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SILPHOLOGY, sil-fol'[=o]-ji, _n._ the science of larval forms. [Gr.

_silph[=e]_, a beetle, _logia_--_legein_, to say.]

SILT, silt, _n._ that which is left by straining: sediment: the sand, &c., left by water.--_v.t._ to fill with sediment (with _up_).--_v.i._ to percolate through pores: to become filled up.--_adj._ SILT'Y, full of, or resembling, silt. [Prov. Eng. _sile_, allied to Low Ger. _sielen_, Sw.

_sila_, to let water off, to strain.]

SILURIAN, si-l[=u]'ri-an, _adj._ belonging to Siluria, the country of the _Silures_, the ancient inhabitants of the south-eastern part of South Wales: applied by Murchison in 1835 to a series of rocks well developed in the country of the Silures, a subdivision of the Palaeozoic, containing hardly any vertebrates and land plants.--_adjs._ SIL[=U]'RIDAN, SIL[=U]'RINE, SIL[=U]'ROID.--_ns._ SIL[=U]'RIST, a Silurian, a name applied to the poet Henry Vaughan (1621-95); SIL[=U]'RUS, SIL[=U]RE', the typical genus of _Siluridae_, a family of physostomous fishes--the cat-fishes, &c.

SILVAN, sil'van, _adj._ pertaining to woods, woody: inhabiting woods.--_ns._ SIL'VA, SYL'VA, the forest-trees collectively of any region.

[Fr.,--L. _silva_.]

SILVER, sil'v[.e]r, _n._ a soft white metal, capable of a high polish: money made of silver: anything having the appearance of silver.--_adj._ made of silver: resembling silver: white: bright: precious: gentle: having a soft and clear tone: of high rank, but still second to the highest.--_v.t._ to cover with silver: to make like silver: to make smooth and bright: to make silvery.--_v.i._ to become silvery.--_ns._ SIL'VER-BATH (_phot_.), a solution of silver-nitrate for sensitising collodion-plates for printing; SIL'VER-BEAT'ER, one who beats out silver into thin foil.--_adjs._ SIL'VER-BLACK, black silvered over with white; SIL'VER-BRIGHT (_Shak._), as bright as silver; SIL'VER-BUS'KINED, having buskins adorned with silver.--_ns._ SIL'VER-FIR, a coniferous tree of the genus _Abies_, whose leaves show two silvery lines on the under side; SIL'VER-FISH, a name given to the atherine, to artificially bred gold-fish, the sand-smelt, the tarpon: any species of _Lepisma_, a thysanurous insect--also _Bristletail_, _Walking-fish_, _Silver-moth_, _Shiner_, &c.; SIL'VER-FOX, a species of fox found in northern regions, having a rich and valuable fur; SIL'VER-GLANCE, native silver sulphide; SIL'VER-GRAIN, the medullary rays in timber.--_adjs._ SIL'VER-GRAY, having a gray or bluish-gray colour; SIL'VER-HAIRED, having white or lustrous gray hair; SIL'VER-HEAD'ED, having a silver head: with white hair.--_ns._ SIL'VERINESS, the state of being silvery; SIL'VERING, the operation of covering with silver: the silver so used.--_v.t._ SIL'VERISE, to coat or cover with silver:--_pr.p._ sil'ver[=i]sing; _pa.p._ sil'ver[=i]sed.--_ns._ SIL'VERITE, one who opposes the demonetisation of silver; SIL'VER-LEAF, silver beaten into thin leaves; SIL'VERLING (_B._), a small silver coin.--_adv._ SIL'VERLY (_Shak._), with the appearance of silver.--_adjs._ SIL'VERN, made of silver; SIL'VER-PL[=A]'TED, plated with silver.--_n._ SIL'VER-PRINT'ING, the production of photographic prints by the use of a sensitising salt of silver.--_adj._ SIL'VER-SHAFT'ED, carrying silver arrows, as Diana.--_ns._ SIL'VERSMITH, a smith who works in silver; SIL'VER-STICK, an officer of the royal palace--from his silvered wand.--_adjs._ SIL'VER-TONGUED, plausible, eloquent; SIL'VER-VOICED (_Shak._), having a clear, sweet voice like the sound of a silver musical instrument; SIL'VER-WHITE (_Shak._), white like silver; SIL'VERY, covered with silver: resembling silver: white: clear, soft, mellow. [A.S. _silfer_, _seolfor_; Ice. _silfr_, Ger. _silber_.]

SIMAR, SIMARRE, si-mar', _n._ a woman's robe: a scarf. [Fr. _simarre_--O.

Fr. _chamarre_--Sp. _chamarra_, a sheep-skin coat, prob. Basque.]

SIMARUBACEae, sim-a-r[=oo]-b[=a]'s[=e]-[=e], a natural order of tropical trees and shrubs--bitter, used in dysentery, &c.--including _quassia_, _bitterwood_, and _ailanto_.--_adj._ SIMARUB[=A]'CEOUS.

SIMBIL, sim'bil, _n._ a shortish-legged African stork.

SIMEONITE, sim'[=e]-on-[=i]t, _n._ a follower of the famous Cambridge evangelical preacher Charles _Simeon_ (1759-1836), whose influence is perpetuated by the _Simeon Trust_, established for purchasing advowsons: a low-churchman--often SIM.

SIMIA, sim'i-a, _n._ an anthropoid ape: a monkey generally: the typical genus of _Simiidae_, containing the orang-utans--the _Simiidae_ includes the anthropoid apes; _Simiinae_ is the higher of the two sub-families of Simiidae, comprising the gorilla, chimpanzee, and orang.--_adjs._ SIM'IAL, SIM'IAN, SIM'IOUS, like an ape: anthropoid. [L.]

SIMILAR, sim'i-lar, _adj._ like: resembling: uniform: (_geom._) exactly corresponding in shape, without regard to size.--_n._ SIMILAR'ITY.--_adv._ SIM'ILARLY.--_n._ SIMIL'ITUDE, the state of being similar or like: resemblance: comparison: simile: (_B._) a parable.--_adj._ SIMILIT[=U]'DINARY. [Fr.,--L. _similis_, like.]

SIMILE, sim'i-le, _n._ something similar: similitude: (_rhet._) a comparison to illustrate SIMIL'IA, things alike.--_v.t._ SIM'ILISE, to liken, compare.--_v.i._ to use similitudes.--_adv._ SIMIL'LITER, in like manner. [L., neut. of _similis_, like.]

SIMILOR, sim'i-l[=o]r, _n._ a yellow alloy used for cheap jewellery.

[Fr.,--L. _similis_, like, _aurum_, gold.]

SIMITAR. Same as _Scimitar_ (q.v.).

SIMKIN, sim'kin, _n._ the usual Anglo-Indian word for champagne.--Also SIMP'KIN.

SIMMER, sim'[.e]r, _v.i._ to boil with a gentle, hissing sound: to be on the point of boiling out, as into anger.--_n._ a gentle heating. [Imit.; cf. Sw. dial. _summa_, to hum, Ger. _summen_.]

SIMNEL, sim'nel, _n._ a sweet cake of fine flour for Christmas, Easter, or Mothering Sunday.--Also SIM'LIN. [O. Fr. _simenel_--L. _simila_, fine flour.]

SIMON-PURE, s[=i]'mon-p[=u]r, _adj._ authentic, genuine. [From _Simon Pure_, a character in Mrs Centlivre's comedy, _A Bold Stroke for a Wife_, who is counterfeited by an impostor.]

SIMONY, sim'on-i, _n._ the crime of buying or selling presentation to a benefice, so named from _Simon_ Magus, who thought to purchase the gift of the Holy Spirit with money (Acts, viii.).--_n._ SIM[=O]'NIAC, one guilty of simony.--_adjs._ SIMON[=I]'ACAL, SIM[=O]'NIOUS (_obs._), pertaining to, guilty of, or involving simony.--_adv._ SIMON[=I]'ACALLY.--_n._ S[=I]'MONIST, one who practises or defends simony.

SIMOOM, si-m[=oo]m', _n._ a hot suffocating wind which blows in northern Africa and Arabia and the adjacent countries from the interior deserts.--Also SIMOON'. [Ar. _samum_--_samm_, to poison.]

SIMORHYNCHUS, sim-[=o]-ring'kus, _n._ a genus of small North Pacific birds, the snub-nosed auklets. [Gr. _simos_, flat-nosed, _hryngchos_, snout.]

SIMOUS, s[=i]'mus, _adj._ flat or snub nosed: concave.--_n._ SIMOS'ITY.

SIMPAI, sim'p[=i], _n._ the black-crested monkey of Sumatra.

SIMPER, sim'p[.e]r, _v.i._ to smile in a silly, affected manner.--_n._ a silly or affected smile.--_n._ SIM'PERER, one who simpers.--_adj._ SIMP'ERING.--_adv._ SIM'PERINGLY, in a simpering manner: with a foolish smile. [Prob. Scand.; Norw. _semper_, smart.]

SIMPLE, sim'pl, _adj._ single: undivided: resisting decomposition: elementary, undeveloped: plain, single, entire: homogeneous: open: unaffected: undesigning: true: clear: straightforward: artless: guileless: unsuspecting: credulous: not cunning: weak in intellect: silly: of mean birth--opposed to _Gentle_.--_n._ something not mixed or compounded: a medicinal herb: a simple feast--opposed to a _double_ or _semidouble_.--_v.i._ to gather simples or medicinal plants.--_adjs._ SIM'PLE-HEART'ED, having a simple heart: guileless; SIM'PLE-MIND'ED, having a simple mind: unsuspecting: undesigning.--_ns._ SIM'PLE-MIND'EDNESS, the state or quality of being simple-minded: artlessness; SIM'PLENESS, the state or quality of being simple: artlessness: simplicity: folly; SIM'PLER, a gatherer of simples; SIM'PLESS (_Spens._), simplicity; SIM'PLETON, a weak or foolish person.--_adv._ SIMPLIC'ITER, simply, not relatively.--_ns._ SIMPLIC'ITY, the state or quality of being simple: singleness: want of complication: openness: clearness: freedom from excessive adornment: plainness: sincerity: artlessness: credulity, silliness, folly; SIMPLIFIC[=A]'TION, the act of making simple.--_adj._ SIM'PLIFIC[=A]TIVE.--_n._ SIM'PLIFIC[=A]TOR, one who simplifies.--_v.t._ SIM'PLIFY, to make simple: to render less difficult: to make plain:--_pa.t._ and _pa.p._ sim'plified.--_ns._ SIM'PLISM, affected simplicity; SIM'PLIST, one skilled in simples.--_adj._ SIMPLIS'TIC.--_adv._ SIM'PLY, in a simple manner: artlessly: foolishly: weakly: plainly: considered by itself: alone: merely: solely. [Fr.,--L. _simplex_, the same--_sim-_ (L. _semel_), root of _plic[=a]re_, to fold.]

SIMSON, SIMPSON, sim'son, _n._ (_prov._) groundsel. [Earlier _sencion_--O.

Fr. _senecion_--L. _senecio_.]

SIMULACRUM, sim-[=u]-l[=a]'krum, _n._ an image, unreal phantom: a formal sign:--_pl._ SIMUL[=A]'CRA. [L.]

SIMULATE, sim'[=u]-l[=a]t, _v.t._ to imitate: to counterfeit: to pretend: to assume the appearance of without the reality.--_adjs._ SIM'ULANT, simulating: replacing, or having the form or appearance of, esp. in biology; SIM'ULAR, counterfeit, feigned.--_n._ one who pretends to be what he is not.--_ns._ SIMUL[=A]'TION, the act of simulating or putting on what is not true: imitation in form of one word by another: resemblance, similarity; SIM'UL[=A]TOR, one who simulates.--_adj._ SIM'UL[=A]TORY. [L.

_simul[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_, to make (something) similar to (another thing)--_similis_, like.]

SIMULTANEOUS, sim-ul-t[=a]'n[=e]-us, _adj._ acting, existing, or happening at the same time: (_math._) satisfied by the same values of the variables or unknown quantities--of a set of equations.--_ns._ SIMULTAN[=E]'ITY, SIMULT[=A]'NEOUSNESS.--_adv._ SIMULT[=A]'NEOUSLY. [Low L. _simultaneus_--L.

_simul_, at the same time.]

SIMURG, si-m[=oo]rg', _n._ a monstrous bird of Persian fable.--Also SIMORG', SIMURGH'.

SIN, sin, _adv._ (_Spens._) since. [_Since_.]

SIN, sin, _n._ wilful violation of law: neglect of duty: neglect of the laws of morality and religion, any want of conformity unto, or transgression of, the law of God: wickedness, iniquity.--_v.i._ to commit sin: to violate or neglect the laws of morality or religion: to do wrong:--pr.p sin'ning; _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ sinned.--_adjs._ SIN'-BORN, born of sin; SIN'-BRED, produced by sin.--_ns._ SIN'-EAT'ER, one of a class of men formerly employed in Wales to eat a piece of bread and drink a cup of ale placed on a bier, and so symbolically take upon themselves the sins of the deceased--due to the notion of the Levitical _scapegoat_ (Levit. xvi.

21, 22); SIN'-EAT'ING.--_adj._ SIN'FUL, full of, or tainted with, sin: iniquitous: wicked: depraved: criminal: unholy.--_adv._ SIN'FULLY.--_n._ SIN'FULNESS.--_adj._ SIN'LESS, without sin: innocent: pure: perfect.--_adv._ SIN'LESSLY.--_ns._ SIN'LESSNESS; SIN'NER, one who sins: an offender or criminal: (_theol._) an unregenerate person.--_v.i._ (_Pope_) to act as a sinner (with indefinite _it_).--_n._ SIN'-OFF'ERING, an offering for, or sacrifice in expiation of, sin.--_adjs._ SIN'-SICK, morally sick from sin; SIN'-WORN, worn by sin.--LIKE SIN (_slang_), very much, very hard; MORTAL, or DEADLY, SIN, such as wilfully violates the divine law and separates the soul from God--seven deadly sins, _pride_, _covetousness_, _lust_, _anger_, _gluttony_, _envy_, and _sloth_; ORIGINAL SIN, the innate depravity and corruption of the whole nature due to the sin of Adam as federal representative of the human race, and transmitted by ordinary generation to all his posterity; VENIAL SIN, any transgression due to inadvertence, not alienating the friendship of God. [A.S. _syn_, _sinn_; Ice. _syn-d_, Ger. _sunde_, L. _sons_.]

SINAITIC, s[=i]-na-it'ik, _adj._ pertaining to, made, or given at Mount Sinai.--Also SIN[=A]'IC.

SINAPIS, si-n[=a]'pis, _n._ the officinal name of mustard.--_n._ SIN'APISM, a mustard-plaster. [L.,--Gr. _sinapi_.]

SINCE, sins, _adv._ from the time that: past: ago.--_prep._ after: from the time of.--_conj._ seeing that: because: considering. [M. E. _sins_, _sithens_--A.S. _sith-tham_, lit. 'after that,' from _sith_, late (Ger.

_seit_), and _tham_, dat. of _thaet_, that.]

SINCERE, sin-s[=e]r', _adj._ clean: pure: (_B._) unadulterated: being in reality what it is in appearance: unfeigned: frank: honest: true, virtuous.--_adv._ SINC[=E]RE'LY.--_ns._ SINC[=E]RE'NESS, SINCER'ITY, state or quality of being sincere: honesty of mind: freedom from pretence.

[Fr.,--L. _sincerus_, clean, generally derived from _sine_, without, _cera_, wax; better from _sin-_, single, _-cerus_ for an assumed _scerus_, bright.]

SINCIPUT, sin'si-put, _n._ the forepart of the head from the forehead to the vertex.--_adj._ SINCIP'ITAL. [L., _semi-_; half, _caput_, the head.]

SIND, s[=i]nd, _v.t._ (_Scot._) to rinse.--Also Synd.

SINDON, sin'don, _n._ (_Bacon_) a wrapper. [L.,--Gr. _sind[=o]n_, fine Indian cloth, muslin, a garment, prob. from _India_, or _Sinde_ in India.]

SINE, s[=i]n, _n._ a straight line drawn from one extremity of an arc perpendicular to the diameter that passes through the other extremity. [L.

_sinus_, a curve.]

SINE, SYNE, s[=i]n, _adv._ (_Scot._) after that: ago.--_conj._ since.

SINE, s[=i]'ne, _prep._ without, as in SINE DIE, without day, of an adjournment; SINE QUa NON, an indispensable condition, &c. [L.]

SINECURE, s[=i]'n[=e]-k[=u]r (or sin'-), _n._ an ecclesiastical benefice without the cure or care of souls: an office with salary but without work.--_adj._ pertaining to such an office.--_ns._ S[=I]'NECURISM, the state of having a sinecure; S[=I]'NECURIST, one who holds a sinecure. [L.

_sine_, without, _cura_, care.]

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