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TORRICELLIAN, tor-i-sel'i-an, or tor-i-ch[=e]l'i-an, _adj._ pertaining to the Italian mathematician Evangelista _Torricelli_ (1608-47), who discovered in 1643 the principle on which the barometer is constructed.--TORRICELLIAN TUBE, the barometer; TORRICELLIAN VACUUM, the vacuum in the barometer.

TORRID, tor'id, _adj._ burning or parching: violently hot: dried with heat.--_ns._ TORRID'ITY, TORR'IDNESS.--TORRID ZONE, the broad belt round the earth betwixt the tropics, on either side of the equator. [L.

_torridus_--_torr[=e]re_, to burn.]

TORSE, tors, _n._ a heraldic wreath.--_ns._ TORSADE', an ornament like a twisted cord; TOR'SEL, a twisted scroll: a plate in a brick wall to support the end of a beam.

TORSHENT, tor'shent, _n._ (_U.S._) the youngest child and pet of a family.--Also TORSH.

TORSION, tor'shun, _n._ act of twisting or turning a body: the force with which a thread or wire tends to return when twisted, the kind of strain produced in a bar or wire when one end is kept fixed and the other is rotated about the axis: (_surg._) a method of common application for the purpose of checking arterial haemorrhage in certain cases, by twisting the cut end of the artery.--_n._ TORSIBIL'ITY.--_adj._ TOR'SIONAL, pertaining to, or resulting from, torsion.--_n._ TOR'SION-BAL'ANCE, an instrument for measuring very minute forces by a delicate horizontal bar or needle, suspended by a very fine thread or wire.--_adj._ TOR'SIVE, twisted spirally. [L. _torsio_--_torqu[=e]re_, _tortum_, to twist.]

TORSK, torsk, _n._ a genus of fish of the cod family, abundant in the northern parts of the Atlantic Ocean, characterised by a single long dorsal fin, and by having the vertical fins separate. [Sw. _torsk;_ Ger. _dorsch_, a haddock.]

TORSO, tor's[=o], _n._ the trunk of a statue without head or limbs:--_pl._ TOR'SOS.--Also TORSE. [It.; prob. Teut., Old High Ger. _turso_, _torso_, stalk.]

TORT, tort, _n._ a term in the law of England including all those wrongs, not arising out of contract, for which a remedy by compensation or damages is given in a court of law: (_Spens._) wrong, injury, calamity.--_adj._ TOR'TIOUS (_Spens._), wrongful, injurious. [Low L. _tortum_--L.

_torqu[)e]re, tortum, to twist.]_

TORTICOLLIS, tor-ti-kol'is, _n._ wryneck.

TORTILE, tor'til, _adj._ twisted: wreathed: coiled.--_n._ TORTIL'ITY.--_adj._ TOR'TIVE (_Shak._), twisted, wreathed.

TORTILLA, tor-t[=e]'lya, _n._ a round flat cake made from maize in Mexico.

[Sp., dim. of _torta_, a tart.]

TORTOISE, tor'tis, or -tois, _n._ together with turtles, a well-defined order of reptiles, distinguished especially by the dorsal (_carapace_) and ventral (_plastron_) shields which protect the body.--_n._ TOR'TOISE-SHELL, the horny epidermic plate of a species of turtle.--_adj._ of the colour of the foregoing, mottled in yellow and black. [O. Fr. _tortis_--L. _tortus_, twisted.]

TORTRIX, tor'triks, _n._ the typical genus of _Tortricidae_, a family of small lepidopterous insects.

TORTULOUS, tor't[=u]-lus, _adj._ having swellings at regular intervals.

TORTUOUS, tor't[=u]-us, _adj._ twisted, winding: (_fig._) deceitful.--_adj._ TOR'TU[=O]SE, twisted: wreathed: winding.--_n._ TORTUOS'ITY, state of being tortuous.--_adv._ TOR'TUOUSLY.--_n._ TOR'TUOUSNESS. [Fr.,--L. _tortuosus_--_torqu[=e]re_, _tortum_, to twist.]

TORTURE, tor't[=u]r, _n._ a putting to the rack or severe pain to extort a confession, or as a punishment: extreme pain: anguish of body or mind.--_v.t._ to put to torture or to the rack: to put to extreme pain: to annoy: to vex.--_n._ TOR'TURER.--_adv._ TOR'TURINGLY, in a torturing manner: so as to torment or punish.--_adj._ TOR'TUROUS, causing torture.

[Late L. _tortura_, torment--_torqu[=e]re_.]

TORUFFLED, too-ruf'ld, _adj._ (_Milt._) ruffled.

TORULA, tor'[=u]-la, _n._ a small torus: the yeast-plant.--_adjs._ TOR'ULIFORM; TOR'ULOID; TOR'ULOSE; TOR'ULOUS.--_n._ TOR'ULUS, the socket of the antenna. [L. _torulus_, dim. of _torus_, swelling.]

TORUS, t[=o]'rus, _n._ (_archit._) a moulding in the base of columns, the profile of which is semicircular: (_bot._) the receptacle or part of the flower on which the carpels stand: (_anat._) a rounded ridge, esp. one on the occipital bone of the skull:--_pl._ T[=O]'RI. [L., a round, swelling place, an elevation.]

TORY, t[=o]'ri, _n._ a Conservative in English politics--a term since 1830 largely superseded by Conservative, but since 1880 a good deal revived in the sense frequently of a non-conservative Conservative.--_v.t._ T[=O]'RIFY, to infect with Tory principles.--_n._ T[=O]'RYISM, the principles of the Tories. [Ir. _toiridhe_, a pursuer; first applied to the Irish bog-trotters and robbers; next, about 1680, to the most hot-headed asserters of the royal prerogative.]

TOSE, t[=o]z, _v.t._ (_obs._) to pull about, esp. to tease.--_adj._ T[=O]'SY, teased, soft.

TOSH, tosh, _adj._ (_Scot._) neat, trim.

TOSS, tos, _v.t._ to throw up suddenly or violently: to cause to rise and fall: to make restless: to agitate, pass from one to another: to toss up with: to drink off: to dress out smartly.--_v.i._ to be tossed: to be in violent commotion: to tumble about: to fling.--_n._ act of throwing upward: a throwing up of the head: confusion, commotion: a toss-up.--_v.t._ TOSS'EN (_Spens._), to toss, to brandish.--_n._ TOSS'ER.--_adv._ TOSS'ILY, pertly.--_ns._ TOSS'ING, the act of tossing or throwing upward: (_B._) violent commotion: (_mining_) process of washing ores; TOSS'-POT (_Shak._), a toper, a drunkard; TOSS'-UP, the throwing up of a coin to decide anything: an even chance or hazard.--_adj._ TOSS'Y, pert, contemptuous.--TOSS OFF, to drink off; TOSS UP, to throw up a coin and wager on which side it will fall. [Celt., as W. _tosio_, to jerk, _tos_, a quick jerk.]

TOST, a form of _tossed_, _pa.p._ of _toss_.

TOSTICATED, tos'ti-k[=a]-ted, _adj._ fuddled: perplexed--also TOS'SIC[=A]TED.--_n._ TOSTIC[=A]'TION, perplexity.

TOT, tot, _n._ anything little, esp. a child: a drinking-cup holding but half-a-pint, a small dram.--_n._ TOT'TIE, a dim. of tot. [Cf. Ice. _tottr_, a dwarf.]

TOT, tot, _v.t._ to add or sum up.--_n._ an addition of a long column.

[Coll. abbrev. of _total_.]

TOTAL, t[=o]'tal, _adj._ whole: complete: undivided: unqualified, absolute.--_n._ the whole: the entire amount.--_v.t._ to bring to a total, add up: to amount to.--_ns._ T[=O]TALIS[=A]'TION; T[=O]TALIS[=A]'TOR, T[=O]'TAL[=I]SER, an automatic betting-machine.--_v.t._ T[=O]'TAL[=I]SE.--_ns._ T[=O]'TAL[=I]SER; T[=O]TAL'ITY, the whole sum, quantity, or amount.--_adv._ T[=O]'TALLY.--_n._ T[=O]'TALNESS, entireness.

[Fr.,--Low L. _totalis_--L. _totus_, whole.]

TOTE, t[=o]t, _v.t._ to carry as a personal burden, to bear.--_n._ TOTE'-ROAD, a rough road for carriers.

TOTEM, t[=o]'tem, _n._ a natural object, not an individual but one of a class, taken by a tribe, a family, or a single person, and treated with superstitious respect as an outward symbol of an existing intimate unseen relation.--_adj._ TOTEM'IC.--_ns._ T[=O]'TEMISM, the use of totems as the foundation of a vast social system of alternate obligation and restriction; T[=O]'TEMIST, one designated by a totem.--_adj._ T[=O]'TEMISTIC. [Algonquin _otem_, which must be preceded by the personal article, as _kitotem_=the family-mark, _nind-otem_=my family-mark.]

T'OTHER, tuth'[.e]r, _indef. pron._ that other.

TOTIENT, t[=o]'shi-ent, _n._ the number of totitives of a number. [L.

_toties_, so many.]

TOTIPALMATE, t[=o]-ti-pal'm[=a]t, _adj._ fully webbed in all four toes.--_n._ a bird showing this.--_n._ TOTIPALM[=A]'TION.

TOTITIVE, tot'i-tiv, _n._ a number less than another having with it no common divisor but unity.

TO-TORNE, t[=oo]-t[=o]rn', _p.adj._ (_Spens._) torn to pieces.

TOTTER, tot'[.e]r, _v.i._ to shake as if about to fall: to be unsteady: to stagger: to shake.--_n._ TOTT'ERER.--_adv._ TOTT'ERINGLY, in a tottering manner.--_adjs._ TOTT'ERY, shaky; TOTT'Y (_Spens._), tottering, unsteady.

[For _tolter_--M. E. _tulten_--A.S. _tealtrian_, to totter, _tealt_, unsteady.]

TOUCAN, t[=oo]-kan', or t[=oo]'-, _n._ a genus of South American Picarian birds, with an immense beak. [Fr.,--Braz.]

TOUCH, tuch, _v.t._ to come in contact with: to perceive by feeling: to reach: to relate to: to handle or treat gently or slightly, as in 'to touch the hat,' &c.: to take, taste: to move or soften: to influence: to move to pity: to taint: (_slang_) to cheat: to lay the hand upon for the purpose of curing scrofula or king's evil--a practice that ceased only with the accession of the House of Brunswick.--_v.i._ to be in contact with: to make a passing call: to speak of anything slightly: (_prov._) to salute by touching the cap.--_n._ act of touching: a movement on a musical instrument, skill or nicety in such, a musical note or strain: any impression conveyed by contact, a hint, a slight sound: a stroke with a pen, brush, &c.: a tinge, smack, trace, a slight degree of a thing: sense of feeling, contact, close sympathy, harmony: peculiar or characteristic manner: a style of anything at a certain expenditure: a touchstone, test.--_adj._ TOUCH'ABLE, capable of being touched.--_n._ TOUCH'ABLENESS, the state or quality of being touchable.--_adj._ TOUCH'-AND-GO, of uncertain issue, ticklish, difficult.--_ns._ TOUCH'-BACK, the act of touching the football to the ground behind the player's own goal when it has been kicked by an opponent; TOUCH'-BOX, a box containing tinder, which used to be carried by soldiers armed with matchlocks; TOUCH'-DOWN, the touching to the ground of a football by a player behind the opponents'

goal; TOUCH'ER; TOUCH'-HOLE, the small hole of a cannon through which the fire is communicated to the charge.--_adv._ TOUCH'ILY, in a touchy manner: peevishly.--_n._ TOUCH'INESS, the quality of being touchy: peevishness: irritability.--_adj._ TOUCH'ING, affecting: moving: pathetic.--_prep._ concerning: with regard to.--_adv._ TOUCH'INGLY.--_ns._ TOUCH'INGNESS; TOUCH'-ME-NOT, a plant of genus _Impatiens_: lupus; TOUCH'-NEE'DLE, a small bar or needle of gold for testing articles of the same metal by comparing the streaks they make on a touchstone with those made by the needle; TOUCH'-P[=A]'PER, paper steeped in saltpetre for firing a train of powder, &c.; TOUCH'PIECE, a coin or medal formerly given by English sovereigns to those whom they touched for the cure of the king's evil; TOUCH'STONE, a kind of compact basalt or stone for testing gold or silver by the streak of the touch-needle: any test; TOUCH'WOOD, some soft combustible material, as amadou, used as tinder.--_adj._ TOUCH'Y, irritable: peevish.--TOUCH UP, to improve by a series of small touches, to elaborate, embellish.--A NEAR TOUCH, a close shave. [Fr. _toucher_--from Old High Ger. _zucchen_ (Ger.

_zucken_), to move, to draw.]

TOUGH, tuf, _adj._ not easily broken: firm: stiff, viscous, sticky: stubborn, hard to manage, trying: violent: tenacious: able to endure hardship.--_n._ a rough, a bully.--_v.t._ or _v.i._ TOUGH'EN, to make or become tough.--_adj._ TOUGH'ISH, rather tough.--_adv._ TOUGH'LY.--_n._ TOUGH'NESS. [A.S. _toh_; cog. with Ger. _zahe_.]

TOUPEE, t[=oo]-p[=e]', _n._ a little tuft or lock of hair, the top of a periwig, a small wig. [Fr. _toupet_.]

TOUR, t[=oo]r, _n._ a going round: a journey in a circuit: a prolonged journey: a ramble.--_n._ TOUR'IST, one who makes a tour, a traveller for sight-seeing.--_adj._ TOURIS'TIC. [Fr.,--L. _tornus_, a turn.]

TOURACO, t[=oo]'ra-k[=o], or t[=oo]-ra'-, _n._ a bird about the size of a pheasant found in the Amazon region, whose structure shows many anomalies--the sternal apparatus, the divided muscular crop, and the reptilian character of the head of the unhatched chick.

TOURBILLON, t[=oo]r-bil'yun, _n._ anything with a spiral movement: a whirlwind: a kind of firework which gyrates in the air. [Fr., a whirlwind--L. _turbo_.]

TOURMALIN, -E, t[=oo]r'ma-lin, _n._ a beautiful mineral, with vitreous lustre, mostly black, brownish-black, and bluish-black. [From _Tourmali_, in Ceylon, whence a variety of the stone was first brought.]

TOURNAMENT, t[=oo]r'na-ment, _n._ a military sport of the Middle Ages in which combatants engaged one another to display their courage and skill in arms: any contest in skill involving a number of competitors and a series of games.--Also TOUR'NEY. [O. Fr. _tournoiement_, _tornoi_--_torner_--L.

_torn[=a]re_, to turn.]

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