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VILE, v[=i]l, _adj._ worthless: mean: morally impure: wicked: (_B._) poor, cheap.--_adv._ VILE'LY.--_n._ VILE'NESS.--_ns._ VILIFIC[=A]'TION, act of vilifying: defamatory speech: abuse; VIL'IF[=I]ER.--_v.t._ VIL'IFY, to make vile: to attempt to degrade by slander: to defame:--_pa.t._ and _pa.p._ vil'if[=i]ed.--_v.t._ VIL'IPEND, to slander, vilify.--_v.i._ to use vilification. [Fr.,--L. _vilis_.]

VILLA, vil'a, _n._ a country residence or seat: a suburban mansion--also VILL.--_ns._ VILL'ADOM, villas collectively, people living in them; VILL'[=A]GE, any small assemblage of houses, less than a town: (_orig._) a number of houses inhabited by persons near the residence of a proprietor or farmer: (_law_) a manor, a parish or the outlying part of a parish; VILL'AGE-COMM[=U]'NITY, a clan of settlers who built their huts on a tract of land and laid out common fields which they cultivated in common as one family, the land being divided out every few years into family lots, but the whole continuing to be cultivated by the community subject to the established customs as interpreted in the village-council by the sense of the village elders--the so-called _Mark system_ of Sir Henry Maine; VILL'[=A]GER, an inhabitant of a village; VILL'[=A]GERY (_Shak._), a district of villages; VILL'AKIN, VILLANETTE', a little villa.--_adj._ VILLAT'IC (_Milt._), pertaining to a farm. [O. Fr. _ville_ (Fr.

_ville_)--L. _villa_, a country-house, prob. reduced from _vicla_, dim. of _vicus_, a village; Gr. _oikos_, a house.]

VILLAIN, vil'[=a]n, or vil'in, _n._ a wicked wretch: a man extremely degraded: in feudal times, a member of the lowest class of unfree persons.--_ns._ VILL'AIN[=A]GE, VILL'AN[=A]GE, VILL'EIN[=A]GE, VILL'EN[=A]GE, in feudal times, the tenure of land by villein, i.e. base or menial services.--_adj._ VILL'AINOUS, like or suited to a villain: depraved: proceeding from extreme depravity: very bad, mean, vile.--_adv._ VILL'AINOUSLY.--_ns._ VILL'AINOUSNESS; VILL'AINY, the act of a villain: extreme depravity: an atrocious crime. [Orig. 'a serf attached to a farm,'

O. Fr. _villain_--Low L. _villanus_--L. _villa_.]

VILLANELLE, vil-a-nel', _n._ a poem, of a form borrowed from the French, consisting of nineteen lines on two rhymes, arranged in six stanzas, the first five having three, the last four lines. [It. _villanella_--_villano_, rustic.]

VILLARSIA, vi-l[=a]r'si-a, _n._ a genus of widely distributed aquatic or marsh plants, of order _Gentianaceae_--named from the French botanist Dominique _Villars_ (1745-1814).

VILLEGIATURA, vi-l[.e]j-a-t[=oo]'ra, _n._ country retirement.

[It.,--_villegiare_, to stay at a country-seat--_villa_, a country-seat.]

VILLEIN, another spelling of _villain_ (only in its original meaning).

VILLI, vil'[=i], (_anat._) fine small fibres covering certain membranes: (_bot._) fine soft hairs on fruits, flowers, and other parts of plants:--_sing._ VILL'US.--_adjs._ VILL'IFORM, having the form or appearance of villi; VILL'[=O]SE, VILL'OUS, covered with long, soft hairs: formed of minute villi, resembling the pile of velvet.--_n._ VILLOS'ITY, state of being villous. [L., pl. of _villus_, hair, wool.]

VIM, vim, _n._ (_slang_) energy, force. [Accus. of L. _vis_, strength.]

VIMEN, v[=i]'men, _n._ a long flexible shoot of a plant.--_adjs._ VIM'INAL; VIMIN'EOUS. [L.]

VINA, v[=e]'na, _n._ an East Indian musical instrument having five or seven steel strings stretched on a long fretted finger-board over two gourds.

VINAIGRETTE, vin-[=a]-gret', _n._ a small box of silver or gold for holding aromatic vinegar, used as a smelling-bottle. [Fr.,--_vinaigre_.]

VINASSE, vi-nas', _n._ a residual product containing potash salts, obtained from the wine-press, &c. [Fr.]

VINAYA PITAKA, vin'a-ya pit'a-ka, _n._ one of the three parts of the Tripitaka (q.v.).

VINCA, ving'ka, _n._ a genus of woody herbaceous plants of the dogbane family, the periwinkles.

VINCENTIAN, vin-sen'shi-an, _adj._ pertaining to St _Vincent_ de Paul (1576-1660) or to the charitable associations founded by him.

VINCIBLE, vin'si-bl, _adj._ that may be conquered.--_ns._ VINCIBIL'ITY, VIN'CIBLENESS. [L. _vincibilis_--_vinc[)e]re_, to conquer.]

VINCULUM, ving'k[=u]-lum, _n._ a band: a bond: (_math._) a horizontal line placed over several quantities to show that they are to be treated as one: (_anat._) a ligamentous band.--_v.t._ VIN'CUL[=A]TE, to bind.

[L.,--_vinc[=i]re_, to bind.]

VINDEMIAL, vin-d[=e]'mi-al, _adj._ pertaining to the vintage.--_v.i._ VIND[=E]'MIATE, to gather the vintage.

VINDICATE, vin'di-k[=a]t, _v.t._ to lay claim to: to defend: to maintain by force.--_n._ VINDICABIL'ITY.--_adj._ VIN'DICABLE, that may be vindicated or defended.--_n._ VINDIC[=A]'TION, act of vindicating: defence: justification: support.--_adj._ VIN'DIC[=A]TIVE, vindicating: tending to vindicate: (_Shak._) revengeful, vindictive.--_ns._ VIN'DIC[=A]TIVENESS, vindictiveness; VIN'DIC[=A]TOR, one who vindicates:--_fem._ VIN'DIC[=A]TRESS.--_adjs._ VIN'DIC[=A]TORY, tending to vindicate: inflicting punishment; VINDIC'TIVE, revengeful.--_adv._ VINDIC'TIVELY.--_n._ VINDIC'TIVENESS. [L. _vindic[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_--_vis_, _vim_, power, _dic[=a]re_, to proclaim, _dic[)e]re_, to say; others trace to the root of _venia_, favour.]

VINE, v[=i]n, _n._ the plant from which wine is made: the woody climbing plant that produces grapes: (_hort._) a climbing or trailing plant, or its stem.--_adj._ V[=I]N[=A]'CEOUS, belonging to wine or grapes: wine-coloured.--_ns._ V[=I]'N[=A]GE, the addition of spirit to wine to enable it to stand transportation; V[=I]N[=A]'LIA, a wine festival in honour of Jupiter, celebrated on 23d April.--_adjs._ V[=I]N[=A]'RIAN, relating to wine; VINE'-CLAD, covered with vines.--_ns._ VINE'-CUL'TURE (same as VITICULTURE); VINE'-CURCU'LIO, a small reddish curculio producing galls on the stems of grape-vines; VINE'-DISEASE', a disease affecting the vine; VINE'-DRESS'ER, one who dresses or trims and cultivates vines; VINE'-FRET'TER, a small insect that infests vines; VINE'-GALL, a gall made on the stem of the vine by a vine-curculio; VINE'-LAND, land on which vines are grown; V[=I]'NERY, a hot-house for rearing vines; VINEYARD (vin'yard), a plantation of grape vines.--_adj._ V[=I]'NIC, pertaining to, or derived from, wine.--_ns._ VIN'ICULTURE, the cultivation of the vine; VIN'ICULT[=U]RIST; VIN'-ORDINAIRE', common wine: cheap wine mixed with water, commonly drunk in France and the south of Europe.--_adjs._ V[=I]'NOSE, V[=I]'NOUS, pertaining to wine: wine-coloured: caused by wine.--_n._ VINOS'ITY, state or quality of being vinous.--_adj._ V[=I]'NY, pertaining to or producing vines.--DWELL UNDER ONE'S VINE AND FIG-TREE, to live at peace on one's own land. [O. Fr.,--L. _vinea_, a vine--_vinum_; Gr.

_oinos_, wine.]

VINEGAR, vin'e-gar, _n._ the form of acetic acid generally preferred for culinary purposes--made by the fermentation of vegetable substances, from malt, or from inferior wines: sourness of temper.--_v.t._ to apply vinegar to.--_adj._ VIN'AIGROUS, sour like vinegar, ill-tempered.--_ns._ VIN'EGAR-CRU'ET, a glass bottle for holding vinegar; VINEGARETTE', a vinaigrette; VIN'EGAR-PLANT, the microscopic fungus which produces acetous fermentation--found in two forms known as _mother of vinegar_ and _flowers of vinegar_.--_adjs._ VIN'EGARY, VIN'EGARISH, sour. [Fr. _vinaigre_--_vin_ (L. _vinum_, wine), _aigre_--L. _acer_, sour.]

VINEWED, vin'[=u]d, _adj._ (_Shak._) mouldy: musty.

VINGT-ET-UN, vangt-[=a]-ung', _n._ a game of cards, the aim in which is to get as near as possible to the value of twenty-one (hence the name) without exceeding it. The game is played with the whole pack, the ordinary cards being reckoned according to the number of pips on them, while the court cards are ten, and the ace is one or eleven, as the holder may elect.

VINT, vint, _v.t._ to make or prepare, as wine. [Formed from _vintage_.]

VINTAGE, vin't[=a]j, _n._ the gathering of grapes: the yearly produce of grapes: the time of grape-gathering: wine.--_n._ VIN'T[=A]GER. [Fr.

_vendange_--L. _vindemia_--_vinum_, wine, grapes, _dem[)e]re_, to remove--_de_, out of or away, _em[)e]re_, to take.]

VINTNER, vint'n[.e]r, _n._ a wine-seller.--_ns._ VINT'NERY, the trade of a vintner; VINT'RY, a store for wine. [O. Fr. _vinetier_, through Low L.--L.

_vinetum_, a vineyard--_vinum_, wine.]

VIOL, v[=i]'ol, _n._ a musical instrument which was the immediate precursor of the violin, having from three to six strings, and played by means of a bow.--_ns._ VIOLA (v[=e]-[=o]'la, or v[=i]'[=o]-la), a larger description of violin having four strings tuned in fifths, to which the part between the second violin and bass is generally assigned--also called _Alto viola_ or _Tenor violin_; V[=I]'OL-BLOCK (_naut._), a large single block big enough to reeve a small hawser; V[=I]'OLIST, a player on the viol or the viola.--BASS VIOL, a large medieval viol: the modern violoncello. [O. Fr.

_viole_--Low L. _vidula_, from L. _vitul[=a]ri_, to skip like a calf, to make merry--L. _vitulus_, a calf.]

VIOLATE, v[=i]'[=o]-l[=a]t, _v.t._ to injure: to abuse: to ravish: to profane: to break forcibly: to transgress.--_adj._ V[=I]'OLABLE, that may be violated, injured, or broken.--_adv._ VI'OLABLY.--_ns._ V[=I]OL[=A]'TION, the act of violating or injuring: infringement: non-observance: profanation: rape; V[=I]'OL[=A]TOR. [L. _viol[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_--_vis_, strength; cf. Gr. _is_, strength, force.]

VIOLENT, v[=i]'[=o]-lent, _adj._ acting with physical force or strength: moved by strong feeling: passionate: vehement: outrageous: produced by force: intense: compulsory: unnatural.--_v.i._ (_Shak._) to be violent.--_n._ V[=I]'OLENCE, the state or quality of being violent: force, physical or moral: unjust force: outrage: profanation: injury: rape.--_adv._ V[=I]'OLENTLY.--DO VIOLENCE ON (_Shak._), to attack, murder; DO VIOLENCE TO, to outrage, injure. [Fr.,--L. _violentus_--_vis_, force.]

VIOLET, v[=i]'[=o]-let, _n._ any plant of genus _Viola_, of many species, with a flower generally of some shade of blue, but also white and yellow, and most often fragrant: the colour of the violet, a bluish or light purple.--_adj._ of the colour of the violet, bluish or light purple.--_adjs._ VIOL[=A]'CEOUS, of a violet colour, purple; VIOLES'CENT, tending to a violet colour. [Fr. _violette_, dim. of O. Fr. _viole_--L.

_viola_; cf. Gr. _ion_.]

VIOLIN, v[=i]-[=o]-lin', _n._ a musical instrument of four strings placed with a bow: a fiddle: a player on the violin.--_ns._ VIOLIN'-BOW, a bow for sounding the violin; V[=I]'OLINIST, a player on the violin. [It.


VIOLONCELLO, v[=e]-[=o]-lon-chel'[=o], or v[=i]-[=o]-lon-sel'[=o], _n._ a large four-stringed musical instrument of the violin class, the quality of its tone even more sympathetic than that of the violin, held between the knees in playing--it superseded the _Viol da gamba_ in the early part of the 18th century:--_pl._ VIOLONCELL'OS.--_n._ VIOLONCELL'IST, a player on the violoncello. [It., dim. of _violone_, a bass violin; see next word.]

VIOLONE, v[=e]-[=o]-l[=o]'n[=a], _n._ the largest kind of bass viol, having strings tuned an octave lower than the violoncello. [It.,--_viola_.]

VIPER, v[=i]'p[.e]r, _n._ a genus of venomous snakes, representative of family _Viperidae_--the Common Viper or adder being the only poisonous snake indigenous to Britain: loosely, any venomous serpent except a rattlesnake, any cobriform serpent: any base, malicious person.--_adjs._ V[=I]'PERINE, related to or resembling the viper; V[=I]'PERISH, like a viper; V[=I]'PEROUS, having the qualities of a viper: venomous: malignant.--_adv._ V[=I]'PEROUSLY.--VIPER'S BUGLOSS, the blue weed or blue thistle; VIPER'S GRASS, a European perennial of the aster family. [Fr.,--L. _vipera_ (contr.

of _vivipara_)--_vivus_, living, _par[)e]re_, to bring forth.]

VIRAGO, vi-r[=a]'go, or v[=i]-r[=a]'g[=o], _n._ a masculine woman: a bold, impudent woman: a termagant.--_adjs._ VIRAGIN'IAN, VIRAGINOUS (viraj'-).--_n._ VIRAGIN'ITY. [L.,--_vir_, a man.]

VIRE, v[=e]r, _n._ a crossbow-bolt: (_her._) an annulet. [Fr.]

VIRELAY, vir'e-l[=a], _n._ an ancient kind of French poem in short lines, and consisting of only two rhymes, their order as well as the length of the verses being arbitrary. [Fr. _virelai_--_virer_, to turn, _lai_, a song.]

VIREO, vir'[=e]-[=o], _n._ a genus of American singing birds, the greenlets. [L.]

VIRESCENT, v[=i]-res'ent, _adj._ growing green, greenish.--_n._ VIRES'CENCE, greenness: (_bot._) the turning green of organs properly bright-coloured. [L., pr.p. of _vir[=e]re_, to be green.]

VIRGATE, v[.e]r'g[=a]t, _adj._ like a wand or rod: slender, straight.--_n._ an old English measure of surface. [L. _virga_, a rod.]

VIRGILIAN, v[.e]r-jil'i-an, _adj._ relating to or resembling the style of _Virgil_, the Roman poet (70-21 B.C.).

VIRGIN, v[.e]r'jin, _n._ a maiden: a woman who has had no sexual intercourse with man: one devoted to virginity: a madonna, a figure of the Virgin: a person of either sex who has not known sexual intercourse: any female animal that has not copulated: a parthenogenetic insect: (_astron._) Virgo, one of the signs of the zodiac.--_adj._ becoming a maiden: maidenly: pure: chaste: undefiled: fresh, new: parthenogenetic.--_v.i._ (_Shak._) to continue chaste.--_adj._ VIR'GINAL, maidenly: (_zool._) parthenogenetic.--_n._ VIRGIN[=A]'LE, a book of prayers and hymns to the Virgin Mary.--_adj._ VIR'GIN-BORN, born of the VIRGIN, of Jesus Christ: (_zool._) born by internal gemmation without impregnation.--_ns._ VIRGIN'ITY, VIR'GINHOOD, the state of a virgin; VIR'GIN-KNOT (_Shak._), maidenly chastity, in reference to the unloosing of the girdles of Greek and Roman maidens on marriage.--_adj._ VIR'GINLY, pure.--_adv._ chastely.--_ns._ VIR'GIN'S-BOW'ER, a species of clematis, hedge-vine; VIR'GIN-WOR'SHIP, adoration of the Virgin Mary; VIR'GO, the Virgin, in the zodiac.--VIRGIN BIRTH, GENERATION, parthenogenesis; VIRGIN CLAY, in pottery, &c., clay which has never been fired.--THE VIRGIN, THE BLESSED VIRGIN, the Virgin Mary, the mother of Christ. [O, Fr.,--L. _virgo_, _virginis_.]

VIRGINAL, v[.e]r'jin-al, _n._ an old keyed musical instrument, oblong in shape, one of the three forms of the harpsichord.--_v.i._ (_Shak._) to finger, as on a virginal.

VIRGINIA, v[.e]r-jin'i-a, _n._ a well-known brand of tobacco, grown and manufactured in _Virginia_.--_n._ VIRGIN'IA-CREEP'ER, an American climbing vine, common in the south of England, remarkable for the bright-red colour it assumes in autumn.--_adj._ VIRGIN'IAN, pertaining to Virginia.--_n._ a native of Virginia.

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