VIAL, v[=i]'al, _n._ same as PHIAL, _v.t._ to keep in a vial.--_n._ V[=I]'ALFUL.--POUR OUT VIALS OF WRATH, to inflict judgment (Rev. xvi. 1): to storm, rage.
VIAND, v[=i]'and, _n._ food, articles for food--usually in _pl._ [Fr.
_viande_--Low L. _vivanda_ (for _vivenda_), food necessary for life--L.
_viv[)e]re_, to live.]
VIATICUM, v[=i]-at'ik-um, _n._ (_orig._) provisions for the way: (_R.C.
Church_) the eucharist given to persons in danger of death: a portable altar.--_n._ VI[=A]'TOR, a traveller, wayfarer: a summoner, apparitor.
[L.,--_via_, a way.]
VIBEX, v[=i]'beks, _n._ a purple spot under the skin in certain fevers:--_pl._ VIB[=I]'CES. [L.]
VIBRACULUM, v[=i]-brak'[=u]-lum, _n._ one of the long whip-like appendages of the cells of some Polyzoa:--_pl._ VIBRAC'[=U]LA.--Also VIBRAC[=U]L[=A]'RIUM.
VIBRATE, v[=i]'br[=a]t, _v.i._ to shake: to tremble: to move backwards and forwards: to swing: to pass from one state to another.--_v.t._ to cause to shake: to move to and fro: to measure by moving to and fro: to affect with vibratory motion.--_adjs._ V[=I]'BRANT, vibrating: sonorous; V[=I]'BRATILE, having a vibratory motion: (_zool._) adapted to or used in vibratory motion.--_ns._ V[=I]BRATIL'ITY; V[=I]BR[=A]'TION, a vibrating: state of being vibrated: tremulousness, quivering motion.--_adj._ V[=I]BR[=A]'TIONAL.--_n._ V[=I]BR[=A]'TIUNCLE, a small vibration.--_adjs._ V[=I]'BR[=A]TIVE, V[=I]'BR[=A]TORY, vibrating: consisting in vibrations: causing vibrations.--_ns._ V[=I]'BR[=A]TOR (_elect._), a vibrating reed used to open and close the electric current: (_print._) a vibrating reed used for distributing the ink; VI'BROSCOPE, an instrument for registering vibrations. [L. _vibr[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_, to tremble.]
VIBRATO, v[=e]-bra't[=o], _n._ a pulsating effect in vocal music, caused by rapid variation of emphasis on the same tone. [It.]
VIBRIO, vib'r[=i]-[=o], _n._ a name given with much laxity to various kinds of more or less screw-shaped Bacteria--also to small nematoid worms, such as cause ear-cockles in wheat.--_n._ VIB'RION, a motile bacterium. [L.
VIBRISSA, v[=i]-bris'a, _n._ a whisker, as of a cat: a rictal bristle in birds: bristle, hair, as in the nostril:--_pl._ VIBRISS'ae (-[=e]). [L., 'a hair in the nostril.']
VIBROGEN, vib'r[=o]-jen, _n._ (_bot._) active cellular tissue arranged in layers in the cortex of certain tendrils, causing circumnutation.
VIBURNUM, v[=i]-bur'num, _n._ a genus of plants of the order _Caprifoliaceae_, the species being shrubs with simple leaves, natives chiefly of the northern parts of the world.--_Viburnum opulus_ is the Guelder Rose or Snowball Tree; _Viburnum tinus_, the Laurustinus. [L., 'the wayfaring tree.']
VICAR, vik'ar, _n._ one who holds authority as the delegate or substitute of another: a parson of a parish where the tithes are impropriate to a layman or to a chapter, he receiving only the smaller tithes or a salary: (_R.C. Church_) a bishop's assistant who exercises jurisdiction in his name.--_ns._ VIC'AR[=A]GE, the benefice or residence of a vicar; VIC'AR-APOSTOL'IC (formerly one to whom the pope delegated some remote portion of his jurisdiction), now usually a titular bishop appointed to a country where either no sees have been formed or the episcopal succession has been broken; VIC'AR-CH[=O]'RAL, an assistant, cleric or lay, at an English cathedral, esp. in connection with the music; VIC'AR-FOR[=A]NE', an ecclesiastic to whom a bishop gives a limited jurisdiction in a town or district of his diocese--in effect, a rural dean; VIC'AR-GEN'ERAL, an official performing the work of an archdeacon under the bishop: in the English Church, an officer assisting the bishop, the chancellor of the diocese.--_adjs._ V[=I]C[=A]'RIAL, pertaining to a vicar: substituted; V[=I]C[=A]'RI[=A]TE, having vicarious or delegated power.--_n._ (also VIC'AR[=A]TE) vicarship, delegated power.--_adj._ V[=I]C[=A]'RIOUS, filling the place of another: performed or suffered in place of or for the sake of another.--_adv._ V[=I]C[=A]'RIOUSLY.--_ns._ V[=I]C[=A]'RIOUSNESS; V[=I]C[=A]'RIUS, a vicar; VIC'ARSHIP, the office of a vicar; VIC'ARY, a vicarage.--VICARIOUS SACRIFICE (_theol._), the suffering of Christ accepted by God in lieu of the punishment to which guilty man is liable.--VICAR-OF-BRAY, one who turns his coat without difficulty to suit the times--from Simon Aleyn, who kept the vicarage of _Bray_ from 1540 to 1588, during the reigns of Henry VIII., Edward VI., Mary, and Elizabeth; VICAR OF CHRIST, a title assumed by the pope, who claims to be the representative of Christ on earth as the head of His Church. [L.
_vicarius_, supplying the place of another--_vicis_, change, alternation.]
VICE, VISE, v[=i]s, _n._ an iron or wooden screw-press, fixed to the edge of a workboard, for holding anything tightly while being filed, &c.: (_Shak._) a grip, grasp.--_v.t._ to screw. [Fr. _vis_ (It. _vite_, screw)--L. _vitis_, tendril of a vine, anything spiral.]
VICE, v[=i]s, _n._ a blemish or fault: immoral conduct: depravity of manners: a bad trick or habit in a horse: mischievousness: the stock buffoon in the old English Moralities or moral plays.--_n._ VICIOS'ITY.--_adj._ VICIOUS (vish'us).--_adv._ VIC'IOUSLY.--_n._ VIC'IOUSNESS.--VICIOUS CIRCLE, syllogism, circular or erroneous reasoning; VICIOUS INTROMISSION (see INTROMIT). [Fr.,--L. _vitium_, a blemish.]
VICE, v[=i]s, _prep._ in the place of: also a prefix denoting in the compound word one who acts in place of or is second in rank to another.--_n._ a vice-chairman, &c.: one who acts in place of a superior.--_ns._ VICE'-AD'MIRAL, one acting in the place of, or second in command to, an admiral; VICE'-AD'MIRALTY, the office of a vice-admiral--(VICE'-AD'MIRALTY COURTS, tribunals in the British colonies, having jurisdiction over maritime causes); VICE'-CHAIR'MAN, an alternate chairman; VICE'-CHAIR'MANSHIP; VICE'-CHAN'CELLOR, one acting for a chancellor: a lower judge of Chancery; (_R.C. Church_) the cardinal whose duty it is to draft and despatch papal bulls and briefs; VICE'-CHAN'CELLORSHIP; VICE'-CON'SUL, one who acts in a consul's place: a consul in a less important district; VICE'-CON'SULSHIP; VICE-DEAN', a canon chosen to represent an absent dean; VICEG[=E]'RENCY, the office of a vicegerent, deputed power.--_adj._ VICEG[=E]'RENT, acting in place of another, having delegated authority.--_n._ one acting in place of a superior.--_ns._ VICE'-GOV'ERNOR, deputy governor; VICE'-KING, one who acts in place of a king; VICE'-PRES'IDENCY, -PRES'IDENTSHIP; VICE'-PRES'IDENT, an officer next in rank below the president; VICE'-PRIN'CIPAL, assistant principal.--_adj._ VICER[=E]'GAL.--_ns._ VICER[=E]'GENCY; VICE'ROY, VICER[=E]'GENT, one representing the royal authority in a dependency, as in India; VICEROY'ALTY, VICE'ROYSHIP. [L., 'in the place of,' abl. of _vicis_ (gen.), change.]
VICENARY, vis'e-n[=a]-ri, _adj._ of or belonging to the number twenty: twentieth.--_adj._ V[=I]CEN'NIAL, continuing or comprising twenty years: occurring once every twenty years. [L. _vicenarius_--_viceni_--_viginti_, twenty.]
VICINAGE, vis'i-n[=a]j, _n._ neighbourhood: the places near: neighbourliness.--_adj._ VIC'INAL, neighbouring.--_n._ VICIN'ITY, neighbourhood: nearness: that which is near. [O. Fr.
_veisinage_--_veisin_--L. _vicinus_, neighbouring--_vicus_, a row of houses; cf. Gr. _oikos_, a dwelling.]
VICISSITUDE, vi-sis'i-t[=u]d, _n._ change from one thing to another: change: revolution.--_adjs._ VICISSIT[=U]'DINARY, VICISSIT[=U]'DINOUS, changeful, changeable. [L. _vicissitudo_--_vicis_, change.]
VICTIM, vik'tim, _n._ a living being offered as a sacrifice: some thing or person destroyed in the pursuit of an object: a person suffering injury: a dupe.--_n._ VICTIM[=I]S[=A]'TION.--_v.t._ VIC'TIM[=I]SE, to make a victim of: to cheat.--_n._ VIC'TIM[=I]SER, a swindler. [Fr.,--L. _victima_, a beast for sacrifice, adorned with the fillet--_vinc[=i]re_, to bind.]
VICTOR, vik'tor, _n._ one who conquers on any particular occasion: one who defeats in battle: a winner:--_fem._ VIC'TRESS, VIC'TORESS, VIC'TRIX.--_adjs._ VIC'TOR, VICT[=O]'RIOUS, relating to victory: superior in contest: having overcome an enemy: producing or indicating victory.--_adv._ VICT[=O]'RIOUSLY.--_ns._ VICT[=O]'RIOUSNESS; VIC'TORY, a conquering: success in any contest: a battle gained: a female deity of the Greeks personifying success in battle.--CADMEAN VICTORY, one as fatal to the victors as to the vanquished--from the armed men who grew up from the dragon's teeth sown by _Cadmus_, and slew one another all but five, who became the ancestors of the Thebans; MORAL VICTORY (see MORAL); PYRRHIC VICTORY (see PYRRHIC). [L.,--_vinc[)e]re_, _victum_, to conquer.]
VICTORIA, vik-t[=o]'ri-a, _n._ a genus of gigantic aquatic plants of the water-lily family, native to South America, its one species, _Victoria regia_, named after Queen _Victoria_: a low, light, four-wheeled carriage, seating two, having a calash top.--_adj._ VICT[=O]'RIAN, relating to the reign of Queen Victoria, which began in 1837: relating to the colony of Victoria in Australia.--VICTORIA CROSS, a decoration, consisting of a bronze Maltese cross, founded by Queen Victoria in 1856, and awarded for conspicuous bravery on the field.
VICTORINE, vik-t[=o]-r[=e]n', _n._ a kind of fur tippet worn by ladies: a variety of peach.
VICTUAL, v[=i]t'l, _n._ provision of food, that which is necessary for living, food for human beings (gener. in _pl._).--_v.t._ to supply with victuals or food: to store with provisions:--_pr.p._ VICTUALLING (vit'l-ing); _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ VICTUALLED (vit'ld).--_ns._ VICT'UALLAGE, provisions; VICTUALLER (v[=i]t'l-[.e]r), one who supplies provisions.--_adj._ VICT'UALLESS.--_ns._ VICT'UALLING-BILL, a customs document warranting the captain of an outward-bound vessel to ship bonded stores for the voyage; VICT'UALLING-OFF'ICE, -SHIP, an office supplying, a ship conveying, provisions to the navy; VICT'UALLING-YARD, a public establishment for the collection and supply of provisions to the navy.--LICENSED VICTUALLER, an innkeeper who is allowed to sell spirits, wines, &c. [O. Fr. _vitaille_--Low L. _victualia_--L. _victualis_, relating to living--_viv[)e]re_, _victum_, to live.]
VICUGNA, VICUnA, vi-k[=oo]'nya, or vi-k[=u]'na, _n._ a species or variety of the South American genus _Auchenia_ (allied to the camels), which also includes the llama, alpaca, and the guanaco.--_n._ VICU'NA-CLOTH, a trade name for a mixture of wool and cotton. [Peruv.]
VIDAME, v[=e]-dam', _n._ in French feudal jurisprudence, the deputy of a bishop in temporal affairs: a minor noble. [Low L. _vice_, in place of, _dominus_, lord.]
VIDE, v[=i]'d[=e], see, imper. of L. _vid[=e]re_, to see.--_Vide antea_=see before; _Vide infra_=see below; _Vide post_=see after; _Vide supra_=see above; _Quod vide_, or _q.v._=which see.
VIDELICET, vi-del'i-set, _adv._ to wit, that is, namely--generally VIZ., and rendered 'namely.' [L., for _vid[=e]re licet_, it is permitted to see.]
VIDENDUM, v[=i]-den'dum, _n._ a thing to be seen:--_pl._ V[=I]DEN'DA. [L., ger. of _vid[=e]re_, to see.]
VIDETTE. Same as VEDETTE.
VIDIMUS, vid'i-mus, _n._ an inspection, as of accounts, &c. [L., 'we have seen'--_vid[=e]re_, to see.]
VIDUOUS, vid'[=u]-us, _adj._ widowed.--_ns._ VID'[=U]AGE, widowhood; VID'U[=A]TE, the position or order of widows; VIDU[=A]'TION, the state of being widowed; VID[=U]'ITY, widowhood. [L. _vidua_, a widow.]
VIE, v[=i], _v.i._ to strive for superiority.--_v.t._ to contend about: (_Shak._) to offer as a stake or wager:--_pr.p._ vy'ing; _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ v[=i]ed.--_n._ (_obs._) a contest. [M. E. _vien_, by aphaeresis from _envien_, to vie, through Fr. from L. _invit[=a]re_, to invite.]
VIELLE, vi-el', _n._ an old form of _viol_. [Fr.]
VIENNESE, vi-e-n[=e]s', or -n[=e]z', _adj._ pertaining to _Vienna_.--_n._ an inhabitant, or the inhabitants, of VIENNA.
VIEW, v[=u], _n._ a seeing: sight: reach of the sight: whole extent seen: that which is seen: inspection, as by a jury, of the place of a crime, of the corpse, &c.: direction in which a thing is seen: the picture of a scene: a sketch: mental survey: mode of looking at or receiving: opinion: intention: (_Shak._) show, appearance.--_v.t._ to see: to look at attentively: to examine intellectually.--_adj._ VIEW'ABLE, that can be viewed.--_ns._ VIEW'ER; VIEW'-HALLOO', the huntsman's cry when the fox breaks cover; VIEW'INESS, character of being viewy or visionary.--_adj._ VIEW'LESS, not to be viewed: invisible.--_adv._ VIEW'LESSLY.--_adj._ VIEW'LY (_prov._), pleasing to look at.--_n._ VIEW'-POINT, point of view.--_adjs._ VIEW'SOME (_prov._), viewly; VIEW'Y (_coll._), holding opinions vague or purely speculative.--DISSOLVING VIEWS, pictures thrown on a screen and made to pass one into the other; FIELD OF VIEW, the compass of visual power; IN VIEW OF, having regard to; ON VIEW, open to public inspection; TO THE VIEW (_Shak._), in public. [Fr. _vue_--_vu_, pa.p. of _voir_--L. _vid[=e]re_, to see.]
VIFDA, vif'da, _n._ in Shetland, meat hung and dried without salt.--Also VIV'DA.
VIGESIMAL, v[=i]-jes'i-mal, _adj._ twentieth.--_n._ VIGESIM[=A]'TION, the putting to death of every twentieth man.--_adj._ VIGES'IMO-QUAR'TO, formed of sheets folded so as to make twenty-four leaves. [L.
VIGIA, vi-j[=e]'a, _n._ a hydrographical warning on a chart, of a rock, &c.
VIGIL, vij'il, _n._ watching: keeping awake for religious exercises: the eve before a feast or fast day, originally kept by watching through the night.--_n._ VIG'ILANCE, wakefulness: watchfulness: circumspection: (_obs._) a guard, watch.--_adj._ VIG'ILANT, watchful: on the lookout for danger: circumspect.--_n._ VIGILAN'TE, a member of a vigilance committee.--_adv._ VIG'ILANTLY.--VIGILANCE COMMITTEE (_U.S._), an unauthorised body which, in the absence or inefficiency of regular courts, exercises legal powers of arrest, punishment, &c. in cases of gross crime: also any self-appointed association for the compulsory improvement of local morals. [Fr.,--L. _vigilia_--_vigil_, awake, watchful--_vig[=e]re_, to be lively.]
VIGNERON, v[=e]n-ye-rong, _n._ a vine-grower. [Fr.]
VIGNETTE, vin-yet', _n._ any small ornamental engraving, design, or photograph not enclosed by a definite border: (_orig._) an ornamental flourish of vine leaves and tendrils on manuscripts and books.--_v.t._ to treat or produce in such a style.--_ns._ VIGNETT'ER; VIGNETT'ING-GLASS, -P[=A]'PER, a glass frame, mask, used in printing vignette pictures; VIGNETT'IST, one who makes vignettes. [Fr.,--_vigne_--L. _vinea_, a vine.]
VIGOUR, vig'ur, _n._ active strength: physical force: vital strength in animals or plants: strength of mind: energy.--_adj._ VIG'OROUS, strong either in mind or body.--_adv._ VIG'OROUSLY.--_n._ VIG'OROUSNESS. [Fr.,--L.
_vigor_--_vig[=e]re_, to be strong.]
VIKING, v[=i]'king, _n._ one of the piratical Northmen who in the 8th, 9th, and 10th centuries ravaged the coasts of western Europe.--_n._ V[=I]'KINGISM, characteristics, acts, &c. of VIKINGS. [Ice. _vikingr_, (lit.) 'a creeker'--_vikr_ (Swed. _vik_, Eng. _wick_), a bay, and _-ingr_=Eng. _-ing_.]
VILAYET, vil-a-yet', _n._ the name given to the great provinces into which the Ottoman empire is divided.
VILD, v[=i]ld, _adj._ (_Spens._) vile, wicked.--_adv._ VILD'LY.