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TUNE, t[=u]n, _n._ a melodious succession of notes or chords in a particular key: the relation of notes and intervals to each other causing melody: state of giving the proper sound: harmony: a melody or air: frame of mind, temper.--_v.t._ to adjust the tones, as of a musical instrument: to play upon, celebrate in music: to give a certain character to.--_adj._ T[=U]'NABLE.--_n._ T[=U]'NABLENESS.--_adv._ T[=U]'NABLY.--_adj._ TUNE'FUL, full of tune or harmony: melodious: musical.--_adv._ TUNE'FULLY.--_n._ TUNE'FULNESS.--_adj._ TUNE'LESS, without tune or melody: silent.--_ns._ T[=U]'NER, one who tunes or adjusts the sounds of musical instruments: one who makes music, or sings: in organs, an adjustable flap for altering the pitch of the tone; T[=U]'NING, the art of bringing musical instruments into tune; T[=U]'NING-FORK, a steel two-pronged instrument, designed when set in vibration to give a musical sound of a certain pitch; T[=U]'NING-HAMM'ER, a tuning-wrench with hammer attachment for regulating tension in stringed instruments.--TUNE UP, to begin to sing or play.--CHANGE ONE'S TUNE, SING ANOTHER TUNE, to alter one's attitude, or one's way of talking; IN TUNE, harmonious; OUT OF TUNE, inharmonious; TO THE TUNE OF, to the amount of. [A doublet of tone.]

TUNGSTEN, tung'sten, _n._ a rare metal, chiefly derived from wolfram, which is a tungstate of iron and manganese, and likewise found in scheelite, which is a tungstate of lime.--_n._ TUNG'STATE, a salt of tungstic acid.--_adjs._ TUNGSTEN'IC; TUNGSTENIF'EROUS; TUNG'STIC.--_n._ TUNG'STITE, native oxide of tungsten. [Sw.,--tung, heavy, sten, stone.]

TUNGUSIC, tun-g[=oo]'sik, _adj._ pertaining to the _Tunguses_, an ethnographic group of the Ural-Altaic family.--_n._ TUN'GUS, one of this people or their language.--_adj._ TUNGU'SIAN.

TUNIC, t[=u]'nik, _n._ a loose frock worn by females and boys: an ecclesiastical short-sleeved vestment, worn over the alb at mass by the sub-deacon, very similar to the dalmatic, but smaller: a military surcoat: the ordinary fatigue-coat of a private soldier, also the coat of an officer: (_anat._) a membrane that covers some organ: (_bot._) a covering, as of a seed.--_n._ TUNIC[=A]'TA, a class of remarkable animals, many of which are popularly known as Ascidians or sea-squirts--now regarded as occupying a lowly place among vertebrate or chordate animals.--_adjs._ T[=U]'NICATE, -D (_bot._), covered with a tunic or with layers.--_n._ T[=U]'NICLE, a little tunic: as an ecclesiastical vestment, the same as tunic. [Fr. _tunique_--L. _tunica_, an under-garment of both sexes.]

TUNKER, tungk'[.e]r, _n._ Same as Dunker (q.v.).

TUN-MOOT, tun'-m[=oo]t, _n._ an assembly of the town or village. [A.S.

_tun_, town, _gemot_, meeting.]

TUNNEL, tun'el, _n._ an arched passage cut through a hill or under a river, &c.: the long underground burrow of certain animals, as the mole: any mine-level open at one end: (_Spens._) a flue, chimney.--_v.t._ to make a passage through: to hollow out:--_pr.p._ tunn'elling; _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ tunn'elled.--_n._ TUNN'EL-NET, a net wide at the mouth and narrow at the other end. [O. Fr. _tonnel_ (Fr. _tonneau_), a cask; also O. Fr.

_tonnelle_, an arched vault, dim. of tonne, a cask.]

TUNNY, tun'i, _n._ a very large fish of the mackerel family (Scombridae), fished chiefly on the Mediterranean coasts. [L. _thunnus_--Gr.

_thynnos_--_thynein_, to dart along.]

TUP, tup, _n._ a ram: the striking-face of a steam-hammer, &c.--_v.t._ and _v.i._ to cover with (of a ram): to butt. [Conn. with Low Ger. _tuppen_, _toppen_, to pull by the hair; Ger. _tupfen_, to touch.]

TUPAIA, t[=u]-p[=a]'ya, _n._ the genus of squirrel-shrews found in the Malay Peninsula, &c.

TUPELO, t[=u]'pe-l[=o], _n._ a genus of trees, natives chiefly of the southern parts of the United States, including the Black Gum Tree, the Ogeechee Lime or Sour Gum Tree, &c.

TUQUE, t[=u]k, _n._ a Canadian cap made by tucking in one tapered end of a long cylindrical bag, closed at both ends. [Fr. _toque_.]

TURAKOO, t[=oo]'ra-k[=oo], _n._ one of the plantain-eaters, a large bird found in Africa, light green, with carmine wing-feathers.--_n._ TU'RACIN, the red colouring matter of its feathers. [African.]

TURANIAN, t[=u]-r[=a]'ni-an, _adj._ a philological term which came to be used for the non-Aryan languages of the Ural-Altaic or Finno-Tartar group--sometimes extended so as to include the Dravidian tongues of India, also of the agglutinative type, thus erroneously suggesting affinity between non-Aryan and non-Semitic groups of languages which are probably quite unconnected. [From _Turan_=_not-Iran_, a term used by the Sassanian kings of Persia for those parts of their empire outside of Iran, and still the name for Turkestan among the Persians.]

TURBAN, tur'ban, _n._ a head-covering worn by Eastern nations, consisting of a cap with a sash wound round it: a circular head-dress worn by ladies: the whole whorls of a shell.--_n._ TUR'BAND (_Shak._), a turban.--_adj._ TUR'BANED, wearing a turban. [Earlier forms _turbant_, _tulipant_ (Fr.

_turban_, Port. _turbante_), from Pers. _dulband_.]

TURBARY, tur'ba-ri, _n._ the right to go upon the soil of another and dig turf, and carry off the same: a place where peat is dug. [L. _turba_, turf.]

TURBELLARIA, tur-be-l[=a]'ri-a, a class of flat-worms with ciliated skin--the same as _Planaria_ (q.v.).--_adjs._ TURBELL[=A]'RIAN; TURBELLAR'IFORM.

TURBID, tur'bid, _adj._ disordered: having the sediment disturbed: muddy: thick.--_adv._ TUR'BIDLY.--_ns._ TUR'BIDNESS, TURBID'ITY. [L.

_turbidus_--_turba_, tumult.]

TURBILLION, tur-bil'yun, _n._ a whirl, vortex. [Fr. _tourbillon_--L.

_turbo_, a whirl.]

TURBINACEOUS, tur-bi-n[=a]'shus, _adj._ turfy, peaty.

TURBINE, tur'bin, _n._ a horizontal water-wheel with vertical axis, receiving and discharging water in various directions round the circumference--by parallel, outward, or inward flow.--_adj._ TUR'BINAL, turbinate.--_n._ (_anat._) a scroll-like bone.--_adjs._ TUR'BINATE, -D, shaped like a top or inverted cone: spiral: (_anat._) whorled in shape: whirling like a top.--_ns._ TURBIN[=A]'TION; TUR'BINE-PUMP, a pump in which water is raised by the inverted action of a turbine-wheel; TURB'INE-STEAM'ER, a vessel impelled by a steam-turbine.--_adjs._ TUR'BINIFORM, TUR'BINOID, top-shaped. [Fr.,--L. _turbo_, _turbinis_, a whirl--_turb[=a]re_, to disturb--_turba_, disorder.]

TURBIT, tur'bit, _n._ a domestic pigeon having white body, coloured wings, and short beak.

TURBO, tur'b[=o], _n._ the typical genus of the family of scutibranchiate gasteropods, _Turbinidae_.--_n._ TUR'BINITE, a fossil shell of this family.

[L. _turbo_, a top.]

TURBOT, tur'bot, _n._ a highly esteemed food-fish of the genus _Rhombus_ and family _Pleuronectidae_ or Flat-fishes, abundant in the North Sea. [O.

Fr., _turbot_, prob. formed from L. _turbo_, a spinning-top.]

TURBULENT, tur'b[=u]-lent, _adj._ tumultuous, disturbed: in violent commotion: disposed to disorder: restless: producing commotion.--_ns._ TUR'BULENCE, TUR'BULENCY.--_adv._ TUR'BULENTLY. [Fr.,--L.

_turbulentus_--_turba_, a crowd.]

TURCISM, tur'sizm, _n._ customs of Turks.

TURCO, tur'k[=o], _n._ a popular name for one of the Tirailleurs Algeriens, a body of native Algerian troops recruited for the French service.


TURCOPHILE, tur'k[=o]-fil, _n._ one who favours the Ottoman Turks.--_n._ TUR'COPHILISM. [Low L. _Turcus_, Turk, Gr. _philein_, to love.]

TURCOPOLIER, tur'k[=o]-po-l[=e]r, _n._ the commander of the light infantry of the Knights of St John of Jerusalem--always an Englishman. [O. Fr.,--Low L. _Turcopuli_--Late Gr. _tyrcopouloi_, light-armed soldiers--_Tourcos_, Turk, _poulos_, a child.]

TURD, turd, _n._ a ball of dung. [A.S. _tord_.]

TURDUS, tur'dus, _n._ a genus of Passerine birds of the _Turdidae_ family, the thrushes.--_adjs._ TUR'DIFORM, TUR'DINE, TUR'DOID, like a thrush.

TUREEN, t[=u]-r[=e]n', tu-r[=e]n', _n._ a large dish for holding soup at table. [Fr. _terrine_--L. _terra_, earth.]

TURF, turf, _n._ the surface of land matted with the roots of grass, &c.: a cake of turf cut off: sod: peat: race-ground: horse-racing, the race-course:--_pl._ TURFS--(_obs._) TURVES.--_v.t._ to cover with peat or sod.--_adj._ TURF'-CLAD, covered with turf.--_n._ TURF'-DRAIN, a drain in which turf is used for a covering.--_adj._ TUR'FEN, made or covered with turf.--_ns._ TURF'-HEDGE, a combination of turf and hedge-plants, forming a fence; TUR'FINESS; TUR'FITE (_slang_), one devoted to horse-racing; TURF'-SPADE, a long narrow spade for digging turf.--_adj._ TUR'FY, resembling or abounding in turf: pertaining to horse-racing. [A.S. _turf_; Ice. _torf_.]

TURGENT, tur'jent, _adj._ swelling: rising into a tumour: inflated: bombastic.--_adv._ TUR'GENTLY.--_ns._ TURGES'CENCE, TURGES'CENCY.--_adjs._ TURGES'CENT, swelling: growing big; TUR'GID, swollen: extended beyond the natural size: pompous: bombastic.--_ns._ TURGID'ITY, TUR'GIDNESS.--_adv._ TUR'GIDLY.--_n._ TURGOR (tur'gor), state of being full, the normal condition of the capillaries. [L. _turg-ens_, _-entis_, pr.p. of _turg[=e]re_, to swell.]

TURION, t[=u]'ri-on, _n._ a shoot from an underground bud, growing upward into a new stem.--_adj._ TURIONIF'EROUS. [L. _turio_, a shoot.]

TURK, turk, _n._ a native of _Turkey_, an Ottoman--more widely, a member of a race formerly classed among the 'Turanian' peoples, now more usual to say, of the Mongolo-Tartar ethnological group, and speaking languages of the Ural-Altaic family: a savage fellow: a Mohammedan: a Turkish horse: the plum-weevil or curculio.--_ns._ TURK'EY-CAR'PET, a soft thick kind of carpet; TURK'EY-HONE, -STONE, a kind of oilstone brought from Turkey, and used for hones; TURK'EY-MER'CHANT, one whose trade is with Turkey or the Turkish East; TURK'EY-RED, a fine durable red dye, obtained from madder, but now mostly prepared chemically, first produced in Turkey; TURK'EY-STONE, the turquoise.--_adj._ TURK'ISH, pertaining to the Turks or to Turkey.--_n._ the language of the Turks.--_ns._ TURK'ISH-BATH, a kind of hot-air bath in which the patient, after being sweated, is rubbed down, and conducted through a series of cooling-chambers until he regains his normal temperature; TURK'S'-HEAD, a kind of knot: a long broom with spherical head: a kind of cooking-pan, having a tin core in the centre.--TURN TURK, to become a Mohammedan: to go to the bad: to become hopelessly obstinate.

TURKEY, turk'i, _n._ a large gallinaceous bird, a native of America--not _Turkey_.--_ns._ TURK'EY-BUZZ'ARD, a vulture found largely in North and South America; TURK'EY-COCK, the male of the turkey: a foolishly proud person.

TURKIS, turk'is, _n._ an older spelling of _turquoise_.--Also TURK'OIS.

TURKOMAN, tur'k[=o]-man, _n._ a member of a branch of the Turkish race, found in Central Asia to the north of Persia.

TURLOUGH, tur'loh, _n._ a shallow pond in Ireland, dry in summer. [Ir.


TURM, turm, _n._ (_Milt._) a troop. [L. _turma_.]

TURMERIC, tur'm[.e]r-ik, _n._ the rhizome or root-stock of _Curcuma longa_, a handsome herbaceous plant cultivated all over India, its yellowish tubers yielding a deep-yellow powder used as a chemical test for the presence of alkalies. [Cf. Fr. _terre-merite_--as if from L. _terra_, earth, and _merita_, deserved; both prob. corr. from an Oriental name.]

TURMOIL, tur'moil, _n._ harassing labour: disturbance.--_v.t._ to harass with commotion: to weary.--_v.i._ to be disquieted or in commotion. [Perh.

L. _trem[)e]re_, to shake.]

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