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SHAYA-ROOT, sh[=a]'a-r[=oo]t, _n._ the root of the so-called Indian madder, yielding a red dye.--Also CHe-ROOT, CHOY-ROOT. [Tamil _chaya_.]

SHE, sh[=e], _pron. fem._ the female understood or previously mentioned: sometimes used as a noun for a woman or other female. [Orig. the fem. of the def. art. in A.S.--viz. _seo_, which in the 12th century began to replace _heo_, the old fem. pron.]

SHEA, sh[=e]'a, _n._ the tree yielding the Galam butter or shea-butter.--Also SH[=E]'A-TREE and _Karite_.

SHEADING, sh[=e]'ding, _n._ one of the six divisions or districts of the Isle of Man. [_Shed_.]

SHEAF, sh[=e]f, _n._ a quantity of things, esp. the stalks of grain, put together and bound: a bundle of arrows, usually 24 in number: any bundle or collection:--_pl._ SHEAVES (sh[=e]vz).--_v.t._ to bind in sheaves.--_v.i._ to make sheaves.--_adj._ SHEAF'Y. [A.S. _sceaf_--A.S. _scufan_, to shove; Ger. _schaub_, Dut. _schoof_.]

SHEAL, sh[=e]l, _v.t._ (_Shak._) to shell, as peas.--_n._ SHEAL'ING, the shell, pod, or husk, as of peas. [_Shell_.]

SHEAL, SHIEL, sh[=e]l, _n._ (_Scot._) a hut used by shepherds, sportsmen, &c.: a shelter for sheep.--_ns._ SHEAL'ING, SHEEL'ING, SHIEL'ING. [Either Ice. _skali_, a hut, or Ice. _skjol_, a shelter; both cog. with sky, _shade_.]

SHEAR, sh[=e]r, _v.t._ to cut or clip: to clip with shears or any other instrument: (_Scot._) to reap with a sickle.--_v.i._ to separate, cut, penetrate: in mining, to make a vertical cut in the coal:--_pa.t._ sheared, (_obs._) shore; _pa.p._ sheared or shorn.--_n._ a shearing or clipping: a strain where compression is answered by elongation at right angles: curve, deviation.--_ns._ SHEAR'-BILL, the scissor-bill, cut-water, or black skimmer; SHEAR'ER; SHEAR'-HOG, a sheep after the first shearing; SHEAR'ING, the act or operation of cutting with shears: what is cut off with shears: (_Scot._) the time of reaping: the process of preparing shear-steel: (_geol._) the process by which shear-structure (q.v.) has been produced; SHEAR'LING, a sheep only once sheared; SHEAR'MAN, one whose occupation is to shear cloth; SHEARS (_pl._ and _sing._), an instrument for shearing or cutting, consisting of two blades that meet each other: a hoisting apparatus (see SHEERS): anything resembling shears, as even a pair of wings (_Spens._); SHEAR'-STEEL, steel suitable for the manufacture of shears and other edge-tools; SHEAR'-STRUC'TURE (_geol._), a structure often seen in volcanic rocks, due to the reciprocal compression and elongation of various parts under great crust movements; SHEAR'-WA'TER, a genus of oceanic birds allied to the petrels, and varying from 8 to 14 inches in length. [A.S.

_sceran_; Ice. _skera_, to clip, Ger. _scheren_, to shave.]

SHEAT-FISH, sh[=e]t'-fish, _n._ a fish of the family _Siluridae_, the great catfish of central Europe.

SHEATH, sh[=e]th, _n._ a case for a sword or other long instrument: a scabbard: any thin defensive covering: a membrane covering a stem or branch: the wing-case of an insect.--_v.t._ SHEATHE (_th_), to put into a sheath: to cover with a sheath or case: to enclose in a lining.--_adj._ SHEATHED (_th_), provided with, or enclosed in, a sheath: (_bot._, _zool._, and _anat._) having a sheath, vaginate.--_ns._ SHEATH'ING (_th_), that which sheathes, esp. the covering of a ship's bottom; SHEATH'-KNIFE, a knife carried in a sheath from the waist.--_adjs._ SHEATH'LESS; SHEATH'-WINGED, having the wings encased in elytra: coleopterous; SHEATH'Y, sheath-like.--SHEATHE THE SWORD, to put an end to war. [A.S. _sceth_, _sc['ae]th_; Ger. _scheide_, Ice. _skeithir_.]

SHEAVE, sh[=e]v, _n._ the wheel of a pulley over which the rope runs: a sliding scutcheon for covering a keyhole.--_n._ SHEAVE'-HOLE. [_Shive_.]

SHEAVED, sh[=e]vd, _adj._ (_Shak._) made of straw.

SHEBANG, sh[=e]-bang', _n._ (_Amer._) a place, a store, a saloon, a gaming-house: a brothel.

SHEBEEN, she-b[=e]n', _n._ a place where intoxicating drinks are privately and unlawfully sold.--_ns._ SHEB[=EE]'NER, one who keeps a shebeen; SHEB[=EE]'NING. [Ir.]

SHECHINAH, sh[=e]-k[=i]'na, _n._ Same as SHEKINAH.

SHECKLATON, shek'la-ton, _n._ Same as CHECKLATON.

SHED, shed, _v.t._ to part, separate: to scatter, cast off: to throw out: to pour: to spill.--_v.i._ to let fall, cast:--_pr.p._ shed'ding; _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ shed.--_n._ a division, parting, as of the hair, and in watershed.--_ns._ SHED'DER; SHED'DING. [A.S. _sceadan_, to separate; Ger.


SHED, shed, _n._ a slight erection, usually of wood, for shade or shelter: an outhouse: a large temporary open structure for reception of goods.



SHEEN, sh[=e]n, _n._ brightness or splendour.--_adj._ (_obs._) bright, shining.--_v.i._ (_arch._) to shine, glitter.--_adj._ SHEEN'Y, shining, beautiful. [A.S. _scene_, _scne_, fair; Dut. _schoon_, Ger. _schon_, beautiful; prob. from the root of A.S. _sceawian_, to look at.]

SHEENY, sh[=e]n'i, _n._ (_slang_) a sharp fellow, a cheat, a Jewish dealer.--_adj._ cheating.


SHEEP, sh[=e]p, _n.sing._ and _pl._ the well-known ruminant mammal covered with wool: leather made from sheep-skin: a silly and timid fellow.--_ns._ SHEEP'-B[=I]T'ER (_Shak._), one who practises petty thefts; SHEEP'-B[=I]T'ING, robbing those under one's care, like an ill-trained shepherd-dog; SHEEP'-COTE, an enclosure for sheep; SHEEP'-DOG, a dog trained to watch sheep: (_slang_) a chaperon.--_adj._ SHEEP'-FACED, sheepish, bashful.--_ns._ SHEEP'-FARM'ER, SHEEP'-FOLD, a fold or enclosure for sheep: a flock of sheep; SHEEP'-HEAD, SHEEP'S'-HEAD, a fool, a stupid and timid person: an American fish of the family _Sparidae_, allied to the perches, so called from the shape and colour of the head; SHEEP'-HOOK, a shepherd's crook.--_adj._ SHEEP'ISH, like a sheep: bashful: foolishly diffident.--_adv._ SHEEP'ISHLY.--_ns._ SHEEP'ISHNESS; SHEEP'-LOUSE, a parasitic dipterous insect; SHEEP'-MAR'KET, a place where sheep are sold; SHEEP'-MAS'TER, a master or owner of sheep; SHEEP'-PEN, an enclosure for sheep; SHEEP'-PEST, the sheep-tick; SHEEP'-POX, a contagious eruptive disease of sheep, variola ovina; SHEEP'-RUN, a tract of grazing country for sheep; SHEEP'S'-EYE, a modest, diffident look: a loving, wishful glance; SHEEP'S'-FOOT, a printer's tool with a claw at one end for prizing up forms; SHEEP'-SHANK (_Scot._), the shank of a sheep--hence something slender and weak: a nautical knot for temporarily shortening a rope; SHEEP'-SHEARER, one who shears sheep; SHEEP'-SHEARING; SHEEP'-SHEARS, a kind of shears used for shearing sheep; SHEEP'-SIL'VER, money formerly paid by tenants for release from the service of washing the lord's sheep; SHEEP'-SKIN, the skin of a sheep: leather prepared from the skin of a sheep: a deed engrossed on sheep-skin parchment; SHEEP'-STEAL'ER; SHEEP'-STEAL'ING; SHEEP'S'-WOOL, a valuable Florida sponge; SHEEP'-TICK, an insect which attacks the sheep, sucking its blood and raising a tumour; SHEEP'WALK, the place where the sheep pasture; SHEEP'-WASH, a lotion for vermin on the sheep, or to preserve its wool--also SHEEP'-DIP; SHEEP'-WHIS'TLING, tending sheep.--BLACK SHEEP, the disreputable member of a family or group. [A.S. _sceap_; Ger. _schaf_.]

SHEER, sh[=e]r, _adj._ pure: unmingled: simple: without a break, perpendicular.--_adv._ clear: quite: at once. [Ice. _skaerr_, bright; Ice.

_skirr_, A.S. _scir_.]

SHEER, sh[=e]r, _v.i._ to deviate from the line of the proper course, as a ship: to turn aside.--_n._ the deviation from the straight line, or the longitudinal curve or bend of a ship's deck or sides.--_ns._ SHEER'-HULK, an old dismasted ship with a pair of sheers mounted on it for masting ships; SHEER'-LEG, one of the SHEERS, an apparatus for hoisting heavy weights, having usually two legs or spars spread apart at their lower ends, and bearing at their tops, where they are joined, hoisting-tackle. [Perh. Dut. _scheren_, to cut, withdraw.]

SHEET, sh[=e]t, _n._ a large, thin piece of anything: a large, broad piece of cloth in a bed: a large, broad piece of paper: a sail: the rope fastened to the leeward corner of a sail to extend it to the wind.--_v.t._ to cover with, or as with, a sheet: to furnish with sheets: to form into sheets.--_ns._ SHEET'-COPP'ER, -[=I]'RON, -LEAD, -MET'AL, copper, iron, lead, metal in thin sheets.--_adj._ SHEET'ED, with a white band or belt.--_ns._ SHEET'-GLASS, a kind of crown-glass made at first in the form of a cylinder, cut longitudinally, and opened out into a sheet; SHEET'ING, cloth used for bed-sheets: the process of forming into sheets; SHEET'-LIGHT'NING, lightning appearing in sheets or having a broad appearance; SHEET'-WORK, press-work.--A SHEET (or THREE SHEETS) IN THE WIND, fuddled, tipsy; IN SHEETS (_print._), not folded, or folded but not bound. [A.S. _scete_, _scte_, a sheet--_sceotan_ (pa.t. _sceat_), to shoot, project.]

SHEET-ANCHOR, sh[=e]t'-angk'ur, _n._ the largest anchor of a ship, shot or thrown out in extreme danger: chief support: last refuge. [_Shoot_ and _anchor_.]

SHEIK, SHEIKH, sh[=e]k, _n._ a man of eminence, a lord, a chief: a title of learned or devout me _n._ [Ar. _sheikh_--_sh[=a]kha_, to be old.]

SHEILING, sh[=e]l'ing, _n._ Same as SHEALING.

SHEKEL, shek'l, _n._ a Jewish weight (about half-an-ounce avoirdupois) and coin (about 2s. 6d. sterling): (_pl._) money (_slang_). [Heb. from _sh[=a]qal_, to weigh.]

SHEKINAH, SHECHINAH, sh[=e]-k[=i]'na, _n._ the Divine presence which rested like a cloud or visible light over the mercy-seat. [Heb.,--_sh[=a]khan_, to dwell.]

SHELDRAKE, shel'dr[=a]k, _n._ a genus of birds of the Duck family _Anatidae_, having the hind-toe free:--_fem._ SHEL'DUCK. [A.S. _scyld_, a shield, and _drake_.]

SHELF, shelf, _n._ a board fixed on a wall, &c., for laying things on: a flat layer of rock: a ledge: a shoal: a sandbank:--_pl._ SHELVES (shelvz).--_adj._ SHELF'Y.--PUT, LAY, ON THE SHELF, to put aside from duty or service. [A.S. _scylfe_, a plank, Ice. _skjalf_, a bench.]

SHELL, shel, _n._ a term applied to the hard outer covering or skeleton of many animals, to the internal skeleton of some invertebrates, and to the outer covering-of the eggs of various animals: any framework: the outer ear: a testaceous mollusc: any frail structure: a frail boat: a rough kind of coffin: an instrument of music: a bomb: a hollow projectile containing a bursting charge of gunpowder or other explosive ignited at the required instant by means of either time or percussion fuses: the thin coating of copper on an electrotype: an intermediate class in some schools.--_v.t._ to break off the shell: to remove the shell from: to take out of the shell: to throw shells or bombs upon, to bombard.--_v.i._ to fall off like a shell: to cast the shell.--_ns._ SHELLAC (she-lak', shel'ak), SHELL'-LAC, lac prepared in thin plates for making varnish, &c.--_v.t._ to coat with shellac.--_ns._ SHELL'-BACK, an old sailor, a barnacle; SHELL'-BARK, either of two North American hickories.--_adj._ SHELLED, having a shell, testaceous.--_ns._ SHELL'ER, one who shells or husks; SHELL'FISH, a popular term for many aquatic animals not fishes, esp. oysters, clams and all molluscs, and crustaceans such as crabs and lobsters; SHELL'-GUN, a cannon used for throwing shells, esp. horizontally: SHELL'-HEAP, a prehistoric accumulation of shells, &c., pointing back to a race that lived on shellfish; SHELL'-ICE, ice no longer supported by the water beneath; SHELL'-JACK'ET, an undress military jacket; SHELL'-LIME, lime procured from the shells of shellfish by burning; SHELL'-LIME'STONE, a limestone largely consisting of shells; SHELL'-MARL, a white earthy deposit, resulting from the accumulation of fragments of shells; SHELL'-MOUND, a shell-heap; SHELL'-OR'NAMENT, decoration in which any shell-form is prominent.--_adj._ SHELL'PROOF, proof against, or able to resist, shells or bombs.--_ns._ SHELL'-ROOM, a magazine on board ship where shells are stored; SHELL'-SAND, sand consisting in great part of fragments of shells, and often containing a small proportion of organic matter, a very useful manure for clay soils, heavy loams, and newly-reclaimed bogs; SHELL'WORK, work composed of or adorned with shells.--_adj._ SHELL'Y, consisting of a shell: testaceous.--SHELL OUT, (_slang_), to hand over, as money. [A.S. _scell_, _scyl_; Dut. _schel_, Ice. _skel_.]

SHELTA, shel'ta, _n._ a secret jargon of great antiquity spoken by Irish tinkers, beggars, and pipers.--Also _Shelr[=u]_, _Cainnt cheard_, _Gam cant_, _Bog-latin_. [_Shelr[=u]_, a perversion of the Irish _beulra_, language.]

SHELTER, shel't[.e]r, _n._ that which shields or protects: a refuge: a retreat, a harbour: protection.--_v.t._ to cover or shield: to defend: to conceal.--_v.i._ to take shelter.--_n._ SHEL'TERER.--_adjs._ SHEL'TERLESS; SHEL'TERY, affording shelter. [Orig. _sheltron_--A.S. _scyld-truma_, shield-troop--_scyld_, shield, _truma_, troop--_trum_, firm.]

SHELTY, SHELTIE, shel'ti, _n._ a Shetland pony. [Perh. a dim. of _Shetland pony_.]

SHELVE, shelv, _v.t._ to furnish with shelves: to place on a shelf; to put aside.--_n._ SHEL'VING, the furnishing with shelves: the act of placing on a shelf: shelves or materials for shelves.

SHELVE, shelv, _v.i._ to slope, incline.--_n._ a ledge.--_n._ SHEL'VING, a shelving place: (_rare_) a bank.--_adj._ SHEL'VY, sloping, shallow. [Prob.

ult. from Ice. _skelgja-sk_, to come askew--_skjalgr_, wry.]


SHEND, shend, _v.t._ (_Spens._) to disgrace, to reproach, to blame, also to overpower, to surpass:--_pa.t._ and _pa.p._ shent. [A.S. _scendan_, to disgrace--A.S. _scand_, _sceand_ (Ger. _schande_), shame.]

SHE-OAK, sh[=e]'-[=o]k, _n._ one of several shrubs of the Australian genus _Casuarina_.

SHEOL, sh[=e]'[=o]l, _n._ the place of departed spirits. [Heb. _she'[=o]l_, a hollow place--_sh[=a]'al_, to dig out.]

SHEPHERD, shep'[.e]rd, _n._ one who herds sheep: a swain: a pastor:--_fem._ SHEP'HERDESS.--_v.t._ to tend as a shepherd: to watch over, protect the interests of, or one's own interests in.--_ns._ SHEP'HERDISM, pastoral life; SHEP'HERDLING, a little shepherd; SHEP'HERD'S-CROOK, a long staff, its upper end curved into a hook; SHEP'HERD'S-DOG, a dog specially trained to help in tending sheep, the collie or Scotch sheep-dog, &c.; SHEP'HERD'S-FLUTE, a flageolet or the like; SHEP'HERD'S-NEE'DLE, an annual plant, called also Venus's comb; SHEP'HERD'S-PLAID, -TAR'TAN, a woollen cloth made with black and white checks: this form of pattern itself; SHEP'HERD'S-POUCH, -PURSE, an annual cruciferous plant, with compressed, somewhat heart-shaped seed-vessel; SHEP'HERD'S-ROD, -STAFF, a small kind of teasel.--SHEPHERD KINGS (see HYKSOS).--THE GOOD SHEPHERD, a title of Jesus Christ (John, x. 11); THE SHEPHERDS, a sect of fanatical shepherds in France about 1251 A.D., eager to deliver the imprisoned Louis IX. [A.S.

_sceap-hyrde_. _Sheep_ and _herd_.]

SHEPPY, SHEPPEY, shep'i, _n._ (_prov_.) a sheep-cote.

SHERBET, sh[.e]r'bet, _n._ a drink of water and fruit juices, sweetened and flavoured. [Through Turk. from Ar. _sharbat_, a drink--_shariba_, he drinks.]

SHERD, sh[.e]rd, _n._ See SHARD.

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