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VIRGULE, v[.e]r'g[=u]l, _n._ a little rod: a mark of punctuation, a comma.--_adj._ VIR'G[=U]L[=A]TE, rod-shaped.--_n._ VIRGUL'TUM, a twig. [L.

_virgula_--_virga_, a twig.]

VIRID, vir'id, _adj._ green.--_n._ VIRID'IAN, a deep and pure bluish-green pigment, being a hydrated sesquioxide of chromium.--_adj._ VIRIDIGENOUS (-ij'-), producing a green tint.--_ns._ VIRID'ITY, VIR'IDNESS, verdure: greenness. [L., _viridis_, green--_vir[=e]re_, to be green.]

VIRIDESCENT, vir-i-des'ent, _adj._ slightly green: greenish.--_n._ VIRIDES'CENCE. [L. _viridis_, green.]

VIRILE, vir'il, or v[=i]'ril, _adj._ of or belonging to a man or to the male sex: masculine: manly.--_n._ VIRIL'ITY, the state or quality of being a man: the power of a full-grown male: the power of procreation: manhood.

[L. _virilis_--_vir_, a man; cog. with Gr. _h[=e]r[=o]s_, a hero, Old High Ger. _wer_, a man.]

VIROLE, vi-r[=o]l', _n._ a ferrule: (_her._) a hoop or ring. [O. Fr.; a doublet of _ferrule_.]

VIRTU, v[.e]r't[=oo], or -t[=oo]', _n._ a love of the fine arts: taste for curiosities: objects of art or antiquity.--_adjs._ VIRTUOSE', VIRTU[=O]'SIC, exhibiting the qualities and skill of a virtuoso.--_ns._ VIRTUOS'ITY, lovers of the elegant arts as a class: exceptional skill in some of the fine arts; VIRTU[=O]'S[=O], one skilled in the fine arts, in antiquities, curiosities, and the like: a skilful musician, painter, &c.

(_pl._ VIRTU[=O]'S[=O]S, VIRTU[=O]'SI):--_fem._ VIRTU[=O]'SA (_pl._ VIRTU[=O]'SE, -se); VIRTU[=O]'S[=O]SHIP. [It.; a doublet of _virtue_.]

VIRTUE, v[.e]r'tu, _n._ excellence: worth: moral excellence: the practice of duty: a moral excellence: sexual purity, esp. female chastity: purity: (_B._) strength: force: inherent power, efficacy: one of the orders of the celestial hierarchy.--_adj._ VIR'TUAL, having virtue or efficacy: having the efficacy without the material part: in effect though not in fact: (_mech._) possible and infinitesimal.--_adv._ VIR'TUALLY.--_adjs._ VIR'TUELESS, wanting virtue: without efficacy; VIR'TUE-PROOF (_Milt._), impregnable in virtue; VIR'TUOUS, having virtue or moral goodness: blameless: righteous: practising duty: being according to the moral law: chaste (of a woman).--_adv._ VIR'TUOUSLY.--_n._ VIR'TUOUSNESS.--BY, IN, VIRTUE OF, through the power, force, or efficacy of; MAKE A VIRTUE OF NECESSITY, to do as if from inclination or sense of duty something one must needs do; SEVEN PRINCIPAL VIRTUES, faith, hope, charity, justice, prudence, temperance, and fortitude--the first three the _theological_, the last four the _moral_ virtues; THE CARDINAL VIRTUES (see CARDINAL). [O. Fr.,--L.

_virtus_, bravery, moral excellence--_vir_, a man; cf. Gr. _h[=e]r[=o]s_, Sans. _vira_, a hero.]

VIRULENT, vir'[=u]-lent, _adj._ full of poison: very active in injury: bitter in enmity: malignant.--_ns._ VIR'ULENCE, VIR'ULENCY.--_adv._ VIR'ULENTLY. [L. _virulentus_--_virus_, poison.]

VIRUS, v[=i]'rus, _n._ contagious or poisonous matter (as of ulcers, &c.): the poison which causes infection: any foul, hurtful matter.--_adjs._ V[=I]'ROSE, V[=I]'ROUS; VIR[=U]LIF'EROUS, bearing a specific virus. [L.; cog. with Gr. _ios_, Sans. _visha_, poison.]

VIS, vis, _n._ force: power:--_pl._ V[=I]'RES.--VIS INERTIae, inertia: sluggishness; VIS MORTUA, force of pressure, dead force; VIS VIVA, living force, equal to the mass of a moving body multiplied by the square of its velocity. [L.]

VISAGE, viz'[=a]j, _n._ the face or look.--_adj._ VIS'AGED. [Fr., through an assumed form _visaticum_, from L. _visus_, seen--_vid[=e]re_, to see.]

VIS-a-VIS, v[=e]z'-a-v[=e]', _adv._ facing one another.--_n._ one who faces, or is opposite to, another: a light carriage with seats facing each other: a kind of couch. [Fr. _vis_, face (--L. _visus_, look), _a_, to, _vis_, face.]

VISCACHA, vis-kach'a, _n._ a South American rodent of the Chinchilla family, inhabiting the South American Pampas, of stout form and about twenty inches in length, a gregarious burrower and nocturnal in habits--also _Bizcacha_.--_n._ VISCACHERA (vis-ka-ch[=a]'ra), a settlement of viscachas. [Sp.; prob. of Peruv. origin.]

VISCERA, vis'e-ra, the inner parts of the animal body: the entrails:--_sing._ VIS'CUS.--_adj._ VIS'CERAL, pertaining to the viscera: abdominal.--_v.t._ VIS'CER[=A]TE, to disembowel. [L. _viscus_ (pl.



VISCOUNT, v[=i]'kownt, _n._ an officer who formerly acted as deputy to the earl, the _vice-comes_: a title of nobility next below an earl:--_fem._ V[=I]'SCOUNTESS.--_ns._ V[=I]'SCOUNTCY, V[=I]'SCOUNTSHIP, V[=I]'SCOUNTY, the rank or dignity of a viscount. [O. Fr. _viscomte_ (Fr. _vicomte_)--Low L. _vice-comes_--L. _vice_, in place of, _comes_, a companion.]

VISCOUS, vis'kus, _adj._ sticky: tenacious--also VIS'CID.--_ns._ VISCID'ITY, VIS'COUSNESS; VISCOS'ITY, the property of being viscous: (_phys._) that property of matter which is seen when the relative motion of parts of any body or substance decays on its being left to itself. [Low L.

_viscosus_, sticky--L. _viscum_, bird-lime, mistletoe; cog. with Gr.

_ixos_, mistletoe.]

VISCUM, vis'kum, _n._ a genus of parasitic plants, including the mistletoe.


VISE. See VICE (1).

VISe, v[=e]-z[=a]', _n._ an indorsement on a passport denoting that it has been officially examined, and that the bearer may proceed on his journey.--_v.t._ to indorse a passport.--Also VISA (v[=e]'za). [Fr.,--Low L. _vis[=a]re_, freq. of L. _vid[=e]re_, _visum_, to see.]

VISHNU, vish'n[=oo], _n._ the second god of the Hindu triad, now the most worshipped of all Hindu gods. He became specially the benefactor of man in his _avatars_ or incarnations, ten in number--according to others, twenty-two. [Sans., 'the preserver.']

VISIBLE, viz'i-bl, _adj._ that may be seen: obvious.--_ns._ VISIBIL'ITY, state or quality of being visible, or perceivable by the eye; VIS'IBLENESS.--_adv._ VIS'IBLY.--VISIBLE CHURCH, the body of professing Christians, as opposed to the _Invisible Church_, which consists of those spiritual persons who fulfil the notion of the ideal Church, together with the body of the departed saints in heaven; VISIBLE MEANS, means or resources which are apparent to or ascertainable by others; VISIBLE SPEECH, a system of alphabetic characters, each of which represents the configuration of the mouth that produces the sound.

VISIGOTH, viz'i-goth, _n._ one of the Western Goths, as distinguished from the Ostrogoths or Eastern Goths. They formed settlements in the south of France and in Spain, and their kingdom in the latter lasted into the 8th century.--_adj._ VISIGOTH'IC. [Low L. _Visegothae_--Teut. _west_, west, _Gothae_, Goths.]

VISION, vizh'un, _n._ the act or sense of seeing: sight: anything seen: anything imagined to be seen: a divine revelation: an apparition: anything imaginary.--_v.t._ to see as a vision: to present as in a vision.--_n._ (_Scot._) VISIE (viz'i), a close look at anything.--_adj._ VIS'IONAL, pertaining to a vision, not real.--_adv._ VIS'IONALLY.--_n._ VIS'IONARINESS.--_adj._ VIS'IONARY, affected by visions: apt to see visions, imaginative: existing in imagination only: not real.--_n._ one who sees visions: one who forms impracticable schemes.--_adj._ VIS'IONED (_rare_), inspired so as to see visions: seen in a vision, spectral.--_n._ VIS'IONIST, a visionary person, one who believes in visions.--_adj._ VIS'IONLESS, destitute of vision.--BEATIFIC VISION (see BEATIFY); CENTRE, POINT, OF VISION, the position from which anything is observed, or represented as being seen. [Fr.,--L. _visio_, _visionis_--_vid[=e]re_, _visum_, to see; cf. Gr. _idein_, Eng. _wit_.]

VISIT, viz'it, _v.t._ to go to see or inspect: to attend: enter, appear in: to call on: (_B._) to reward or punish.--_v.i._ to be in the habit of seeing or meeting each other: to keep up acquaintance.--_n._ act of visiting or going to see.--_adjs._ VIS'ITABLE, subject to visitation: attractive to visitors; VIS'ITANT, paying visits, visiting.--_n._ one who visits: one who is a guest in the house of another: a migratory bird: one of an order of nuns founded by St Francis de Sales in 1610, also called _Salesians_, _Order_ (also _Nuns_) _of the Visitation_--the order has done much in the education of young girls.--_n._ VISIT[=A]'TION, act of visiting: examination by authority: a dispensation, whether of divine favour or retribution: (_rare_) the object of a visit: the act of a naval commander in boarding the vessel of another state to ascertain her character and object: a visit of a herald to a district for the examination of its arms, pedigrees, &c.: an unusual and extensive irruption of a species of animals into another region: (_eccles._) a festival to commemorate the visit of the Virgin Mary to Elizabeth, observed by the Roman and Greek Churches on 2d July.--_adjs._ VISIT[=A]T[=O]'RIAL, VISIT[=O]'RIAL.--_n._ VIS'ITING, the act of paying visits: prompting, influence.--_adj._ that which visits.--_ns._ VIS'ITING-BOOK, a book recording the names of persons who have called or are to be called on; VIS'ITING-CARD, a small card, on which the name, address, or title, may be printed, to be left in making calls or paying visits, and sometimes sent as an act of courtesy or in token of sympathy; VIS'ITING-DAY, a day on which one is at home or ready to receive callers; VIS'ITOR, -ER, one who visits, calls on, or makes a stay with a person: a person authorised to visit an institution to see that it is managed properly:--_fem._ VIS'ITRESS.--VISITATION OF THE SICK, an office in the Anglican Church, used for the spiritual benefit of the sick, provision being also made for special confession and absolution. [Fr. _visiter_--L. _visit[=a]re_, freq.

of _vis[)e]re_, to go to see, visit--_vid[=e]re_, to see.]

VISITE, vi-z[=e]t', _n._ a woman's close-fitting outer garment worn early in the 19th century. [Fr.]

VISIVE, v[=i]'siv, _adj._ visual.

VISNOMY, viz'no-mi, _n._ (_Spens._), physiognomy.

VISON, v[=i]'son, _n._ the American mink.

VISOR, viz'ur, _n._ a part of a helmet covering the face, movable, and perforated to see through (see ARMOUR): a mask.--_adj._ VIS'ORED, wearing a visor: masked. [Fr. _visiere_--_vis_, countenance.]

VISTA, vis'ta, _n._ a view or prospect through or as through an avenue: the trees, &c., that form the avenue. [It. _vista_, sight, view--L.

_vid[=e]re_, to see.]

VISUAL, viz'[=u]-al, _adj._ belonging to vision or sight: visible: produced by sight: used in sight: used for seeing.--_n._ VISUALIS[=A]'TION.--_v.t._ VIS'UAL[=I]SE, to make visible or visual, externalise to the eye.--_v.i._ to call up a clear mental image.--_ns._ VIS'UAL[=I]SER; VISUAL'ITY.--_adv._ VIS'UALLY.

VITAL, v[=i]'tal, _adj._ belonging or contributing to life: containing or necessary to life: important as life: essential.--_n._ V[=I]TALIS[=A]'TION.--_v.t._ V[=I]'TALISE, to make vital or alive: to give life to or furnish with the vital principle.--_ns._ V[=I]'TALISM, the doctrine that there is a vital principle distinct from the organisation of living bodies, which directs all their actions and functions; V[=I]'TALIST, one who holds this doctrine.--_adj._ V[=I]TALIS'TIC.--_n._ V[=I]TAL'ITY, quality of being vital: principle or power of life: capacity to endure and flourish.--_adv._ V[=I]' V[=I]'TALS, the interior organs essential for life: the part of any whole necessary for its existence.--_n._ V[=I]T[=A]'TIVENESS (_phrenol._), the love of life, a faculty assigned to a protuberance under the ear.--VITAL FORCE, the principle of life in animals and plants; VITAL FUNCTIONS, power, ability to continue living; VITAL PRINCIPLE, that principle on which the life of an organism is thought to depend; VITAL STATISTICS, a division of statistics dealing with the facts and problems concerning population. [L.

_vitalis_--_vita_, life--_viv[)e]re_, to live; cog. with Gr. _bios_, life.]

VITELLUS, v[=i]-tel'us, _n._ the yolk of an egg.--_adjs._ VIT'ELLARY, VITELL'INE, pertaining to the vitellus, or forming such.--_n._ VITELL'ICLE, a yolk-sac.--_adj._ VITELLIGENOUS (-ij'-), producing yolk. [L., 'a yolk,' a transferred use of _vitellus_--_vitulus_, a calf.]

VITEX, v[=i]'teks, _n._ a genus of trees or shrubs of the natural order _Verbenaceae_. [L.]

VITIATE, vish'i-[=a]t, _v.t._ to render faulty or defective: to make less pure: to deprave: to taint--earlier VI'CIATE.--_ns._ VITI[=A]'TION; VI'TI[=A]TOR; VITIOS'ITY, state or quality of being vicious. [L.

_viti[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_--_vitium_. See VICE (2).]

VITILITIGATION, vit-i-lit-i-g[=a]'shun, _n._ vexatious litigation.--_v.i._ VITILIT'IGATE.

VITIS, v[=i]'tis, _n._ a genus of plants, including the grape.--_n._ VIT'ICIDE, a vine-destroyer, vine-pest.--_adj._ VITIC'OLOUS, inhabiting, or produced upon, the vine.--_ns._ VIT'ICULTURE, cultivation of the vine; VITICUL'T[=U]RIST. [L. _vitis_, a vine--_vi[=e]re_, to twist.]

VITREOUS, vit'r[=e]-us, _adj._ glassy: pertaining to, consisting of, or like glass.--_ns._ VITREOS'ITY, VIT'REOUSNESS; VITRES'CENCE.--_adj._ VITRES'CENT, tending to become glass.--_n._ VIT'REUM, the vitreous humour of the eye.--_adj._ VIT'RIC.--_ns._ VIT'RICS, glassy materials: the history of glass and its manufacture; VITRIFAC'TION, VITRIFIC[=A]'TION, act, process, or operation of vitrifying, or converting into glass; VITRIFAC'TURE, the manufacture of glass.--_adjs._ VIT'RIFIABLE, that may be vitrified or turned into glass; VIT' VIT'RIFIED-FORTS, -WALLS, certain ancient Scottish, French, &c. forts or walls in which the silicious stone has been vitrified by fire, whether by intention or accident is uncertain.--_adj._ VIT'RIFORM, having the form of glass.--_v.t._ VIT'RIFY, to make into glass.--_v.i._ to become glass.--_ns._ VITR[=I]'NA, a genus of land molluscs forming a connecting-link between the slugs and true snails--the glass-snail; VIT'RINE, a show-case made of glass and used to protect delicate articles.

[L. _vitrum_, glass--_vid[=e]re_, to see.]

VITRIOL, vit'ri-ol, _n._ the popular name of sulphuric acid: a soluble sulphate of a metal--_green vitriol_=sulphate of iron, _blue vitriol_=sulphate of copper, _white vitriol_=sulphate of zinc.--_v.t._ VIT'RIOL[=A]TE, to convert into vitriol.--_n._ VITRIOL[=A]'TION, the act or process of converting into vitriol.--_adjs._ VITRIOL'IC, pertaining to or having the qualities of vitriol: biting, very severe; VIT'RIOL[=I]SABLE.--_n._ VITRIOLIS[=A]'TION.--_v.t._ VIT'RIOLISE, to vitriolate: to poison with vitriol.--ELIXIR OF VITRIOL, old name for the aromatic sulphuric acid of the Pharmacopoeia; OIL OF VITRIOL, concentrated sulphuric acid. [O. Fr.,--Low L. _vitriolum_--_vitriolus_--L. _vitreus_, of glass.]

VITRO-DI-TRINA, vit'r[=o]-di-tr[=e]'na, _n._ lacework glass. [It., 'glass of lace.']

VITROPHYRE, vit'r[=o]-f[=i]r, _n._ a porphyritic variety of volcanic glass.--_adj._ VITROPHYR'IC. [L. _vitrum_, glass, _porphyrites_, porphyry.]


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