TURN, turn, _v.i._ to whirl round: to hinge: to depend: to issue: to take a different direction or tendency: to become by a change, hence to rebel: to return: to be fickle: to result: to be shaped on the lathe: to sour: to become giddy: to be nauseated: to change from ebb to flow or from flow to ebb: to become inclined in the other direction.--_v.t._ to cause to revolve: to reverse: to pass round: to direct, apply: to send, drive: to fold, remake: to translate: to make sour: to change the position or the direction of: to nauseate, to make giddy: to direct the mind to: to infatuate or make mad: to cause to return with profit: to transfer: to convert: to form in a lathe: to shape: to round: to adapt: to blunt.--_n._ act of turning: new direction or tendency, disposition: a walk to and fro: chance: a turning-point, crisis: (_mus._) a melodic embellishment, consisting of a principal tone with two auxiliary tones lying respectively next above and below it: a spell of work, a job: (_coll._) a nervous shock: change: a winding: a bend: form: manner: opportunity, convenience: act of kindness or malice: a type turned upside down, owing to a temporary want of the proper letter.--_ns._ TURN'ABOUT, a merry-go-round; TURN'BACK, the strap from the hames to the hip-strap; TURN'BUCKLE, a form of coupling so arranged as to regulate the length or tension of the connected parts; TURN'-CAP, a chimney-cowl rotating on a vertical axis; TURN'COAT, one who turns his coat--that is, abandons his principles or party; TURN'COCK, one who turns on the water for the mains, regulates the fire-plugs, &c., of a water company.--_adj._ TURN'-DOWN, folded down.--_ns._ TURN'ER, one who, or that which, turns: a tumbler, gymnast, esp. a member of the German _Turnvereine_ or gymnastic bodies, instituted by F. L. Jahn in 1811; TURN'ERY, art of turning or of shaping by a lathe: things made by a turner, also the place where these are made: ornamentation by means of the lathe; TURN'ING, a winding: deviation from the proper course: turnery, the art of shaping wood, metal, ivory, or other hard substances into forms having a curved (generally circular or oval) transverse section, and also of engraving figures composed of curved lines upon a smooth surface, by means of a turning-lathe: (_mil._) a manoeuvre for turning an enemy's position: in pottery, the shaping of a vase: (_pl._) chips; TURN'ING-LATHE, a lathe used by turners; TURN'ING-POINT, the point on which a question turns, and which decides the case: a grave and critical period; TURN'ING-REST, a support on a lathe serving as a fulcrum for a hand turning-tool; TURN'ING-SAW, a thin-bladed saw contrived for cutting curved wood for chair-backs, &c.--also _Sweep-saw_, _Frame-saw_, _Scroll-saw_; TURN'ING-STEEL, a piece of hard bar-steel for turning the edge of a tool, &c.; TURN'ING-TOOL, a tool for shaping the cutting edges of the tools used in seal-engraving; TURN'KEY, one who turns the keys in a prison: a warder; TURN'-OUT, the act of coming forth: a strike: a striker: a crowd of spectators: a carriage and its horses: quantity of produce yielded.--_adj._ TURN'OVER, made to be turned over or reversed.--_n._ act of turning over, upset, overthrow: a small pie made by turning half of the circular crust over the other which has been covered with fruit, &c.: an apprentice turned over to a new master to complete his apprenticeship: the total amount of the sales in a business for a specified time.--_ns._ TURN'PIKE, a gate set across a road to stop those liable to toll: a turnpike-road--originally a frame consisting of two cross-bars armed with pikes, and turning on a post; TURN'PIKE-MAN, a man who collects tolls at a tollgate; TURN'PIKE-ROAD, a road on which turnpikes or tollgates are established; TURN'-SCREW, a screw-driver; TURN'SKIN, a werewolf; TURN'SPIT, one who turns a spit: a person engaged in some menial occupation: a long-bodied, short-legged dog employed to drive a wheel by which roasting-spits were turned--closely allied to the _Dachshund_ (q.v.); TURN'STILE, a revolving frame in a footpath which prevents the passage of cattle, but allows the passage of one person at a time; TURN'STILE-REG'ISTER, a device for recording the number of persons passing through a turnstile; TURN'STONE, a small grallatorial bird, intermediate between the true plovers and sandpipers, so called from its habit of turning over pebbles on the beach in search of food; TURN'-TA'BLE (same as TRAVERSE-TABLE); TURN'-UP, a disturbance: something that appears unexpectedly.--TURN ABOUT, to move the face or front to another quarter; TURN ABOUT, TURN AND TURN ABOUT, alternately; TURN A, or THE, CORNER (see CORNER); TURN A DEAF EAR TO, to ignore; TURN ADRIFT, to unmoor and let float away: to cast off; TURN AGAIN, to return: to make a stand; TURN AGAINST, to use to the injury of: to render hostile: to rebel against; TURN AN ENEMY'S FLANK, LINE, or POSITION, to manoeuvre so as to attack an enemy in the rear: to outwit; TURN A PENNY (see PENNY); TURN AROUND ONE'S FINGER, to make any one subservient to one's will; TURN ASIDE, to avert; to deviate: to avert the face; TURN AWAY, to dismiss from service, to discharge: to avert, to look in another direction: to deviate, to depart from; TURN BACK, to cause to retreat: to return; TURN DOWN, to double or fold down: to hide the face of: to lessen or lower; TURN FORTH, to expel; TURN IN, to bend inward: to enter: (_coll._) to go to bed; TURN INTO, to become by a process of change; TURN OFF, to deviate: to dismiss: to divert: to complete, achieve by labour: to shut off: (_slang_) to hang; TURN ON, to set running (as water): to depend on: to confront in fight; TURN ONE'S HAND TO, to apply one's self; TURN ONE'S HEAD, or BRAIN, to make one giddy: to fill with pride or conceit; TURN OUT, to drive out, to expel: to put to pasture (as cattle): to make for market or for use: to project: to prove in the result: to muster: to leave one's work to take part in a strike: (_coll._) to get out of bed; TURN OVER, to roll over: to change sides: to sell goods to the amount of: to examine by turning the leaves; TURN ROUND, to reverse one's position or party; TURN THE BACK, to flee, to retreat; TURN THE BACK UPON, to quit with contempt, to forsake; TURN THE EDGE OF, to blunt; TURN THE SCALE, to decide, determine; TURN THE STOMACH, to nauseate; TURN TO, to have recourse to: to point to: to result in; TURN TURTLE (see TURTLE); TURN UP, to point upwards: to appear, happen: place with face up: to bring the point uppermost: to refer to in a book; TURN UPON, to cast back upon, retort; TURN UPSIDE DOWN, to throw into complete confusion.--BE TURNED OF, to have advanced beyond--of age; BY TURNS, one after another: at intervals; ILL TURN, an injurious act: a change for the worse; IN TURN, in order of succession; NOT TO TURN A HAIR, to be quite undisturbed or unaffected; ON THE TURN, at the turning-point, changing; SERVE A TURN, to answer the purpose; TAKE ONE'S TURN, to occupy one's allotted place; TAKE TURNS, to take each the other's place alternately; TO A TURN, exactly, perfectly. [A.S. _tyrnan_; Ger. _turnen_; Fr. _tourner_; all from L. _torn[=a]re_, to turn in a lathe--_tornus_, a turner's wheel--Gr. _tornos_.]
TURNAGRA, tur'n[=a]-gra, _n._ a New Zealand genus of thrush-like birds.
TURNER, tur'n[.e]r, _n._ a Scotch copper coin worth 2d., issued by James VI. [Prob. _turney_.]
TURNEY, tur'ni, _n._ a copper coin current in Ireland under Edward III.--coined at _Tours_.
TURNEY, tur'ni, _n._ (_Milt._)=_Tourney_.
TURNIP, tur'nip, _n._ a biennial plant, with lyrate hispid leaves, the upper part of the root becoming, esp. in cultivation, swollen and fleshy--cultivated as a culinary esculent, and for feeding cattle and sheep.--_n._ TUR'NIP-FLY, a muscid fly whose maggots burrow in turnip-roots. [Perh. orig. _turn-nep_--_turn_, implying something round, and _nep_--A.S. _n['ae]p_, a turnip.]
TURNSOLE, turn's[=o]l, _n._ a name sometimes given to the Heliotrope and other plants, esp. to the euphorbiaceous _Chrozophora tinctoria_, from which a deep-purple dye is obtained. [Fr.,--_tourner_--_sol_, for _soleil_--L. _sol_, the sun.]
TURNUS, tur'nus, _n._ the tiger-swallowtail, a black-striped United States butterfly.
TURPENTINE, tur'pen-t[=i]n, _n._ a semi-solid resinous substance secreted by various coniferous trees (the name turpentine is commonly understood to mean the product of the Scotch pine, the swamp pine of America, and the _Pinus maritima_ of France; _Venice turpentine_ is obtained from the larch, and _Chian turpentine_ from the 'Turpentine-tree'--see PISTACHIO): the oil or spirit of turpentine.--_ns._ TUR'PENTINE-MOTH, a moth whose larvae bore into the twigs of pine and fir, causing exudation of resin and destroying the twig; TUR'PENTINE-TREE, the terebinth-tree--_Pistachia terebinthus_.--_adj._ TUR'PENTIN'IC.--_n._ TURPS, oil or spirits of turpentine. [O. Fr. _turbentine_--L. _terebinthina_ (_resina_), (the resin) of the terebinth--Gr. _terebinthos_.]
TURPETH, tur'peth, _n._ the root of _Ipomoea_ (_Convolvulus_) _Turpethum_, a Ceylon plant of cathartic properties.--TURPETH MINERAL, an old name for the yellow basic mercury sulphate.
TURPITUDE, tur'pi-t[=u]d, _n._ baseness: extreme depravity or wickedness: vileness of principles and actions. [L. _turpitudo_--_turpis_, base.]
TURQUET, turk'et, _n._ (_Bacon_) a figure of a Turk.
TURQUOISE, tur-koiz', or tur-k[=e]z', _n._ an opaque greenish-blue mineral from Persia, valued as a gem, essentially a phosphate of alumina, harder than feldspar but softer than quartz, occurring as thin veins in slate rock.--_n._ TURQUOISE'-GREEN, a pale colour between green and blue--also _adj._ [O. Fr.; because first brought through _Turkey_ from Persia.]
TURRET, tur'et, _n._ a small tower on a building and rising above it: a movable building containing soldiers, engines, &c., used in medieval sieges: a tower, often revolving, for offensive purposes, on land and water: the raised portion above an American railroad car, for ventilation, &c.--_adj._ TURR'ETED, furnished with turrets: formed like a tower.--_ns._ TURR'ET-GUN, a gun designed for use in a revolving turret; TURR'ET-SHIP, an ironclad ship-of-war, whose guns are placed in one or more revolving turrets placed on deck.--_adjs._ TURRIC'ULATE, -D, having small turrets.
[O. Fr. _touret_ (Fr. _tourelle_).]
TURRIBANT, tur'i-bant, _n._ (_Spens._) a turban.
TURTLE, tur'tl, TURTLE-DOVE, tur'tl-duv, _n._ a genus of _Columbidae_, of graceful build, with small head and slender bill, long wings, and long rounded tail, flying swiftly and noiselessly, noted for their beauty of form and colour, their soft cooing, and their affection towards each other and their young. [A.S. _turtle_; Ger. _turtel_, Fr. _tourtereau_, _tourterelle_; all from the L. name _turtur_.]
TURTLE, tur'tl, _n._ any tortoise, but esp. the edible Green Turtle, prized for the soup made from its flesh, chief glory of aldermanic banquets--_Calipash_ is the part of the animal that belongs to the upper shield, a fatty, gelatinous substance of a dull-greenish colour; _Calipee_, the yellowish meat of the lower shield.--_v.t._ to pursue turtles.--_ns._ TUR'TLEBACK, a turtle-shaped projection on the bows or stern of a ship for the purpose of keeping off heavy seas; TUR'TLER, a hunter of turtles; TUR'TLE-SHELL, tortoise-shell: a turtle-cowry; TUR'TLE-SOUP, a soup the chief ingredient of which is turtle meat; TURT'LING, the catching of turtles.--GREEN TURTLE, a species of turtle which attains great size and is the source of real turtle-soup--its eggs also are much prized; MOCK TURTLE, a soup made of calf's head in lieu of turtle meat; TURN TURTLE, to capsize, as a boat. [A corr. of _tortoise_, or of Sp. _tortuga_, or Port.
_tartaruga_, a tortoise.]
TUSCAN, tus'kan, _adj._ of or belonging to _Tuscany_ in Italy: denoting the simplest of the five classic orders of architecture, being a Roman modification of the Doric style, with unfluted columns, and without triglyphs. [L. _Tuscanus_.]
TUSH, tush, _n._ (_Shak._) a tusk.
TUSH, tush, _interj._ pshaw! be silent! an exclamation of impatience, &c.--_v.i._ to express contempt, &c.
TUSK, tusk, _n._ a long, protruding tooth on either side of the mouth of certain animals: a sharp point: the share of a plough.--_v.t._ to gore with the tusks.--_adjs._ TUSKED, TUSK'Y.--_n._ TUSK'ER, an elephant whose tusks are grown. [A.S. _tusc_, _tux_; Ice. _toskr_.]
TUSKAR, tus'kar, _n._ an iron implement with wooden shaft, for cutting peat. [Ice. _torfskeri_--_torf_, turf, _skera_, to cut.]
TUSSER-SILK, tus'[.e]r-silk, _n._ a kind of dark fawn-coloured silk, generally made without brocading or patterns. [Hind. _tassar_--Sans.
TUSSILAGO, tus-i-l[=a]'g[=o], _n._ a genus of plants of the natural order _Compositae_, suborder _Corymbiferae_--the only British species, _Tussilago farfara_, sometimes called Colt's-foot. [L.]
TUSSIS, tus'is, _n._ a cough.--_adj._ TUSSIC'ULAR. [L.]
TUSSLE, tus'el, _n._ a struggle.--_v.i._ to struggle. [_Tousle_.]
TUSSOCK, tus'ok, _n._ a tuft of grass or twigs.--_ns._ TUSS'OCK-GRASS, a large grass of the same genus with the Cock's-foot Grass of Britain, native to the Falkland Islands, remarkable for forming great tufts--also TUSS'AC-GRASS; TUSS'OCK-MOTH, a grayish-white moth about an inch long, the caterpillars of which do great mischief in hop-grounds, and are known as _Hop-dogs_.--_adj._ TUSS'OCKY, abounding in tufts. [Perh. conn. with obs.
_tusk_, a tuft; cf. Dan. _dusk_.]
TUSSORE. Same as TUSSER-SILK.
TUT, tut, _interj._ an exclamation of rebuke, or impatience, &c.--_v.i._ to express impatience by such.
TUT, tut, _n._ (_prov._) a hassock--also TOTE.--_v.i._ to project.
TUT, tut, _n._ a piece of work.--_v.i._ to work by the piece.--_ns._ TUT'WORK; TUT'WORKER; TUT'WORKMAN.
TUTAMEN, t[=u]-t[=a]'men, _n._ a defence or protection. [L.]
TUTANIA, t[=u]-t[=a]'ni-a, _n._ a kind of Britannia metal. [_Tutty_.]
TUTELAGE, t[=u]'te-l[=a]j, _n._ guardianship: state of being under a guardian.--_adjs._ T[=U]'TELAR, T[=U]'TELARY, protecting: having the charge of a person or place. [L. _tutela_--_tut[=a]ri_, to guard--_tu[=e]ri_, to see.]
TUTENAG, t[=u]'te-nag, _n._ the zinc imported into Europe from China and the East Indies during the 18th century. [Fr. _tutenague_, prob. from Pers.
and Ar. _t[=u]tiya_, an oxide of zinc, and _-n[=a]k_, a suffix, or perh.
Hind. _n[=a]ga_, lead.]
TUTIORISM, t[=u]'ti-or-izm, _n._ in R. C. moral theology, the doctrine that in a case of doubt between right and wrong one should take the safer course, i.e. the one in verbal accordance with the law--the same as _Rigorism_, and the opposite of _Probabilism_.--_n._ TU'TIORIST, a rigorist in foregoing sense. [L. _tutior_, safer, comp. of _tutus_, safe.]
TUTOR, t[=u]'tor, _n._ one who looks to or takes care of: one who has charge of the education of another: one who hears the lessons of and examines students: a teacher: (_Scots law_) a guardian of the person as well as of the estate of a boy under fourteen, or girl under twelve:--_fem._ T[=U]'TORESS.--v.t to instruct: to treat with authority or sternness.--_n._ T[=U]'TORAGE, the office or authority of a tutor: education, as by a tutor.--_adj._ TUT[=O]'RIAL, belonging to, or exercised by, a tutor.--_adv._ TUT[=O]'RIALLY.--_ns._ T[=U]'TORING; T[=U]'TORISM, T[=U]'TORSHIP; T[=U]'TRIX, a female guardian. [L. _tutor_, a guardian--_tu[=e]ri_, _tuitus_, to look to.]
TUTSAN, tut'san, _n._ a species of St John's wort, once regarded as a panacea--also called _Park-leaves_. [O. Fr. _toutesaine_, _tout_--L.
_totus_, all, _sain_--L. _sanus_, sound.]
TUTTI, t[=oo]t'ti, _adj._ (_mus._) all together, as opposed to solo.--_n._ a concerted movement, rendered by all the voices or instruments together.
[It., _pl._ of _tutto_, all--L. _totus_, all.]
TUTTI-FRUTTI, t[=oo]t'ti-fr[=oo]t'ti, _n._ a confection, esp. ice-cream, flavoured with different kinds of fruit. [It.]
TUTTY, tut'i, _n._ impure zinc protoxide. [O. Fr. _tutie_--Late L.
_tutia_--Ar. _t[=u]tiya_. Cf. _Tutenag_.]
TUTU, t[=oo]'t[=oo], _n._ a New Zealand shrub whose black fruit makes a light wine resembling claret, while the seeds yield a poison like strychnine, and the bark, tannin--also called _Tupa-kihi_, _Wineberry-shrub_, and _Toot-plant_. [Maori.]
TUTULUS, t[=u]'t[=u]-lus, _n._ a conical Etruscan female headdress:--_pl._ T[=U]'TUL[=I]. [L.]
TUUM, t[=u]'um, _adj._ thine.--_n._ that which is thine. [L.]
TU-WHIT, t[=u]-hwit', TU-WHOO, t[=u]-hw[=oo]', _n._ an imitation of the note of the owl.--_v.i._ TU-WHOO', to cry tu-whoo.
TUYeRE. Same as _Twyer_ (q.v.).