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TOP, top, _n._ the highest part of anything: the upper end or surface: the upper part of a plant: the crown of the head: the highest place, rank, or crown, consummation: the chief or highest person: (_naut._) a small platform at the head of the lower mast: the end-piece of a jointed fishing-rod: the same as _top-boot_, esp. in _pl._--_adj._ highest, foremost, chief: good, capital.--_v.t._ to cover on the top: to tip: to rise above: to surpass: to rise to the top of: to take off the top of: to hit a golf ball above its centre.--_v.i._ to be eminent:--_pr.p._ top'ping; _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ topped.--_adj._ TOP'-BOOT'ED, wearing TOP'-BOOTS, long-legged boots with an ornamental band of bright-coloured leather round the top.--_ns._ TOP'COAT, a coat worn outside one's other clothes: TOP'-DRAIN'ING, the act or practice of draining the surface of land.--_v.t._ TOP'-DRESS, to spread manure on the surface of.--_n._ TOP'-DRESS'ING, a dressing of manure laid on the surface of land: (_fig._) any superficial covering.--_adjs._ TOP'FULL (_Shak._), full to the top or brim; TOP'GALLANT, applied to the mast and sail next above the topmast and topsail and below the royal-mast.--_n._ TOP'-HAMP'ER, unnecessary weight on a ship's upper-deck.--_adj._ TOP'-HEAV'Y, having the upper part too heavy for the lower: tipsy.--_n._ TOP'-KNOT, a crest or knot of feathers upon the head of a bird: a knot of ribbons worn by women on the top of the head: the popular name of some small fishes of the same genus as the turbot and brill.--_adjs._ TOP'-KNOTTED; TOP'LESS (_Shak._), supreme, without superior; TOP'LOFTICAL, TOP'LOFTY, having a high top, pompous, bombastic.--_ns._ TOP'LOFTINESS; TOP'MAN, a man stationed in one of the tops: a top-sawyer; TOP'MAST, the second mast, or that immediately above the lower mast.--_adj._ TOP'MOST, next the top: highest.--_ns._ TOP'PER, one who, or that which, excels; TOP'PING, the act of one who tops, that which tops: (_pl._) that cut off in topping.--_adj._ surpassing, pre-eminent: arrogant.--_adv._ TOP'PINGLY.--_adj._ TOP'-PROUD (_Shak._), proud in the highest degree.--_ns._ TOPSAIL (top's[=a]l, or -sl), a sail across the topmast; TOP'-SAW'YER, the upper sawyer in a sawpit: (_coll._) a superior, a person of importance; TOP'-SIDE, the upper part; TOPS'MAN, a head-drover, a foreman; TOP'-SOIL, the upper part or surface of the soil; TOP'-SOIL'ING, removal of the top-soil; TOP'-STONE, a stone placed on the top, or which forms the top. [A.S. _top_; Ger. _zopf_.]

TOP, top, _n._ a child's toy, shaped like a pear, and set or kept whirling round by means of a string or a whip. [Prob. Old Dut. _top_, _toppe_, _dop_, _doppe_; Mid. High Ger. _topf_, _tupfen_, a pot.]

TOPARCH, t[=o]'park, _n._ the ruler or principal man in a place: the governor of a toparchy.--_n._ T[=O]'PARCHY, a small state or government consisting of only a few cities: command in a small state or subdivision of a country. [Gr. _toparch[=e]s_--_topos_, a place, _archein_, to rule--_arch[=e]_, beginning.]

TOPAZ, t[=o]'paz, _n._ a mineral, ranked among gems, found generally in primitive rocks, colourless, light blue or green, rose-pink, orange or straw-yellow, in great variety of shades, the most prized generally from Brazil.--_adj._ T[=O]'PAZINE.--_n._ TOPAZ'OLITE, a garnet resembling a topaz. [O. Fr. _topase_, _topaze_--Gr. _topazion_, also _topazos_.]

TOPAZA, t[=o]-p[=a]'za, _n._ a genus of humming-birds.

TOPE, t[=o]p, _v.i._ to drink hard or to excess: to tipple:--_pr.p._ t[=o]'ping; _pa.p._ t[=o]ped.--_n._ T[=O]'PER, a drunkard. [From _tope_, an obs. verb 'to drink hard,' from the phrase _to top off_, sig. 'to drink off at one draught.']

TOPE, t[=o]p, _n._ a Buddhist tumulus for the preservation of relics, of more or less solid masonry, in which the relics are deposited--the oldest spherical, others having polygonal bases, originally crowned with an umbrella-shaped finial, and surrounded by a carved stone railing with elaborately carved gateway. [Corr. from Sans. _st[=u]pa_, a heap.]

TOPE, t[=o]p, _n._ a small species of British shark--the _Miller's dog_ and _Penny dog_.

TOPHET, t[=o]'fet, _n._ a place at the south-east corner of Gehenna, or vale of Hinnom, to the south of Jerusalem, once the scene of idolatrous rites, later the common lay-stall of the city, in which fires were kept burning: the future place of torment for the damned. [Heb. _t[=o]pheth_.]

TOPHUS, t[=o]'fus, _n._ a gouty deposit:--_pl._ T[=O]'PH[=I].--_adj._ TOPH[=A]'CEOUS. [L., 'sandstone.']

TOPIA, t[=o]'pi-a, _n._ a kind of mural decoration common in old Roman houses.--_adj._ T[=O]'PI[=A]RY, clipped into ornamental shapes, of trees and shrubs--also T[=O]PI[=A]'RIAN. [L.,--Gr. _topos_, a place.]

TOPIC, top'ik, _n._ a subject of discourse or argument: a matter.--_adj._ TOP'ICAL, pertaining to a place: local: relating to a topic or subject: relating to things of local interest.--_adv._ TOP'ICALLY, with reference to a particular place or topic. [Fr.,--Low L.,--Gr. _ta topika_, the general principles of argument--_topos_, a place.]

TOPOGRAPHER, t[=o]-pog'raf-[.e]r, _n._ one who describes a place, &c.: one skilled in topography.--_adjs._ TOPOGRAPH'IC, -AL, pertaining to topography.--_adv._ TOPOGRAPH'ICALLY, in a topographical manner.--_ns._ TOPOG'RAPHIST; TOPOG'RAPHY, the description of a place: a detailed account of the superficial features of a tract of country: the art of describing places. [Gr. _topos_, a place, _graphein_, to describe.]

TOPOLATRY, t[=o]pol'a-tri, _n._ veneration for a place. [Gr. _topos_, a place, _latreia_, worship.]

TOPOLOGY, t[=o]-pol'[=o]-ji, _n._ the art of aiding the memory by associating things with places. [Gr. _topos_, a place, _legein_, to speak.]

TOPONYM, top'[=o]-nim, _n._ (_anat._) a topographical name, the technical designation of any region of an animal.--_n._ TOPON'OMY, topical terminology, the place-names of a district.--_adjs._ TOPON'YMAL, TOPONYM'IC, -AL.--_n._ TOPON'YMY, the nomenclature of anatomical regions.

[Gr. _topos_, a place, _onoma_, a name.]

TOPPLE, top'l, _v.i._ to fall forward: to tumble down. [Freq. of _top_.]

TOPSYTURVY, top'si-tur-vi, _adv._ bottom upwards.--_adj._ turned upside down.--_n._ confusion.--_v.t._ to turn upside down.--_n._ TOPSYTURVIFIC[=A]'TION, a turning upside down.--_adv._ TOPSYTUR'VILY.--_ns._ TOPSYTUR'VINESS; TOPSYTUR'VYDOM. [Explained by Skeat as _top_ + _so_ (_adv._) + _tervy_, overturned--M. E. _terven_, to throw--A.S. _torfian_, to throw.]

TOQUE, t[=o]k, _n._ a form of hat or cap worn in the 16th century: a modern close-fitting brimless bonnet for women: an African nominal money of account, equal to 40 cowries: the bonnet-macaque. [Fr., prob. Celt., Bret.

_tok_, W. _toc_, a hat.]

TOR, tor, _n._ a hill, a rocky height. [A.S. _torr_, _tor_--W. _tor_; Gael.


TORAH, t[=o]'ra, _n._ the Mosaic law: the book of the law, the Pentateuch.--Also TH[=O]'RAH. [Heb.]

TORBITE, t[=o]r'b[=i]t, _n._ a preparation of peat for fuel.

TORCH, torch, _n._ a light formed of twisted tow dipped in pitch or other inflammable material: a large candle or flambeau.--_ns._ TORCH'-BEAR'ER; TORCH'-DANCE; TORCH'ER (_Shak._), one who gives light with, or as with, a torch; TORCH'ING, a way of catching fish at night with torch-light-and spear; TORCH'-LIGHT; TORCH' TORCH'-STAVES (_Shak._), staves for carrying torches. [Fr. _torche_--L. _tortum_, pa.p. of _torqu[=e]re_, to twist.]

TORCHeRE, tor-sh[=a]r', _n._ a large ornamental candelabrum. [Fr.]

TORCULAR, tor'k[=u]-lar, _n._ the tourniquet. [L.]

TORE, t[=o]r, _pa.t._ of _tear_.

TORE, t[=o]r, _n._ (_prov._) dead grass.


TOREADOR, tor-e-a-d[=o]r', _n._ a bull-fighter, esp. on horseback. [Sp.]

TO-RENT, t[=oo]'-rent', _p.adj._ (_Spens._) rent asunder.

TOREUTIC, t[=o]-r[=oo]'tik, _adj._ pertaining to chased or embossed metal-work.--_ns._ TOREUMATOG'RAPHY, a treatise on ancient work in metal; TOREUMATOL'OGY, the art of ancient art-work on metal; TOREU'TES, an artist in metal. [Gr., _toreuein_, to bore.]

TORGOCH, tor'goh, _n._ the red-bellied char. [W.]

TORMENT, tor'ment, _n._ torture: anguish: that which causes pain.--_v.t._ TORMENT', to torture: to put to extreme pain, physical or mental: to distress: to afflict.--_p.adj._ TORMEN'TED (_U.S._), a euphemism for damned.--_adj._ TORMEN'TING, causing torment.--_adv._ TORMEN'TINGLY, in a tormenting manner.--_ns._ TORMEN'TOR, -ER, one who, or that which, torments: (_B._) a torturer, an executioner: a long meat-fork: a wing in the first groove of a stage; TORMEN'TUM, a whirligig. [O. Fr.,--L.

_tormentum_, an engine for hurling stones--L. _torqu[=e]re_, to twist.]

TORMENTIL, tor'men-til, _n._ a genus of plants, one species with an astringent woody root. [Fr.,--Low L. _tormentilla_--L. _tormentum_.]

TORMINA, tor'mi-na, gripes, colic.--_adjs._ TOR'MINAL, TOR'MINOUS.

TORMODONT, tor'm[=o]-dont, _adj._ socketed, of teeth. [Gr. _tormos_, a hole, _odous_, _odontos_, a tooth.]

TORN, t[=o]rn, _pa.p._ of _tear_: (_B._) stolen.--_adj._ TORN'-DOWN, rebellious, ungovernable.

TORNADO, tor-n[=a]'d[=o], _n._ a violent hurricane, frequent in tropical countries:--_pl._ TORN[=A]'DOES.--_adj._ TORNAD'IC. [Sp., _tornada_--_tornar_--L. _torn[=a]re_.]

TORNEAMENT, an obsolete form of _tournament_.

TOROIDAL, t[=o]-roi'dal, _adj._ shaped like an anchor-ring.

TOROUS, t[=o]'rus, _adj._ swelling, muscular.--_n._ TOROS'ITY, muscularity.

TORPEDO, tor-p[=e]'do, _n._ a genus of cartilaginous fishes of family _Torpedinidae_, related to the skates and rays, with electric organs on each side of the head, giving an electric shock when touched so as to produce torpor or numbness, the cramp-fish: a submarine weapon of offence, carrying a charge of gun-cotton or other explosive, and possessing powers of locomotion--in distinction to a submarine mine, which is stationary and used for defensive purposes:--_pl._ TORP[=E]'DOES.--_v.t._ to attack with torpedoes, to explode a torpedo in or under.--_adj._ TORPED'INOUS.--_ns._ TORP[=E]'DO-BOAT, a small swift steamer from which torpedoes are discharged; TORP[=E]'DO-BOOM, a spar for carrying a torpedo, projecting from a boat or anchored in a channel; TORP[=E]'DO-CATCH'ER, a swift vessel for capturing torpedo-boats; TORP[=E]'DOIST, one skilled in the management of torpedoes; TORP[=E]'DO-NET, a net of wire hung at some distance round a ship to intercept torpedoes. [L.,--_torp[=e]re_, to be stiff.]

TORPESCENT, tor-pes'ent, _adj._ becoming torpid or numb.--_n._ TORPES'CENCE. [L., _pr.p._ of _torpesc[)e]re_, to become stiff--_torp[=e]re_, to be stiff.]

TORPID, tor'pid, _adj._ stiff, numb: having lost the power of motion and feeling: sluggish, dormant: pertaining to the _Torpids_, or Lent boat-races, at Oxford.--_n._ a second-class racing boat, or one of its crew.--_n._ TORPID'ITY.--_adv._ TOR'PIDLY.--_n._ TOR'PIDNESS.--_v.t._ TOR'PIFY, to make torpid.--_ns._ TOR'PITUDE, state of being torpid: numbness: dullness: stupidity; TOR'POR, numbness: inactivity: dullness: stupidity. [L. _torpidus_--_torp[=e]re_.]

TORQUE, tork, _n._ a twisting force: a necklace of metal rings interlaced.--_adjs._ TOR'QUATE, -D, collared; TORQUED', twisted. [L.

_torques_--_torqu[=e]re_, to twist.]

TORREFY, tor'e-f[=i], _v.t._ to scorch: to parch:--_pa.t._ and _pa.p._ torr'efied.--_n._ TORREFAC'TION, act of torrefying: state of being torrefied. [L. _torr[=e]re_, to dry, to burn, _fac[)e]re_, to make.]

TORRENT, tor'ent, _n._ a rushing stream: a strong or turbulent current.--_adj._ rushing in a stream.--_ns._ TORR'ENT-BOW, a bow of prismatic colours formed above the spray of a torrent; TORR'ENT-DUCK, a merganser of genus _Merganetta_, found in the swift water-courses of the Andes.--_adj._ TORREN'TIAL, of the nature of a torrent, produced by the agency of rapid streams: overwhelmingly voluble.--_n._ TORRENTIAL'ITY.--_adv._ TORREN'TIALLY. [L. _torrens_, _-entis_, boiling, _pr.p._ of _torr[=e]re_, to dry.]

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