SHAYA-ROOT, sh[=a]'a-r[=oo]t, _n._ the root of the so-called Indian madder, yielding a red dye.--Also CHe-ROOT, CHOY-ROOT. [Tamil _chaya_.]
SHE, sh[=e], _pron. fem._ the female understood or previously mentioned: sometimes used as a noun for a woman or other female. [Orig. the fem. of the def. art. in A.S.--viz. _seo_, which in the 12th century began to replace _heo_, the old fem. pron.]
SHEA, sh[=e]'a, _n._ the tree yielding the Galam butter or shea-butter.--Also SH[=E]'A-TREE and _Karite_.
SHEADING, sh[=e]'ding, _n._ one of the six divisions or districts of the Isle of Man. [_Shed_.]
SHEAF, sh[=e]f, _n._ a quantity of things, esp. the stalks of grain, put together and bound: a bundle of arrows, usually 24 in number: any bundle or collection:--_pl._ SHEAVES (sh[=e]vz).--_v.t._ to bind in sheaves.--_v.i._ to make sheaves.--_adj._ SHEAF'Y. [A.S. _sceaf_--A.S. _scufan_, to shove; Ger. _schaub_, Dut. _schoof_.]
SHEAL, sh[=e]l, _v.t._ (_Shak._) to shell, as peas.--_n._ SHEAL'ING, the shell, pod, or husk, as of peas. [_Shell_.]
SHEAL, SHIEL, sh[=e]l, _n._ (_Scot._) a hut used by shepherds, sportsmen, &c.: a shelter for sheep.--_ns._ SHEAL'ING, SHEEL'ING, SHIEL'ING. [Either Ice. _skali_, a hut, or Ice. _skjol_, a shelter; both cog. with sky, _shade_.]
SHEAR, sh[=e]r, _v.t._ to cut or clip: to clip with shears or any other instrument: (_Scot._) to reap with a sickle.--_v.i._ to separate, cut, penetrate: in mining, to make a vertical cut in the coal:--_pa.t._ sheared, (_obs._) shore; _pa.p._ sheared or shorn.--_n._ a shearing or clipping: a strain where compression is answered by elongation at right angles: curve, deviation.--_ns._ SHEAR'-BILL, the scissor-bill, cut-water, or black skimmer; SHEAR'ER; SHEAR'-HOG, a sheep after the first shearing; SHEAR'ING, the act or operation of cutting with shears: what is cut off with shears: (_Scot._) the time of reaping: the process of preparing shear-steel: (_geol._) the process by which shear-structure (q.v.) has been produced; SHEAR'LING, a sheep only once sheared; SHEAR'MAN, one whose occupation is to shear cloth; SHEARS (_pl._ and _sing._), an instrument for shearing or cutting, consisting of two blades that meet each other: a hoisting apparatus (see SHEERS): anything resembling shears, as even a pair of wings (_Spens._); SHEAR'-STEEL, steel suitable for the manufacture of shears and other edge-tools; SHEAR'-STRUC'TURE (_geol._), a structure often seen in volcanic rocks, due to the reciprocal compression and elongation of various parts under great crust movements; SHEAR'-WA'TER, a genus of oceanic birds allied to the petrels, and varying from 8 to 14 inches in length. [A.S.
_sceran_; Ice. _skera_, to clip, Ger. _scheren_, to shave.]
SHEAT-FISH, sh[=e]t'-fish, _n._ a fish of the family _Siluridae_, the great catfish of central Europe.
SHEATH, sh[=e]th, _n._ a case for a sword or other long instrument: a scabbard: any thin defensive covering: a membrane covering a stem or branch: the wing-case of an insect.--_v.t._ SHEATHE (_th_), to put into a sheath: to cover with a sheath or case: to enclose in a lining.--_adj._ SHEATHED (_th_), provided with, or enclosed in, a sheath: (_bot._, _zool._, and _anat._) having a sheath, vaginate.--_ns._ SHEATH'ING (_th_), that which sheathes, esp. the covering of a ship's bottom; SHEATH'-KNIFE, a knife carried in a sheath from the waist.--_adjs._ SHEATH'LESS; SHEATH'-WINGED, having the wings encased in elytra: coleopterous; SHEATH'Y, sheath-like.--SHEATHE THE SWORD, to put an end to war. [A.S. _sceth_, _sc['ae]th_; Ger. _scheide_, Ice. _skeithir_.]
SHEAVE, sh[=e]v, _n._ the wheel of a pulley over which the rope runs: a sliding scutcheon for covering a keyhole.--_n._ SHEAVE'-HOLE. [_Shive_.]
SHEAVED, sh[=e]vd, _adj._ (_Shak._) made of straw.
SHEBANG, sh[=e]-bang', _n._ (_Amer._) a place, a store, a saloon, a gaming-house: a brothel.
SHEBEEN, she-b[=e]n', _n._ a place where intoxicating drinks are privately and unlawfully sold.--_ns._ SHEB[=EE]'NER, one who keeps a shebeen; SHEB[=EE]'NING. [Ir.]
SHECHINAH, sh[=e]-k[=i]'na, _n._ Same as SHEKINAH.
SHECKLATON, shek'la-ton, _n._ Same as CHECKLATON.
SHED, shed, _v.t._ to part, separate: to scatter, cast off: to throw out: to pour: to spill.--_v.i._ to let fall, cast:--_pr.p._ shed'ding; _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ shed.--_n._ a division, parting, as of the hair, and in watershed.--_ns._ SHED'DER; SHED'DING. [A.S. _sceadan_, to separate; Ger.
SHED, shed, _n._ a slight erection, usually of wood, for shade or shelter: an outhouse: a large temporary open structure for reception of goods.
SHEELING. See under SHEAL.
SHEEN, sh[=e]n, _n._ brightness or splendour.--_adj._ (_obs._) bright, shining.--_v.i._ (_arch._) to shine, glitter.--_adj._ SHEEN'Y, shining, beautiful. [A.S. _scene_, _scne_, fair; Dut. _schoon_, Ger. _schon_, beautiful; prob. from the root of A.S. _sceawian_, to look at.]
SHEENY, sh[=e]n'i, _n._ (_slang_) a sharp fellow, a cheat, a Jewish dealer.--_adj._ cheating.
SHEEP, sh[=e]p, _n.sing._ and _pl._ the well-known ruminant mammal covered with wool: leather made from sheep-skin: a silly and timid fellow.--_ns._ SHEEP'-B[=I]T'ER (_Shak._), one who practises petty thefts; SHEEP'-B[=I]T'ING, robbing those under one's care, like an ill-trained shepherd-dog; SHEEP'-COTE, an enclosure for sheep; SHEEP'-DOG, a dog trained to watch sheep: (_slang_) a chaperon.--_adj._ SHEEP'-FACED, sheepish, bashful.--_ns._ SHEEP'-FARM'ER, SHEEP'-FOLD, a fold or enclosure for sheep: a flock of sheep; SHEEP'-HEAD, SHEEP'S'-HEAD, a fool, a stupid and timid person: an American fish of the family _Sparidae_, allied to the perches, so called from the shape and colour of the head; SHEEP'-HOOK, a shepherd's crook.--_adj._ SHEEP'ISH, like a sheep: bashful: foolishly diffident.--_adv._ SHEEP'ISHLY.--_ns._ SHEEP'ISHNESS; SHEEP'-LOUSE, a parasitic dipterous insect; SHEEP'-MAR'KET, a place where sheep are sold; SHEEP'-MAS'TER, a master or owner of sheep; SHEEP'-PEN, an enclosure for sheep; SHEEP'-PEST, the sheep-tick; SHEEP'-POX, a contagious eruptive disease of sheep, variola ovina; SHEEP'-RUN, a tract of grazing country for sheep; SHEEP'S'-EYE, a modest, diffident look: a loving, wishful glance; SHEEP'S'-FOOT, a printer's tool with a claw at one end for prizing up forms; SHEEP'-SHANK (_Scot._), the shank of a sheep--hence something slender and weak: a nautical knot for temporarily shortening a rope; SHEEP'-SHEARER, one who shears sheep; SHEEP'-SHEARING; SHEEP'-SHEARS, a kind of shears used for shearing sheep; SHEEP'-SIL'VER, money formerly paid by tenants for release from the service of washing the lord's sheep; SHEEP'-SKIN, the skin of a sheep: leather prepared from the skin of a sheep: a deed engrossed on sheep-skin parchment; SHEEP'-STEAL'ER; SHEEP'-STEAL'ING; SHEEP'S'-WOOL, a valuable Florida sponge; SHEEP'-TICK, an insect which attacks the sheep, sucking its blood and raising a tumour; SHEEP'WALK, the place where the sheep pasture; SHEEP'-WASH, a lotion for vermin on the sheep, or to preserve its wool--also SHEEP'-DIP; SHEEP'-WHIS'TLING, tending sheep.--BLACK SHEEP, the disreputable member of a family or group. [A.S. _sceap_; Ger. _schaf_.]
SHEER, sh[=e]r, _adj._ pure: unmingled: simple: without a break, perpendicular.--_adv._ clear: quite: at once. [Ice. _skaerr_, bright; Ice.
_skirr_, A.S. _scir_.]
SHEER, sh[=e]r, _v.i._ to deviate from the line of the proper course, as a ship: to turn aside.--_n._ the deviation from the straight line, or the longitudinal curve or bend of a ship's deck or sides.--_ns._ SHEER'-HULK, an old dismasted ship with a pair of sheers mounted on it for masting ships; SHEER'-LEG, one of the spars.--_n.pl._ SHEERS, an apparatus for hoisting heavy weights, having usually two legs or spars spread apart at their lower ends, and bearing at their tops, where they are joined, hoisting-tackle. [Perh. Dut. _scheren_, to cut, withdraw.]
SHEET, sh[=e]t, _n._ a large, thin piece of anything: a large, broad piece of cloth in a bed: a large, broad piece of paper: a sail: the rope fastened to the leeward corner of a sail to extend it to the wind.--_v.t._ to cover with, or as with, a sheet: to furnish with sheets: to form into sheets.--_ns._ SHEET'-COPP'ER, -[=I]'RON, -LEAD, -MET'AL, copper, iron, lead, metal in thin sheets.--_adj._ SHEET'ED, with a white band or belt.--_ns._ SHEET'-GLASS, a kind of crown-glass made at first in the form of a cylinder, cut longitudinally, and opened out into a sheet; SHEET'ING, cloth used for bed-sheets: the process of forming into sheets; SHEET'-LIGHT'NING, lightning appearing in sheets or having a broad appearance; SHEET'-WORK, press-work.--A SHEET (or THREE SHEETS) IN THE WIND, fuddled, tipsy; IN SHEETS (_print._), not folded, or folded but not bound. [A.S. _scete_, _scte_, a sheet--_sceotan_ (pa.t. _sceat_), to shoot, project.]
SHEET-ANCHOR, sh[=e]t'-angk'ur, _n._ the largest anchor of a ship, shot or thrown out in extreme danger: chief support: last refuge. [_Shoot_ and _anchor_.]
SHEIK, SHEIKH, sh[=e]k, _n._ a man of eminence, a lord, a chief: a title of learned or devout me _n._ [Ar. _sheikh_--_sh[=a]kha_, to be old.]
SHEILING, sh[=e]l'ing, _n._ Same as SHEALING.
SHEKEL, shek'l, _n._ a Jewish weight (about half-an-ounce avoirdupois) and coin (about 2s. 6d. sterling): (_pl._) money (_slang_). [Heb. from _sh[=a]qal_, to weigh.]
SHEKINAH, SHECHINAH, sh[=e]-k[=i]'na, _n._ the Divine presence which rested like a cloud or visible light over the mercy-seat. [Heb.,--_sh[=a]khan_, to dwell.]
SHELDRAKE, shel'dr[=a]k, _n._ a genus of birds of the Duck family _Anatidae_, having the hind-toe free:--_fem._ SHEL'DUCK. [A.S. _scyld_, a shield, and _drake_.]
SHELF, shelf, _n._ a board fixed on a wall, &c., for laying things on: a flat layer of rock: a ledge: a shoal: a sandbank:--_pl._ SHELVES (shelvz).--_adj._ SHELF'Y.--PUT, LAY, ON THE SHELF, to put aside from duty or service. [A.S. _scylfe_, a plank, Ice. _skjalf_, a bench.]
SHELL, shel, _n._ a term applied to the hard outer covering or skeleton of many animals, to the internal skeleton of some invertebrates, and to the outer covering-of the eggs of various animals: any framework: the outer ear: a testaceous mollusc: any frail structure: a frail boat: a rough kind of coffin: an instrument of music: a bomb: a hollow projectile containing a bursting charge of gunpowder or other explosive ignited at the required instant by means of either time or percussion fuses: the thin coating of copper on an electrotype: an intermediate class in some schools.--_v.t._ to break off the shell: to remove the shell from: to take out of the shell: to throw shells or bombs upon, to bombard.--_v.i._ to fall off like a shell: to cast the shell.--_ns._ SHELLAC (she-lak', shel'ak), SHELL'-LAC, lac prepared in thin plates for making varnish, &c.--_v.t._ to coat with shellac.--_ns._ SHELL'-BACK, an old sailor, a barnacle; SHELL'-BARK, either of two North American hickories.--_adj._ SHELLED, having a shell, testaceous.--_ns._ SHELL'ER, one who shells or husks; SHELL'FISH, a popular term for many aquatic animals not fishes, esp. oysters, clams and all molluscs, and crustaceans such as crabs and lobsters; SHELL'-GUN, a cannon used for throwing shells, esp. horizontally: SHELL'-HEAP, a prehistoric accumulation of shells, &c., pointing back to a race that lived on shellfish; SHELL'-ICE, ice no longer supported by the water beneath; SHELL'-JACK'ET, an undress military jacket; SHELL'-LIME, lime procured from the shells of shellfish by burning; SHELL'-LIME'STONE, a limestone largely consisting of shells; SHELL'-MARL, a white earthy deposit, resulting from the accumulation of fragments of shells; SHELL'-MOUND, a shell-heap; SHELL'-OR'NAMENT, decoration in which any shell-form is prominent.--_adj._ SHELL'PROOF, proof against, or able to resist, shells or bombs.--_ns._ SHELL'-ROOM, a magazine on board ship where shells are stored; SHELL'-SAND, sand consisting in great part of fragments of shells, and often containing a small proportion of organic matter, a very useful manure for clay soils, heavy loams, and newly-reclaimed bogs; SHELL'WORK, work composed of or adorned with shells.--_adj._ SHELL'Y, consisting of a shell: testaceous.--SHELL OUT, (_slang_), to hand over, as money. [A.S. _scell_, _scyl_; Dut. _schel_, Ice. _skel_.]
SHELTA, shel'ta, _n._ a secret jargon of great antiquity spoken by Irish tinkers, beggars, and pipers.--Also _Shelr[=u]_, _Cainnt cheard_, _Gam cant_, _Bog-latin_. [_Shelr[=u]_, a perversion of the Irish _beulra_, language.]
SHELTER, shel't[.e]r, _n._ that which shields or protects: a refuge: a retreat, a harbour: protection.--_v.t._ to cover or shield: to defend: to conceal.--_v.i._ to take shelter.--_n._ SHEL'TERER.--_adjs._ SHEL'TERLESS; SHEL'TERY, affording shelter. [Orig. _sheltron_--A.S. _scyld-truma_, shield-troop--_scyld_, shield, _truma_, troop--_trum_, firm.]
SHELTY, SHELTIE, shel'ti, _n._ a Shetland pony. [Perh. a dim. of _Shetland pony_.]
SHELVE, shelv, _v.t._ to furnish with shelves: to place on a shelf; to put aside.--_n._ SHEL'VING, the furnishing with shelves: the act of placing on a shelf: shelves or materials for shelves.
SHELVE, shelv, _v.i._ to slope, incline.--_n._ a ledge.--_n._ SHEL'VING, a shelving place: (_rare_) a bank.--_adj._ SHEL'VY, sloping, shallow. [Prob.
ult. from Ice. _skelgja-sk_, to come askew--_skjalgr_, wry.]
SHEMITIC. Same as SEMITIC.
SHEND, shend, _v.t._ (_Spens._) to disgrace, to reproach, to blame, also to overpower, to surpass:--_pa.t._ and _pa.p._ shent. [A.S. _scendan_, to disgrace--A.S. _scand_, _sceand_ (Ger. _schande_), shame.]
SHE-OAK, sh[=e]'-[=o]k, _n._ one of several shrubs of the Australian genus _Casuarina_.
SHEOL, sh[=e]'[=o]l, _n._ the place of departed spirits. [Heb. _she'[=o]l_, a hollow place--_sh[=a]'al_, to dig out.]
SHEPHERD, shep'[.e]rd, _n._ one who herds sheep: a swain: a pastor:--_fem._ SHEP'HERDESS.--_v.t._ to tend as a shepherd: to watch over, protect the interests of, or one's own interests in.--_ns._ SHEP'HERDISM, pastoral life; SHEP'HERDLING, a little shepherd; SHEP'HERD'S-CROOK, a long staff, its upper end curved into a hook; SHEP'HERD'S-DOG, a dog specially trained to help in tending sheep, the collie or Scotch sheep-dog, &c.; SHEP'HERD'S-FLUTE, a flageolet or the like; SHEP'HERD'S-NEE'DLE, an annual plant, called also Venus's comb; SHEP'HERD'S-PLAID, -TAR'TAN, a woollen cloth made with black and white checks: this form of pattern itself; SHEP'HERD'S-POUCH, -PURSE, an annual cruciferous plant, with compressed, somewhat heart-shaped seed-vessel; SHEP'HERD'S-ROD, -STAFF, a small kind of teasel.--SHEPHERD KINGS (see HYKSOS).--THE GOOD SHEPHERD, a title of Jesus Christ (John, x. 11); THE SHEPHERDS, a sect of fanatical shepherds in France about 1251 A.D., eager to deliver the imprisoned Louis IX. [A.S.
_sceap-hyrde_. _Sheep_ and _herd_.]
SHEPPY, SHEPPEY, shep'i, _n._ (_prov_.) a sheep-cote.
SHERBET, sh[.e]r'bet, _n._ a drink of water and fruit juices, sweetened and flavoured. [Through Turk. from Ar. _sharbat_, a drink--_shariba_, he drinks.]
SHERD, sh[.e]rd, _n._ See SHARD.