.i._ to drink in small quantities: to drink by the lips:--_pr.p._ sip'ping; _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ sipped.--_n._ the taking of a liquor with the lips: a small draught.--_n._ SIP'PER. [A.S.

_syppan_ (assumed), _sipian_, to soak. Related to _supan_, to sup, taste.]

SIPE, s[=i]p, _v.i._ (_prov._) to soak through.--Also SEEP. [A.S. _sipian_, to soak; Dut. _zijpen_, to drop.]

SIPHILIS. Same as SYPHILIS (q.v.).


SIPHON, s[=i]'fun, _n._ a bent tube for drawing off liquids from one vessel into another.--_v.t._ to convey by means of a siphon.--_n._ S[=I]'PHONAGE.--_adjs._ S[=I]'PHONAL, S[=I]'PHONATE, S[=I]PHON'IC, pertaining to, or resembling, a siphon.--_n._ S[=I]'PHON-BOTT'LE, a glass bottle for containing aerated liquid, fitted with a glass tube reaching nearly to the bottom and bent like a siphon at the outlet.--_adjs._ SIPHONIF'EROUS; S[=I]'PHONIFORM; SIPHONOST[=O]'MATOUS, having a siphonate mouth.--_ns._ S[=I]'PHONOSTOME, a siphonostomatous animal, as a fish-louse; S[=I]'PHUNCLE, the siphon or funnel of tetrabranchiate cephalopods: a nectary.--_adjs._ S[=I]'PHUNCLED, SIPHUNC'ULAR, SIPHUNC'ULATE, -D.--_ns._ SIPHUNC'ULUS; SIPUNC'ULUS, a genus of worms belonging to the class _Gephyrea_. [Fr.,--Gr., _siph[=o]n_--_siphlos_, hollow.]

SIPPET, sip'et, _n._ a small sop: (_pl._) morsels of bread served in broth, &c.--_v.i._ SIPP'LE, to sup in sips.

SIPYLITE, sip'i-l[=i]t, _n._ a niobite of erbium. [From Gr. _Sipylos_, one of the children of Niobe.]

SIR, s[.e]r, _n._ a word of respect used in addressing a man: a gentleman: the title of a knight or baronet, used along with the Christian name and surname, as 'Sir David Pole:' formerly a common title of address for the clergy as a translation of L. _dominus_, the term used for a bachelor of arts, originally in contradistinction from the _magister_, or master of arts--hence SIR JOHN=a priest.--_v.t._ to address as 'sir.' [O. Fr. _sire_, through O. Fr. _senre_, from L. _senior_, an elder, comp. of _senex_, old.

Cf. the parallel forms _Sire_, _Senior_, _Seignior_, _Signor_.]

SIRCAR, s[.e]r-kar', _n._ a Hindu clerk.--Also SIRKAR', CIRCAR'. [Hind.

_sark[=a]r_, a superintendent--_sar_, head, _k[=a]r_, Sans. _kara_, work.]

SIRDAR, s[.e]r-dar', _n._ a chief or military officer. [Hind.

_sard[=a]r_--_sar_, head, _-d[=a]r_, holding.]

SIRE, s[=i]r, _n._ one in the place of a father, as a sovereign: an elder, a progenitor: the male parent of a beast, esp. of a horse: (_pl._) ancestors (_poetry_).--_v.t._ to beget, used of animals. [_Sir_.]

SIREDON, s[=i]-r[=e]'don, _n._ a larval salamander:--_pl._ SIR[=E]'DONES.

SIREN, s[=i]'ren, _n._ (_Gr. myth._) one of certain sea-nymphs who sat on the shores of an island between Circe's isle and Scylla, near the south-western coast of Italy, and sang with bewitching sweetness songs that allured the passing sailor to draw near, only to meet with death: a fascinating woman, any one insidious and deceptive: an instrument which produces musical sounds by introducing a regularly recurring discontinuity into an otherwise steady blast of air: an instrument for demonstrating the laws of beats and combination tones: an eel-like, amphibious animal, with only one pair of feet, inhabiting swamps in the southern states of North America.--_adj._ pertaining to, or like, a siren: fascinating.--_n._ SIR[=E]'NIA, an order of aquatic mammals now represented by the dugong (_Halicore_) and the manatee (_Manatus_).--_adj._ SIR[=E]'NIAN.--_v.i._ S[=I]'RENISE, to play the siren. [L. _siren_--Gr. _seir[=e]n_, prob.

_seira_, a cord.]

SIRGANG, s[.e]r'gang, _n._ the Asiatic green jackdaw.

SIRIH, sir'i, _n._ the betel-leaf. [Malay.]

SIRIUS, sir'i-us, _n._ the Dogstar or Canicula, the brightest star in the heavens, situated in the constellation of _Canis Major_, or the Great Dog.--_n._ SIR[=I]'ASIS, sunstroke. [L.,--Gr. _seirios_.]

SIRLOIN, s[.e]r'loin, _n._ the loin or upper part of the loin of beef. [Fr.

_surlonge_--_sur_ (--L. _super_, above) and _longe_ (cf. _Loin_). The first syllable has been modified by confusion with Eng. _sir_, and an absurd etymology constructed to suit.]

SIRNAME, s[.e]r'n[=a]m, _n._ a corr. of _surname_.

SIROCCO, si-rok'o, _n._ a name given in Italy to a dust-laden dry wind coming over sea from Africa; but also applied to any south wind, often moist and warm, as opposed to the _Tramontana_ or north wind, from the hills.--Also SIR'OC. [It. _sirocco_ (Sp. _siroco_)--_scharq_, the east.]

SIROP, sir'op, _n._ a form of syrup: a kettle used in making sugar by the open-kettle process.

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