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SHALT, shalt, 2d pers. sing. of _shall_.

SHAM, sham, _n._ a pretence: that which deceives expectation: imposture.--_adj._ pretended: false.--_v.t._ to pretend: to feign: to impose upon.--_v.i._ to make false pretences:--_pr.p._ sham'ming; _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ shammed.--_ns._ SHAM'-FIGHT, a fight in imitation of a real one; SHAM'MER, one who shams.--SHAM ABRAHAM (see ABRAHAM-MAN). [_Shame_.]

SHAMANISM, sham'an-izm, _n._ a name applied loosely to the religion of the Turanian races of Siberia and north-eastern Asia, based essentially on magic and sorcery.--_n._ SHAM'AN, a wizard priest.--_adj._ SHAMAN'IC.--_n._ SHAM'ANIST.--_adj._ SHAMANIS'TIC. [Perh. Hind. _shaman_, idolater.]

SHAMBLE, sham'bl, _v.i._ to walk with an awkward, unsteady gait.--_n._ a shambling gait.--_adj._ SHAM'BLING. [Skeat refers to Dut. _schampelen_--O.

Fr. _s'escamper_, to decamp.]

SHAMBLES, sham'blz, stalls on which butchers exposed their meat for sale, hence a flesh-market: a slaughter-house. [A.S. _scamel_ (Ger.

_schamel_), a stool--Low L. _scamellum_, for L. _scabellum_, dim. of _scamnum_, a bench.]

SHAME, sh[=a]m, _n._ the feeling caused by the exposure of that which ought to be concealed, or by a consciousness of guilt: the cause of shame, a person or thing to be ashamed of: disgrace, dishonour: (_B._) the parts of the body which modesty requires to be concealed.--_v.t._ to make ashamed: to cause to blush: to cover with reproach: to drive or compel by shame.--_adj._ SHAME'FACED (properly SHAME'FAST, A.S. _sceam-faest_), very modest or bashful.--_adv._ SHAME'FACEDLY.--_ns._ SHAME'FACEDNESS, SHAME'FASTNESS, modesty.--_adj._ SHAME'FUL, disgraceful.--_adv._ SHAME'FULLY.--_n._ SHAME'FULNESS.--_adj._ SHAME'LESS, immodest: done without shame: audacious.--_adv._ SHAME'LESSLY.--_n._ SHAME'LESSNESS.--_adj._ SHAME'-PROOF (_Shak._), insensible to shame.--_ns._ SH[=A]'MER, one who, or that which, makes ashamed; SHAME'-REEL, the first dance after the celebration of marriage, the bride being the best man's partner, the best maid the bridegroom's.--FOR SHAME, an interjectional phrase, signifying 'you should be ashamed!'--PUT TO SHAME, to cause to feel shame. [A.S. _sceamu_, _scamu_, modesty; Ice. _skomm_, a wound, Ger.


SHAMMATHA, sha-ma'tha, _n._ the severest form of excommunication among the ancient Jews. [Heb.]

SHAMMY, sham'i, same as CHAMOIS.--_v.t._ SHAM'OY, to prepare leather by working oil into the skin.--_n._ SHAM'OYING.

SHAMPOO, sham-p[=oo]', _v.t._ to squeeze and rub the body, in connection with the hot bath: to wash thoroughly with soap and water.--_ns._ SHAMPOO'; SHAMPOO'ER. [Hind. _ch[=a]mpn[=a]_, squeeze.]

SHAMROCK, sham'rok, _n._ the national emblem of Ireland, a leaf with three leaflets, or plant having such leaves, sometimes supposed to be the Wood-sorrel, but the name is more frequently applied to some species of Clover, or to some common plant of some of the nearly allied genera, as the Bird's Foot Trefoil or the Black Medick. The Lesser Yellow Trefoil is the plant usually sold in Dublin on St Patrick's Day. [Ir. _seamrog_, Gael.

_seamrag_, trefoil, dim. of _seamar_, trefoil.]

SHAN, shan, _adj._ pertaining to the _Shans_, a number of tribes of common origin, who live on the borders of Burma, Siam, and China.

SHAND, shand, _n._ (_obs._) shame: (_Scot._) base coin.--_adj._ worthless.

[A.S. _sceand_, scand.]

SHANDRYDAN, shan'dri-dan, _n._ a light two-wheeled cart: any rickety conveyance.--Also SHAN'DRY. [Ir.]

SHANDYGAFF, shan'di-gaf, _n._ a mixture of bitter ale or beer with ginger-beer. [Ety. dub.]

SHANGHAI, shang-h[=i]', _n._ a long-legged hen with feathered shanks, said to have been introduced from _Shanghai_ in China: (_U.S._) a tall dandy.--_v.t._ (_naut._ ) to hocus a sailor and ship him while insensible: (_U.S._) to get a person by some artifice into a jurisdiction where he can lawfully be arrested.

SHANGIE, shang'i, _n._ (_Scot._) a shackle.

SHANGTI, shang't[=e]', _n._ a Christian name in China for God. [Chin.

_shang_, high, _ti_, ruler.]

SHANK, shangk, _n._ the leg below the knee to the foot: the long part of any instrument, as of an anchor between the arms and ring: the part of a tool connecting the handle with the acting part: the part of a shoe connecting the sole with the heel.--_v.i._ to be affected with disease of the footstalk: to take to one's legs (with it).--_v.t._ (_Scot._) to despatch unceremoniously.--_adj._ SHANKED, having a shank: affected with disease of the shank or footstalk.--_ns._ SHANK'-[=I]'RON, a shaping-tool for shoe-shanks: an iron plate inserted as a stiffening between the leather parts of a shank; SHANK'-PAINT'ER, a painter or small rope for fastening the shank of an anchor, when catted, to a ship's side. [A.S. _sceanca_, leg--_sceacan_, to shake; Dut. _schonk_, Low Ger. _schake_.]

SHANKER, shangk'[.e]r, _n._ the same as CHANCRE.

SHANNY, shan'i, _n._ the smooth blenny.

SHA'N'T, shant (_coll._), a contraction of _shall not_.

SHANTY, shant'i, _n._ a mean dwelling or hut, a temporary house: a grog-shop. [Perh. from Ir. _sean_, old, _tig_, a house; others derive through Fr. _chantier_, a timber-yard, from L. _cantherius_, a rafter.]

SHANTY, shant'i, _n._ a song with boisterous drawling chorus, sung by sailors while heaving at the capstan, or the like--also CHANT'Y, CHANT'IE.--_n._ SHANT'YMAN, the leader of such a chorus. [Prob. from Fr.

_chanter_, to sing.]

SHAPE, sh[=a]p, _v.t._ to form: to fashion: to adapt to a purpose: to regulate: to direct: to conceive.--_v.i._ (_Shak._) to take shape, to become fit:--_pa.p._ sh[=a]ped, (_B._) sh[=a]p'en.--_n._ form or figure: external appearance: that which has form or figure: an appearance: particular nature: expression, as in words: a pattern: (_cook._) a dish of rice, jelly, or the like cast in a mould and turned out when it has grown firm.--_adjs._ SH[=A]'PABLE, SHAPE'ABLE; SHAPED, having a varied ornamental form; SHAPE'LESS, having no shape or regular form: (_Shak._) effecting nothing.--_ns._ SHAPE'LESSNESS; SHAPE'LINESS.--_adj._ SHAPE'LY, having shape or regular form: symmetrical.--_ns._ SH[=A]'PER, a metal planing machine, the tool with reciprocating motion; SH[=A]'PING, representation, imagination.--TAKE SHAPE, to assume a definite form or plan. [A.S.

_sceapan_, _scapan_, to form, make; Ice. _skapa_, Ger. _schaffen_.]

SHARD, shard, _n._ dung. [Ety. dub.]

SHARD, shard, _n._ (_Spens._) a boundary, division: (_obs._) the leaves of the artichoke whitened. [Perh. from Ice. _skardh_ (Ger. _scharte_, a notch), and ult. conn. with A.S. _sceran_, to divide.]

SHARD, shard, _n._ a fragment, as of an earthen vessel: the wing-case of a beetle.--_adjs._ SHARD'-BORNE (_Shak._), borne on shards, as beetles; SHAR'DED (_Shak._), provided with elytra or wing-cases. [A.S. _sceard_, a fragment--_sceran_, to divide.]

SHARE, sh[=a]r, _n._ a part cut off: a portion: dividend: one of a number of equal portions of anything: a fixed and indivisible section of the capital of a company.--_v.t._ to divide into parts: to partake with others.--_v.i._ to have a part: to receive a dividend.--_ns._ SHARE'-BROK'ER, a broker or dealer in shares of railways, &c.; SHARE'HOLDER, one who holds or owns a share in a joint fund or property; SHARE'-LIST, a list of the prices of shares of railways, banks, &c.; SH[=A]R'ER.--SHARE AND SHARE ALIKE, in equal shares.--DEFERRED SHARES (see DEFER); GO SHARES, to divide equally; ORDINARY SHARES, shares forming the common stock of a company. [A.S. _scearu_--_sceran_, to shear.]

SHARE, sh[=a]r, _n._ the iron blade of a plough which cuts the ground.--_v.t._ to cut, cleave.--_n._ SHARE'-BEAM, the part of the plough to which the share is fixed. [A.S. _scear_--_sceran_, to shear.]

SHARK, shark, _n._ a common name for most of the Elasmobranch fishes included in the sub-order _Selachoidei_--voracious fishes, mostly carnivorous, with large sharp teeth on the jaws--most numerous in the tropics. [Perh. L. _carcharus_--Gr. _karcharos_, jagged.]

SHARK, shark, _n._ a sharper, a cheat or swindler: an extortionate rogue.--_v.i._ to live like a swindler.--_v.t._ to pick up (with _up_ or _out_).--_ns._ SHARK'ER; SHARK'ING. [Prob. from preceding word.]

SHARN, sharn, _n._ (_Scot._) dung of cattle. [A.S. _scearn_; cf. Ice.



SHARP, sharp, _adj._ having a thin cutting edge or fine point: peaked or ridged: affecting the senses as if pointed or cutting: severe: keen, keenly contested: alive to one's interests, barely honest: of keen or quick perception: vigilant, attentive: pungent, biting, sarcastic: eager: fierce: impetuous: shrill: (_phon._) denoting a consonant pronounced with breath and not voice, surd--as the sharp mutes, _p_, _t_, _k_.--_n._ an acute or shrill sound: (_mus._) a note raised a semitone in the scale, also the character directing this: a long and slender sewing-needle--opp. to a _blunt_ and a _between_: a small sword or duelling sword: a sharper, cheat: (_pl._) the hard parts of wheat, middlings: an oysterman's boat--also SHARP'IE, SHARP'Y.--_v.t._ (_obs._) to sharpen.--_v.i._ to play the sharper, cheat.--_adj._ SHARP'-CUT, cut sharply or definitely: well-defined: clear.--_v.t._ SHARP'EN, to make sharp or keen, pungent or painful, active or acute.--_v.i._ to grow sharp.--_ns._ SHAR'PENER, one who sharpens; SHARP'ER, a trickster: a swindler: a cheat.--_adjs._ SHARP'-EYED, sharp-sighted; SHARP'-GROUND, ground to a sharp edge; SHARP'-LOOK'ING (_Shak._), hungry-looking.--_adv._ SHARP'LY, quickly: to the moment: (_mus._) above the true pitch.--_n._ SHARP'NESS.--_adjs._ SHARP'-NOSED, having a pointed nose: keen of scent, as a dog; SHARP'-SET, ravenous.--_ns._ SHARP'-SHOOT'ER, an old term applied in the army to riflemen when skirmishing or specially employed as marksmen; SHARP'-SHOOT'ING.--_adjs._ SHARP'-SIGHT'ED, having acute sight: shrewd; SHARP'-VIS'AGED, having a thin face; SHARP'-WIT'TED, having an acute wit.--LOOK SHARP, to show eagerness, to act quickly. [A.S. _scearp_; Ice.

_skarpr_, Gr. _scharf_.]

SHASTER, shas't[.e]r, _n._ a text-book, an authoritative religious and legal book among the Hindus.--Also SHAS'TRA. [Sans. _c[=a]stra_--_c[=a]s_, to teach.]

SHATTER, shat'[.e]r, _v.t._ to break or dash to pieces: to crack: to disorder: to render unsound.--_v.i._ to break into fragments.--_n._ a fragment: impaired state.--_adjs._ SHATT'ER-BRAINED, -P[=A]'TED, disordered in intellect; SHATT'ERY, brittle. [_Scatter_.]

SHAUCHLE, shawh'l, _v.i._ (_Scot._) to walk with shuffling, loose gait.--_v.t._ to distort, deform. [Perh. conn. with Ice. _skjalgr_, wry, squinting.]

SHAVE, sh[=a]v, _v.t._ to cut off the hair with a razor: to pare closely: to make smooth by paring: to cut in thin slices: to skim along the surface: to strip, swindle.--_v.i._ to remove hair by a razor:--_pa.p._ sh[=a]ved or sh[=a]'ven.--_n._ the act of shaving: a paring: a narrow miss or escape: a piece of financial knavery.--_ns._ SHAVE'-GRASS, the scouring-rush; SHAVE'LING, a monk or friar, from his shaven crown; SH[=A]'VER, one who shaves: a barber: a sharp or extortionate dealer: (_coll._) a chap, youngster; SH[=A]'VING, the act of shaving: that which is shaved or pared off; SH[=A]'VING-B[=A]'SIN, -BOWL, -BRUSH, a basin, bowl, brush, used by persons shaving.--CLOSE, or NEAR, SHAVE, a very narrow escape. [A.S.

_sceafan_, _scafan_; Dut. _schaven_, Ger. _schaben_, L. _scab[)e]re_, to scrape, Gr. _skaptein_, to dig.]

SHAVIE, sh[=a]'vi, _n._ (_Scot._) a trick or prank.--Also SK[=A]'VIE.

[Perh. Dan. _skaev_, crooked; cf. Ger. _schief_, oblique.]

SHAW, shaw, _n._ a thicket, a small wood: (_Scot._) a stem with the leaves, as of a potato. [A.S. _scaga_; Ice. _skogr_, Dan. _skov_.]

SHAWL, shawl, _n._ a wrap made of wool, cotton, silk, or hair, used particularly by women as a loose covering for the shoulders: a kind of mantle.--_v.t._ to wrap in a shawl.--_ns._ SHAWL'-DANCE, a graceful Oriental dance in which the dancer waves a scarf; SHAWL'-MAT[=E]'RIAL, a textile of silk and wool, soft and flexible, usually with Oriental designs, employed for dresses and parts of dresses for women; SHAWL'-PATT'ERN, a coloured pattern, supposed to resemble an Eastern shawl, and applied to material of plainer design; SHAWL'-PIN, a pin used for fastening a shawl; SHAWL'-STRAP, a pair of leather straps, fitted to a handle, used for carrying shawls, rugs, &c.; SHAWL'-WAIST'COAT, a vest or waistcoat with a large staring pattern like that of a shawl. [Pers. _sh[=a]l_.]

SHAWM, SHALM, _shawm_, _n._ a musical instrument of the oboe class, having a double reed enclosed in a globular mouthpiece. [O. Fr. _chalemie_--L.

_calamus_, a reed-pipe.]

SHAY, _n._ See CHAY.

SHAYAK, sha'yak, _n._ a coarse Tripoli woollen cloth.

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