SHERIF, SHEREEF, she-r[=e]f', _n._ a descendant of Mohammed through his daughter Fatima: a prince or ruler: the chief magistrate of Mecca. [Ar.
_shar[=i]f_, noble, lofty.]
SHERIFF, sher'if, _n._ the governor of a shire: (_English law_) the chief officer of the crown in every county or shire, his duties being chiefly ministerial rather than judicial: (_Scots law_) the chief magistrate and judge of the county: in the United States the office of sheriff is mainly ministerial, his principal duties to maintain peace and order, attend courts, guard prisoners, serve processes, and execute judgments.--_ns._ SHER'IFFALTY, SHER'IFFDOM, SHER'IFFSHIP, the office or jurisdiction of a sheriff; SHER'IFF-CLERK, in Scotland the registrar of the sheriff's court, who has charge of the records of the court; SHER'IFF-DEP'UTE (_Scot._), the sheriff proper, so called since the abolition of the heritable jurisdictions in 1748 to distinguish him from the earlier heritable SHER'IFF-PRIN'CIPAL, whose title is now merged in that of the Lord-lieutenant; SHER'IFF-OFF'ICER, in Scotland, an officer connected with the sheriff's court, who is charged with arrests, the serving of processes, &c.; SHER'IFF-SUB'STITUTE, the acting sheriff in a Scotch county or city, like the sheriff-depute appointed by the crown, but unlike the sheriff-depute forced to reside within his judicial district, and forbidden to take other employment; UN'DER-SHER'IFF, the deputy of an English sheriff who performs the execution of writs. [A.S. _scir-gerefa_--_scir_ (Eng.
_shire_), _gerefa_, a governor; cog. with Ger. _graf_, a count.]
SHERRIS, sher'is, _n._ (_Shak._). Same as SHERRY.
SHERRY, sher'i, _n._ a name derived from _Xeres_ or _Jerez_ de la Frontera, near Cadiz, and applied to the better kind of white wines grown in the neighbourhood of Xeres.--SHERRY COBBLER, a cobbler made with sherry.--NATURAL SHERRY, a sherry having from two to four per cent. of spirit added to make it keep.
SHET, shet, _adj._ (_U.S._) freed from.
SHETLANDER, shet'land-[.e]r, _n._ a native or inhabitant of _Shetland_.--SHETLAND LACE, an open-work ornamental trimming made with woollen yarn for shawls, &c.; SHETLAND PONY, a small sturdy and shaggy horse, usually nine to ten hands high, a shelty; SHETLAND WOOL, a thin but strong undyed worsted, spun from the wool of the sheep in the Shetland Islands, much used for knitting fine shawls, &c.
SHEUCH, SHEUGH, sh[=oo]h, or shyuh, _n._ (_Scot._) a ditch.
SHEVA, she-va', _n._ a Hebrew point (:) written below its consonant, and indicating properly the absence of a vowel (_simple sheva_). It is either unsounded, as at the close of a syllable (_silent sheva_), or given a short breathing or neutral sound, as at the beginning of a syllable (_vocal sheva_). Sometimes it is compounded with the short vowels, forming _compound shevas_.
SHEW, sh[=o]. Same as SHOW.
SHEWBREAD, sh[=o]'bred. Same as SHOWBREAD.
SHIAH, sh[=e]'a, _n._ a member of that Mohammedan sect which maintains that Ali, first cousin of Mohammed and husband of his daughter Fatima, was the first legitimate successor of the Prophet, rejecting the three califs of their opponents the Sunnis, as usurpers.--_n._ SHIISM (sh[=e]'izm). [Ar.
SHIBBOLETH, shib'b[=o]-leth, _n._ (_B._) a test-word used by the Gileadites under Jephthah to detect the fleeing Ephraimites, who could not pronounce the _sh_ (Judges, xii. 4-6): the criterion or watchword of a party. [Heb., an ear of corn, or a stream.]
SHIELD, sh[=e]ld, _n._ a broad plate worn for defence on the left arm: anything that protects: defence: a person who protects: the shield-shaped escutcheon used for displaying arms.--_v.t._ to defend: (_Shak._) to forfend, avert.--_v.i._ to be a shelter.--_ns._ SHIEL'DER; SHIELD'-FERN, a fern, so called from its shape.--_adj._ SHIELD'LESS, defenceless.--_adv._ SHIELD'LESSLY.--_n._ SHIELD'LESSNESS.--_adj._ SHIELD'-SHAPED, scutate.
[A.S. _scyld_; Ger. _schild_, Ice. _skioldr_, protection.]
SHIELING. See under SHEAL.
SHIFT, shift, _v.t._ to change in form or character: to put out of the way: to dress in fresh clothes.--_v.i._ to change about: to remove: to change one's clothes: to resort to expedients for some purpose: in violin-playing, to move the left hand from its original position next to the nut.--_n._ a change: in violin-playing, any position of the left hand except that nearest the nut: a squad or relay of men: a contrivance: an artifice: last resource: a chemise or woman's undermost garment (orig. signifying a change of body-linen).--_adj._ SHIFT'ABLE, capable of being shifted.--_ns._ SHIFT'ER, one who shifts: a trickster; SHIFT'INESS, the character of being shifty.--_adj._ SHIFT'ING, unstable: shifty.--_adv._ SHIFT'INGLY.--_adj._ SHIFT'LESS, destitute of shifts or expedients: unsuccessful, for want of proper means.--_adv._ SHIFT'LESSLY.--_n._ SHIFT'LESSNESS.--_adj._ SHIFT'Y, full of, or ready with, shifts, contrivances, or expedients.--SHIFT ABOUT, to vacillate: to turn quite round to the opposite point; SHIFT FOR ONE'S SELF, to provide for one's self; SHIFT OF CROPS, rotation of crops; SHIFT OFF, to defer: to put away.--MAKE SHIFT, to find ways and means of doing something, contrive. [A.S. _sciftan_, to divide, Ice. _skipta_.]
SHIITE, sh[=e]'[=i]t, _n._ the same as SHIAH (q.v.).--_adj._ SHIIT'IC.
SHIKAR, shi-kar', _n._ in India, hunting, sport.--_ns._ SHIKAR'EE, SHIKAR'I, a hunter. [Hind.]
SHIKO, shik'[=o], _n._ a posture of prostration in Burma.
SHILLALAH, shi-l[=a]'la, _n._ an oak sapling, the oak or blackthorn cudgel of the conventional Irishman.--Also SHILLE'LAH, SHILL[=A]'LY. [Prob.
_Shillelagh_, an oak-wood in County Wicklow.]
SHILLING, shil'ing, _n._ an English silver coin=12 pence.--TAKE THE SHILLING, to enlist as a soldier by accepting the recruiting-officer's shilling--discontinued since 1879. [A.S. _scilling_; Ger. _schilling_.]
SHILLY-SHALLY, shil'i-shal'i, _adv._ in silly hesitation.--_n._ foolish trifling: irresolution.--_v.i._ to hesitate.--_n._ SHILL'Y-SHALL'IER, an irresolute person. [A reduplication of '_Shall I?_']
SHILPIT, shil'pit, _adj._ (_Scot._) weak, washy: feeble-looking. [Ety.
SHILY, same as SHYLY. See SHY.
SHIM, shim, _n._ (_mach._) a thin slip used to fill up space caused by wear.--_v.t._ to wedge up. [Ety. dub.]
SHIMMER, shim'[.e]r, _v.i._ to gleam tremulously, to glisten.--_ns._ SHIMM'ER, SHIMM'ERING, a tremulous gleam. [A.S. _scimrian_--_sciman_, to shine; Ger. _schimmern_.]
SHIN, shin, _n._ the large bone of the leg or the forepart of it: a bird's shank.--_v.i._ to climb a tree (with _up_): to tramp, trudge.--_v.t._ to climb a tree by swarming up it: to kick on the shins.--_ns._ SHIN'-BONE, the tibia; SHIN'-PIECE, a piece of armour defending the forepart of the leg; SHIN'-PLAS'TER (_U.S._), a patch of brown-paper steeped in vinegar, &c., laid on a sore: a small paper note or promise to pay. [A.S. _scina_, the shin (esp. in the compound _scin-ban_, shin-bone); Dut. _scheen_, Ger.
SHIN, shin, _n._ a god, or the gods: the term used by Protestant missionaries in Japan and China for the Supreme Being.
SHINDY, shin'di, _n._ the game of shinty, shinny, bandy-ball, or hockey: (_slang_) a row, disturbance.--KICK UP A SHINDY, to make a disturbance.
SHINE, sh[=i]n, _v.i._ to beam with steady radiance: to glitter: to be bright or beautiful: to be eminent.--_v.t._ to cause to shine:--_pa.t._ and _pa.p._ shone (shon), (_B._) sh[=i]ned.--_adj._ (_Spens._) bright.--_n._ brightness: splendour: fair weather: (_slang_) disturbance, row, a trick.--_n._ SH[=I]'NER, that which shines: (_slang_) a coin, esp. a sovereign: a small American fresh-water fish.--_adj._ SH[=I]'NING.--_adv._ SH[=I]'NINGLY.--_n._ SH[=I]'NINGNESS.--_adj._ SH[=I]'NY, clear, unclouded: glossy.--CAUSE, or MAKE, THE FACE TO SHINE (_B._), to be propitious; TAKE THE SHINE OUT OF (_slang_), to outshine, eclipse. [A.S. _scinan_; Ger.
SHINGLE, shing'gl, _n._ wood sawed or split thin, used instead of slates or tiles, for roofing houses: (_U.S._) a small sign-board or plate.--_v.t._ to cover with shingles: to crop the hair very close.--_adjs._ SHING'LED, SHING'LE-ROOFED, having the roof covered with shingles.--_ns._ SHING'LER; SHING'LING. [Low L. _scindula_, a wooden tile--L. _scind[)e]re_, to split.]
SHINGLE, shing'gl, _n._ the coarse gravel on the shores of rivers or of the sea.--_adj._ SHING'LY. [Orig. _single_--Norw. _singel_, _singling_, shingle--_singla_, freq. of _singa_, to ring.]
SHINGLES, shing'glz, _n._ popular name for the disease _Herpes zoster_. [A corr. of L. _cingulum_, a belt or girdle--_cing[)e]re_, to gird.]
SHINNY, shin'i, _n._ the game of bandy-ball or hockey. [Prob. Gael, _sinteag_, a bound.]
SHINTI-YAN, shin'ti-yan, _n._ the loose drawers worn by Moslem women.--Also SHIN'TIGAN.
SHINTO, shin't[=o], _n._ the system of nature and hero worship forming the indigenous religion of Japan.--_ns._ SHIN'T[=O]ISM; SHIN'T[=O]IST.
[Jap.,=Chin. _shin tao_--_shin_, god, _tao_, way, doctrine.]
SHINTY, shin'ti, _n._ Same as SHINNY.
SHIP, ship, _n._ a vessel having three masts, with tops and yards to each: generally, any large sea-going vessel.--_v.t._ to put on board a ship: to engage for service on board a ship: to transport by ship: to fix in its place.--_v.i._ to engage for service on shipboard:--_pr.p._ ship'ping; _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ shipped.--_ns._ SHIP'-BIS'CUIT, hard biscuit for use on shipboard; SHIP'BOARD, the deck or side of a ship; SHIP'-BOY, a boy that serves on board a ship; SHIP'-BREAK'ER, one who breaks up vessels no longer fit for sea; SHIP'-BROK'ER, a broker who effects sales, insurance, &c. of ships; SHIP'BUILDER, one whose occupation is to construct ships; SHIP'BUILDING; SHIP'-CANAL', a canal large enough to admit the passage of sea-going vessels; SHIP'-CAP'TAIN, one who commands a ship; SHIP'-CAR'PENTER, a carpenter who works at shipbuilding; SHIP'-CHAND'LER, a dealer in cordage, canvas, and other ship furniture or stores; SHIP'-CHAND'LERY, the business wares of a ship-chandler; SHIP'-F[=E]'VER, typhus fever, as common on board crowded ships; SHIP'FUL, as much or as many as a ship will hold; SHIP'-HOLD'ER, a ship-owner; SHIP'-LETT'ER, a letter sent by a vessel which does not carry mails; SHIP'-LOAD, the load or cargo of a ship; SHIP'MAN, a sailor:--_pl._ SHIP'MEN; SHIP'MASTER, the captain of a ship; SHIP'MATE, a companion in the same ship; SHIP'MENT, act of putting on board ship: embarkation: that which is shipped; SHIP'-MON'EY, a tyrannical tax imposed by the king on seaports, revived without authorisation of parliament by Charles I. in 1634-37; SHIP'-OF-THE-LINE, before steam navigation, a man-of-war large enough to take a place in a line of battle; SHIP'-OWN'ER, the owner of a ship or ships.--_adj._ SHIPPED (_Shak._), furnished with a ship or ships.--_ns._ SHIP'PER; SHIP'PING, ships collectively: tonnage: (_Shak._) a voyage; SHIP'PING-[=A]G'ENT, the agent of a vessel or line of vessels to whom goods are consigned for shipment.--_n.pl._ SHIP'PING-ART'ICLES, articles of agreement, between the captain and his crew.--_ns._ SHIP'PING-BILL, invoice of goods embarked; SHIP'PING-MAS'TER, the official who witnesses signature by the sailors of the articles of agreement; SHIP'PING-OFF'ICE, the office of a shipping-agent, or of a shipping-master; SHIP'-POUND, a unit of weight in the Baltic ports; SHIP'-RAIL'WAY, a railway by means of which vessels can be carried overland from one body of water to another.--_adjs._ SHIP'-RIGGED (_naut._), rigged like a ship, having three masts with square sails and spreading yards; SHIP'SHAPE, in a seaman-like manner: trim, neat, proper.--_ns._ SHIP'S'-HUS'BAND, the owner's agent in the management of a ship; SHIP'-TIRE (_Shak._), a sort of head-dress, whether from its streamers or its general likeness to a ship; SHIP'-WAY, the supports forming a sliding-way for the building, repairing, and launching of vessels; SHIP'-WORM, a genus (_Teredo_) of worm-like molluscs which perforate and live in timber, lining the cavity or tube with a calcareous encrustation; SHIP'WRECK, the wreck or destruction of a ship: destruction.--_v.t._ to destroy on the sea: to make to suffer wreck.--_ns._ SHIP'WRIGHT, a wright or carpenter who constructs ships; SHIP'YARD, a yard where ships are built or repaired.--SHIP A SEA, to have a wave come aboard; SHIP'S PAPERS, documents required for the manifestation of the property of a ship and cargo; SHIP THE OARS (see OAR).--ABOUT SHIP! an exclamation to pull in the sheet preparatory to changing a ship's course during a tack; MAKE SHIPWRECK OF, to ruin, destroy; ON SHIPBOARD, upon or within a ship; TAKE SHIP, or SHIPPING, to embark. [A.S. _scip_--_scippan_, to make--_scapan_, to shape; Goth. _skip_, Ice. _skip_, Ger. _schiff_.]
SHIPPEN, ship'n, _n._ (_prov._) a stable.--Also SHIP'PON.
SHIPPO, ship-p[=o]', _n._ Japanese enamel, cloisonne.
SHIPTON, ship'ton, _n._ usually 'Mother Shipton,' a famous prophetess of popular English tradition, born near Knaresborough in 1488.
SHIRAZ, sh[=e]-raz', _n._ a Persian wine. [_Shiraz_.]
SHIRE, sh[=i]r, shir (in county-names), _n._ a county, one of the larger divisions of England for political purposes--originally a division of the kingdom under a sheriff, the deputy of the ealdorman: a term also surviving as applied to certain smaller districts in England, as Richmondshire and Hallamshire.--_ns._ SHIRE'MAN, a sheriff; SHIRE'-MOOT, SHIRE'-MOTE, formerly in England a court of the county held periodically by the sheriff together with the bishop or the ealdorman. [A.S. _scir_, _scire_, a county, _sciran_, a secondary form of _sceran_, to cut off.]
SHIRK, sh[.e]rk, _v.t._ to avoid, get off or slink away from.--_n._ SHIR'KER.--_adj._ SHIR'KY. [A form of _shark_.]
SHIRL, sh[.e]rl, _v.i._ (_prov._) to slide.