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TOURNIQUET, t[=oo]r'ni-ket, _n._ an instrument for compressing the main artery of the thigh or arm, either for the purpose of preventing too great a loss of blood in amputation, or to check dangerous haemorrhage from accidental wounds, or to stop the circulation through an aneurism. [Fr., _tourner_--L. _torn[=a]re_, to turn.]

TOURNURE, t[=oo]r-n[=u]r', _n._ contour, the characteristic turn of a drawing: a pad worn by women to give the hips a well-rounded outline, the drapery at the back of a gown.

TOUSE, towz, _v.t._ (_Spens._) to pull, to tear, to tease or worry:--_pr.p._ tous'ing; _pa.p._ toused.--_n._ a pull: a disturbance.--_n._ TOUS'ER, one who, or that which, touses.--_v.t._ TOUS'LE (_coll._), to disarrange, to tumble.--_adj._ TOUS'Y, shaggy, unkempt, tousled.

TOUT, towt, _v.i._ to look out for custom in an obtrusive way.--_n._ one who does so: a low fellow who hangs about racing-stables, &c., to pick up profitable information.--_n._ TOUT'ER, one who touts. [A.S. _totian_, to look out.]

TOUT, towt, _v.i._ (_Scot._) to pout.--_n._ a pet, a fit of the sulks, a sudden illness.--_adj._ TOUT'IE, petulant.

TOW, t[=o], _v.t._ to pull a vessel through the water with a rope.--_n._ originally a rope for towing with: the coarse part of flax or hemp: the act of towing.--_ns._ TOW'AGE, act of towing: money for towing; TOW'-BOAT, a boat that is towed, or one used for towing other TOW'ING-BITTS, upright timbers projecting above the deck for fastening tow-lines to.--_ns._ TOW'ING-NET, a drag-net for collecting objects of natural history, &c.; TOW'ING-PATH, TOW'-PATH, a path, generally by the side of a canal or river, for horses towing barges; TOW'-[=I]'RON, a toggle-iron used in whaling; TOW'LINE, a line used in towing.--_adj._ TOW'Y, like tow. [A.S. _teohan_, _teon_. Cf. _Tug_.]

TOWARD, t[=o]'ard, TOWARDS, t[=o]'ardz, _prep._ in the direction of: with a tendency to: for, as a help to: near, about.--_adv._ nearly: in a state of preparation. [A.S. _toweard_, _adj._--_to_, to, and _ward_, sig.


TOWARD, -LY, t[=o]'ward, -li, _adj._ ready to do or learn: apt.--_ns._ T[=O]'WARDNESS, T[=O]'WARDLINESS.

TOWEL, tow'el, _n._ a cloth for wiping the skin after it is washed, and for other purposes: an altar-cloth.--_ns._ TOW'EL-HORSE, -RACK, a frame for hanging towels on; TOW'ELLING, cloth for towels: a thrashing.--A LEAD TOWEL, a bullet; AN OAKEN TOWEL, a cudgel. [O. Fr. _touaille_--Old High Ger. _twahilla_ (Ger. _zwehle_)--Old High Ger. _twahan_, to wash.]

TOWER, tow'[.e]r, _n._ a lofty building, standing alone or forming part of another: a fortress: (_her._) a bearing representing a tower with battlements, &c.: a high head-dress worn by women under William III. and Anne.--_v.i._ to rise into the air: to be lofty.--_v.t._ (_Milt._) to rise aloft into.--_adjs._ TOW'ERED, having towers; TOW'ERING, very high, elevated: very violent; TOW'ERY, having towers: lofty. [O. Fr. _tur_--L.

_turris_, a tower.]

TOWHEE, tow'h[=e], _n._ the chewink, ground-robin, or marsh-robin of the United States. [Imit.]

TOWN, town, _n._ a place larger than a village, not a city: the inhabitants of a town.--_ns._ TOWN'-CLERK, a clerk who keeps the records of a town; TOWN'-COUN'CIL, the governing body in a town, elected by the ratepayers; TOWN'-COUN'CILLOR, a member of a town-council; TOWN'-CR[=I]'ER, one who cries or makes public proclamations in a town; TOWN'HALL, a public hall for the official business of a town; TOWN'HOUSE, a house or building for transacting the public business of a town: a house in town as opposed to one in the country.--_adj._ TOWN'ISH, characteristic of town as opposed to country.--_ns._ TOWN'LAND, a township; TOWN'-MEET'ING, in New England, a primary meeting of the voters of a TOWNS'FOLK, the folk or people of a town.--_ns._ TOWN'SHIP, the territory or district of a town: the corporation of a town: a district; TOWNS'MAN, an inhabitant or fellow-inhabitant of a TOWNS'PEOPLE, townsfolk.--_ns._ TOWN'-TALK, the general talk of a town: the subject of common conversation; TOWN'Y, a townsman. [A.S. _tun_, an enclosure, town; Ice. _tun_, an enclosure, Ger. _zaun_, a hedge.]

TO-WORNE, t[=oo]-worn', _p.adj._ (_Spens._) worn-out.

TOXICOLOGY, tok-si-kol'[=o]-ji, _n._ the science of poisons.--_ns._ TOX[=E]'MIA, TOXae'MIA, TOXIC[=E]'MIA, TOXICae'MIA, blood-poisoning.--_adjs._ TOX[=E]'MIC, TOXae'MIC, septicemic; TOX'IC, -AL, pertaining to poisons, toxicological.--_adv._ TOX'ICALLY.--_adj._ TOX'ICANT, poisoning.--_n._ a poison.--_adj._ TOXICOLOG'ICAL, pertaining to toxicology.--_adv._ TOXICOLOG'ICALLY.--_ns._ TOXICOL'OGIST, one versed in toxicology; TOXIC[=O]'SIS, a morbid condition caused by the action of a poison; TOX'IN, -E, a poisonous ptomaine. [Gr. _toxikon_, arrow-poison--_toxikos_, for the bow--_toxon_, a bow, _logia_--_legein_, to say.]

TOXOPHILITE, tok-sof'i-l[=i]t, _n._ a lover of archery: an archer.--_adj._ TOXOPHILIT'IC. [Gr. _toxon_, a bow, _philein_, to love.]

TOY, toi, _n._ a child's plaything: a trifle: a thing only for amusement or look: a curious conceit, a story: a matter of no importance: amorous sport.--_v.i._ to trifle: to dally amorously.--_n._ TOY'ER, one who toys.--_adj._ TOY'ISH, given to toying or trifling: playful: wanton.--_adv._ TOY'ISHLY.--_ns._ TOY'ISHNESS; TOY'MAN, one who deals in toys; TOY'SHOP, a shop where toys are sold.--_adj._ TOY'SOME, disposed to toy: wanton. [Dut. _tuig_, tools; Ger. _zeng_, stuff.]

TOYLE, toil (_Spens._). Same as _Toil_ (1).

TOZE, t[=o]z, _v.t._ (_Shak._) to pull by violence or importunity:--_pr.p._ t[=o]z'ing; _pa.p._ t[=o]zed.

TRABEATED, tra-b[=e]-[=a]'ted, _adj._ having an entablature: belonging to beam or lintel construction.--_adj._ TRAB'AL.--_ns._ TR[=A]'B[=E]A, a robe of state worn by consuls, augurs, &c. in ancient Rome:--_pl._ TR[=A]'BEae; TRAB[=E][=A]'TION, an entablature: combination of beams in a structure; TRABEC'ULA (_bot._), a projection from the cell-wall across the cell-cavity of the ducts of certain plants: one of the fibrous cords of connective tissue in the substance of spleen, kidneys, &c.: one of the fleshy columns, or _columnae carneae_, in the ventricle of the heart, to which the chordae tendineae are attached: (_entom._) one of the pair of movable appendages on the head, in front of the antennae of some mallophagous insects--also TRABEC'ULUS:--_pl._ TRABEC'ULae.--_adj._ TRABEC'ULAR.--_n._ TRABEC'ULARISM.--_adjs._ TRABEC'ULATE, -D, having a trabecula. [L. _trabs_, a beam.]

TRACE, tr[=a]s, _n._ a mark left: footprint: a small quantity: (_fort._) the ground-plan of a work.--_v.t._ to follow by tracks or footsteps, to discover the tracks of, to follow step by step, to traverse: to follow with exactness: to sketch: to cover with traced lines or tracery.--_v.i._ to move, travel: to dance.--_adj._ TRACE'ABLE, that may be traced.--_n._ TRACE'ABLENESS.--_adv._ TRACE'ABLY.--_ns._ TR[=A]'CER; TR[=A]'CERY, ornamentation traced in flowing outline: the beautiful forms in stone with which the arches of Gothic windows are filled for the support of the glass.

[Fr.,--L. _tructus_, pa.p. of _trah[)e]re_, to draw.]

TRACE, tr[=a]s, _n._ one of the straps by which a vehicle is drawn. [O. Fr.

_trays_, _trais_, same as _traits_, pl. of _trait_; cf. TRAIT.]

TRACHEA, tra-k[=e]'a, _n._ that part of the air-passages which lies between the larynx and the bronchi:--_pl._ TRACH[=E]'ae.--_adjs._ TR[=A]'CH[=E]AL, pertaining to the trachea; TR[=A]'CH[=E]AN, having TR[=A]CH[=E][=A]'RIA, the tracheate arachnidans.--_adjs._ TR[=A]CH[=E][=A]'RIAN, pertaining to the tracheate arachnidans; TRA'CH[=E][=A]RY, pertaining to the trachea; TR[=A]'CH[=E][=A]TE, -D, having a trachea.--_ns._ TR[=A]CHENCH'YMA, tracheary tissue; TR[=A]CH[=E][=O]BRANCH'IA, a breathing-organ of certain aquatic insect larvae.--_adj._ TR[=A]CH[=E][=O]BRONCH'IAL, pertaining to the trachea and the bronchi.--_n._ TR[=A]CH[=E]'[=O]C[=E]LE, an enlargement of the thyroid gland.--_adj._ TR[=A]CH[=E][=O]SCOP'IC, pertaining to tracheoscopy.--_ns._ TR[=A]CH[=E]'[=O]SCOPIST, one who practises tracheoscopy; TR[=A]CH[=E]'[=O]SC[=O]PY, the inspection of the trachea; TR[=A]'CHEOTOME, a knife used in tracheotomy; TR[=A]CH[=E]OT'[=O]MIST, one who practices tracheotomy; TR[=A]CHEOT'OMY, the operation of making an opening in the trachea; TR[=A]CH[=I]'TIS, TRACH[=E][=I]'TIS, inflammation of the trachea.

[L. _trach[=i]a_--Gr. _trachys_, _tracheia_, rough.]

TRACHELIUM, tr[=a]-k[=e]'li-um, _n._ the neck of a column: a genus of _Campanulaceae_, native to the Mediterranean region.--_adj._ TR[=A]CH[=E]LO-OCCIP'ITAL, pertaining to the nape of the neck and the hind-head. [Gr. _trach[=e]los_, the neck.]

TRACHINUS, tr[=a]-k[=i]'nus, _n._ the typical genus of _Trachinidae_, a family of acanthopterygian fishes, the weevers. [Gr. _trachys_, rough.]

TRACHLE, TRAUCHLE, trah'l, _v.t._ (_Scot._) to draggle: to fatigue.--_n._ a long and exhausting effort.--_adj._ TRACH'LY, dirty, slovenly.

TRACHOMA, tra-k[=o]'ma, _n._ a disease of the eye, with hard pustules on the inner surface of the eyelids.

TRACHURUS, tr[=a]-k[=u]'rus, _n._ a genus of carangoid fishes, the saurels.

[Gr. _trachys_, rough, _oura_, tail.]

TRACHYTE, tr[=a]'k[=i]t, _n._ a crystalline igneous rock, generally grayish in colour, usually fine-grained or compact, more or less markedly porphyritic, with large crystals of sanidine and scales of black mica.--_adjs._ TRACHYT'IC; TRACH'YTOID. [Gr. _trachys_, rough.]

TRACING, tr[=a]'sing, _n._ act of one who traces: act of copying by marking on thin paper the lines of a pattern placed beneath: the copy so produced.--_n._ TR[=A]'CING-P[=A]'PER, a transparent paper which, when laid over a drawing, &c., allows the drawing to be seen through it, so that a copy can be made by tracing the lines of the original on the paper.

TRACK, trak, _v.t._ to follow by marks or footsteps: to tow: to traverse: to make marks upon.--_n._ a mark left: footprint: a beaten path: course laid out for horse, foot, or bicycle races: the two continuous lines of rails on which railway carriages run.--_ns._ TRACK'AGE, a drawing or towing, as of a boat; TRACK'-BOAT, a boat towed by a line from the shore; TRACK'-CLEAR'ER, a guard in front of the wheels of a locomotive, &c., to clear any obstruction from the track; TRACK'ER, one who, or that which, tracks; TRACK'-LAY'ER, a workman engaged in laying railway-tracks.--_adj._ TRACK'LESS, without a path: untrodden.--_adv._ TRACK'LESSLY.--_ns._ TRACK'LESSNESS; TRACK'MAN, one who has charge of a railway-track; TRACK'-ROAD, a towing-path; TRACK'-WALK'ER, a trackman having charge of a certain section of railway-track.--IN ONE'S TRACKS, just where one stands; MAKE TRACKS, to go away hastily, to decamp; MAKE TRACKS FOR, to go after; OFF THE TRACK, derailed, of a railway carriage, &c.: away from the proper subject. [Fr. _trac_--Dut. _trek_, draught, _trekken_, to draw.]

TRACT, trakt, _n._ something drawn out or extended: continued duration: a region, area: a short treatise: an anthem sung instead of the Alleluia after the gradual, or instead of it, from Septuagesima till Easter-eve.--_n._ TRACTABIL'ITY, quality or state of being tractable: docility.--_adj._ TRAC'TABLE, easily drawn, managed, or taught: docile.--_n._ TRAC'TABLENESS.--_adv._ TRAC'TABLY.--_n._ TRAC'TATE, a treatise, tract.--_adj._ TRAC'TILE, that may be drawn out.--_ns._ TRACTIL'ITY, the quality of being tractile: ductility; TRAC'TION, act of drawing or state of being drawn; TRAC'TION-EN'GINE, a steam vehicle for hauling heavy weights along a road, &c.--_adj._ TRAC'TIVE, that draws or pulls.--_ns._ TRAC'TOR, that which draws, esp. in _pl._ metallic tractors, two bars of iron and of steel, drawn over diseased parts of the body to give supposed relief; TRACTOR[=A]'TION, the use of metallic tractors in medicine. [L. _tractus_, pa.p. of _trah[)e]re_, to draw.]

TRACTARIAN, trakt-[=a]r'i-an, _n._ one of the writers of the famous _Tracts for the Times_, published at Oxford during the years 1833-41--Pusey, Newman, Keble, Hurrell Froude, and Isaac Williams.--_ns._ TRACT[=A]R'IANISM, the system of religious opinion promulgated in these, its main aim to assert the authority and dignity of the Anglican Church; TRACT[=A]'TOR, one of the writers of the foregoing.

TRADE, tr[=a]d, _n._ buying and selling: commerce: occupation, craft; men engaged in the same occupation: rubbish.--_v.i._ to buy and sell: to act merely for money.--_v.i._ to traffic with.--_adjs._ TR[=A]D'ED (_Shak._), versed, practised; TRADE'FUL (_Spens._), commercial, busy in traffic.--_ns._ TRADE'-HALL, a hall for the meetings of any trade or guild; TRADE'-MARK, any name or distinctive device warranting goods for sale as the production of any individual or firm; TRADE'-PRICE, the price at which goods are sold to members of the same trade, or are sold by wholesale to retail dealers; TR[=A]'DER; TRADE'-SALE, an auction sale of goods by producers, &c., to persons in the TRADES'-FOLK, people employed in trade.--_n._ TRADES'MAN, a common name for a shopkeeper: a mechanic:--_fem._ TRADES' TRADES'PEO'PLE, people employed in various trades, esp. shopkeeping, &c.--_ns._ TRADES'-UN'ION, TRADE'-UN'ION, an organised association of the workmen of any trade or industry for the protection of their common interests; TRADE'-UN'IONISM; TRADE'-UN'IONIST; TRADE'-WIND, a wind blowing steadily toward the thermal equator and deflected westwardly by the eastward rotation of the earth.--_adj._ TR[=A]'DING, carrying on commerce (also _n._): (_Milt._) frequented by traders, denoting places where the trade-winds blow.--TRADE ON, to take advantage of.--BOARD OF TRADE, a department of government for control of railways, mercantile marine, harbours, and commercial matters generally.

[A.S. _traed_, pa.t. of tredan, to tread. Not Fr. _traite_, transport of goods--L. _tract[=a]re_, freq. of _trah[)e]re_, to draw.]

TRADE, tr[=a]d, _n._ (_Spens._) same as TREAD: (_Shak._) beaten path.

TRADITION, tra-dish'un, _n._ the handing down of opinions or practices to posterity unwritten: a belief or practice thus handed down.--_adjs._ TRADI'TIONAL, TRADI'TIONARY, delivered by tradition.--_ns._ TRADI'TIONALISM; TRADITIONAL'ITY.--_advs._ TRADI'TIONALLY, TRADI'TIONARILY.--_n._ TRADI'TIONIST, one who adheres to tradition.--_adj._ TRAD'ITIVE, traditional. [L.,--_trans_, over, _d[)a]re_, to give.]

TRADITOR, trad'i-tor, _n._ one of those early Christians who under persecution gave up copies of the Scriptures, the sacred vessels, or the names of their fellow-Christians. [L.,--_trad[)e]re_; to give up.]

TRADUCE, tra-d[=u]s', _v.t._ to calumniate: to defame.--_ns._ TRADUCE'MENT, the act of traducing: (_Shak._) misrepresentation, calumny; TRAD[=U]'CER.--_adj._ TRAD[=U]'CIBLE.--_adv._ TRAD[=U]'CINGLY. [L.

_traduc[)e]re_, to lead along--_trans_, across, _duc[)e]re_, to lead.]

TRADUCTION, tra-duk'shun, _n._ the act of transferring, conveyance: (_Spens._) transfer: transmission from one to another, tradition: derivation from one of the same kind.--_ns._ TRAD[=U]'CIAN, one who believes in traducianism; TRAD[=U]'CIANISM, the belief, long prevalent in the Western Church, that children receive soul as well as body from their parents through natural generation--every soul being a fresh creation--also _Generationism_.--_adj._ TRADUC'TIVE.

TRAFFIC, traf'ik, _n._ commerce: large trade: the business done on a railway, &c.--_v.i._ to trade: to trade meanly.--_v.t._ to exchange:--_pr.p._ traff'icking; _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ traff'icked.--_n._ TRAFF'ICKER.--_adj._ TRAFF'ICLESS.--_n._ TRAFF'IC-MAN'AGER, the manager of the traffic on a railway, &c. [O. Fr. _trafique_; cf. It. _trafficare_, prob. from L. _trans_, across, and Low L. _vic[=a]re_, to exchange--L.

_vicis_, change; not from fac[)e]re, to make.]

TRAGACANTH, trag'a-kanth, _n._ a name given to several low spiny shrubs of the genus _Astragalus_, found in western Asia, as well as to the mucilaginous substance or gum derived from them.

TRAGALISM, trag'a-lizm, _n._ goatishness, lust.

TRAGEDY, traj'e-di, _n._ a species of drama in which the action and language are elevated, and the catastrophe sad: any mournful and dreadful event.--_n._ TRAG[=E]'DIAN, an actor of tragedy:--_fem._ TRAG[=E]'DIENNE.--_adjs._ TRAG'IC, -AL, pertaining to tragedy: sorrowful: calamitous.--_adv._ TRAG'ICALLY.--_ns._ TRAG'ICALNESS; TRAG'I-COM'EDY, a dramatic piece in which grave and comic scenes are blended.--_adjs._ TRAG'I-COM'IC, -AL.--_adv._ TRAG'I-COM'ICALLY. [Lit. 'goat-song,' so called either from the old dramas being exhibited when a goat was sacrificed, or from a goat being the prize, or because the actors were dressed in goat-skins--L. _tragoedia_--Gr. _trag[=o]dia_--_tragos_, a he-goat, _aoidos_, _[=o]dos_, a singer--_aeidein_, _adein_, to sing.]

TRAGELAPHUS, tr[=a]-jel'a-fus, _n._ a fabulous animal associated with Diana: a genus of African antelopes, the boschbok, &c. [Gr.,--_tragos_, a goat, _elaphos_, a deer.]

TRAGOPAN, trag'[=o]-pan, _n._ a genus of birds in the pheasant family, represented by five species in India and China, of most brilliant plumage.

TRAGULINE, trag'[=u]-lin, _adj._ goat-like.

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