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PROVINCIAL, pr[=o]-vin'shal, _adj._ pertaining to _Provence_ or _Provencal_.--PROVINCIAL ROSE, the cabbage-rose--from _Provins-rose_, Provins in Seine-et-Marne, being famous for its roses: (_Shak._) a rosette formerly worn on the shoe.

PROVINE, pr[=o]-v[=i]n', _v.i._ to propagate a vine by layering, to form a plant for the next season at a distance from the original plant.

PROVISION, pr[=o]-vizh'un, _n._ act of providing: that which is provided or prepared: measures taken beforehand: a clause in a law or a deed: a rule for guidance: an appointment by the pope to a benefice not yet vacant: preparation: previous agreement: a store of food: provender.--_v.t._ to supply with provisions or food.--_adjs._ PROVI'SIONAL, PROVI'SIONARY, provided for the occasion: temporary: containing a provision.--_n._ PROVI'SIONAL-JUDG'MENT, a judgment given as far as the available evidence admits, but subject to correction under more light.--_adv._ PROVI'SIONALLY.--_ns._ PROVI'SIONAL-OR'DER, an order to do something granted by a secretary of state, which, when confirmed by the legislature, has the force of an act of parliament; PROVI'SIONAL-REM'EDY, a means of detaining in safety a person or property until a decision upon some point in which they are concerned be come to; PROVI'SION-MER'CHANT, a general dealer in articles of food. [Fr.,--L.,--_provisus_, pa.p. of _provid[=e]re_.]

PROVISO, pr[=o]-v[=i]'z[=o], _n._ a provision or condition in a deed or other writing: the clause containing it: any condition:--_pl._ PROVISOS (pr[=o]-v[=i]'z[=o]z).--_adv._ PROV[=I]'SORILY.--_adj._ PROV[=I]'SORY, containing a proviso or condition: conditional: making provision for the time: temporary. [From the L. law phrase _proviso quod_, it being provided that.]

PROVISOR, pr[=o]-v[=i]'zor, _n._ one who provides: a purveyor: a person to whom the pope has granted the right to the next vacancy in a benefice.--STATUTE OF PROVISORS, an act of the English parliament passed in 1351 to prevent the pope from exercising the power of creating provisors.

PROVOKE, pr[=o]-v[=o]k', _v.t._ to call forth: to summon: to excite or call into action: to excite with anger: to offend: (_B._) to challenge.--_n._ PROVOC[=A]'TION, act of provoking: that which provokes: any cause of danger.--_adjs._ PROVOC'ATIVE, PROVOC'ATORY, tending to provoke or excite.--_n._ anything that stirs up or provokes.--_n._ PROVOC'ATIVENESS, the quality of being provocative.--_adj._ PROV[=O]'KABLE.--_ns._ PROV[=O]KE'MENT (_Spens._), provocation; PROV[=O]'KER, one who, or that which, provokes, causes, or promotes.--_adj._ PROV[=O]'KING, irritating.--_adv._ PROV[=O]'KINGLY.--THE PROVOCATION, the sojourn of the Jews in the wilderness, when they provoked God. [Fr. _provoquer_--L.

_provoc[=a]re_, _pro_, forth, _voc[=a]re_, to call.]

PROVOST, prov'ost, _n._ the dignitary set over a cathedral or collegiate church: the head of a college: (_Scotland_) the chief magistrate of certain classes of burghs, answering to mayor in England: (_Shak._) the keeper of a prison.--_ns._ PROV'OST-MAR'SHAL (_army_), an officer with special powers for enforcing discipline and securing prisoners till brought to trial: (_navy_) an officer having charge of prisoners; PROV'OSTRY, a district under a provost; PROV'OSTSHIP, the office of a provost.--LORD PROVOST, the style of the chief magistrates of Edinburgh, Glasgow, Perth, Aberdeen, and Dundee. [O. Fr. _provost_ (Fr. _prevot_), L. _praepositus_, pa.p. of _praepon[)e]re_--_prae_, over, _pon[)e]re_, to place.]

PROW, prow, _n._ the forepart of a ship: the bow or beak. [Fr. _proue_ (It.

_prua_)--L. _prora_--Gr. _pr[=o]ra_, a prow--_pro_, before.]

PROWESS, prow'es, _n._ bravery, esp. in war: valour: daring.--_adj._ PROW (_arch._), brave, valiant:--_superl._ PROW'EST. [O. Fr. _prou_ (Fr.

_preux_), perh. from _prod_ in _prodesse_, to do good.]

PROWL, prowl, _v.i._ to keep poking about: to rove about in search of prey or plunder.--_n._ (_coll._) the act of prowling: a roving for prey.--_n._ PROWL'ER.--_adj._ PROWL'ING.--_adv._ PROWL'INGLY. [Prob. for _progle_=_prokle_, a freq. form of _proke_, to thrust; cf. _Prog._]

PROXIMATE, proks'i-m[=a]t, _adj._ nearest or next: without any one between, as a cause and its effect: having the most intimate connection: near and immediate.--_adj._ PROX'IMAL.--_advs._ PROX'IMALLY; PROX'IMATELY.--_n._ PROXIM'ITY, immediate nearness in time, place, relationship, &c.--_adj._ PROX'IMO, (_in_) the next (month)--often written _prox._--PROXIMATE CAUSE, a cause which immediately precedes the effect; PROXIMATE OBJECT, immediate object. [L. _proximus_, next, superl. from _prope_, near.]

PROXY, prok'si, _n._ the agency of one who acts for another: one who acts or votes for another, or the writing by which he is authorised to do so: a substitute.--_v.i._ to vote or act by proxy.--_n._ PROX'YSHIP.--_adj._ PROX'Y-WED'DED (_Tenn._), wedded by proxy. [Obs. _procuracy_. Cf.


PROZYMITE, proz'i-m[=i]t, _n._ one who uses leavened bread in the eucharist--opp. to _Azymite_.

PRUDE, pr[=oo]d, _n._ a woman of affected modesty: one who pretends extreme propriety.--_n._ PRU'DERY, manners of a prude: pretended or overdone strictness of manner or behaviour.--_adj._ PRU'DISH, like a prude: affectedly modest or reserved: stiff: severe.--_adv._ PRU'DISHLY.--_n._ PRU'DISHNESS. [O. Fr. _prode_, fem. of _prou_, _prod_, excellent.]

PRUDENT, pr[=oo]'dent, _adj._ cautious and wise in conduct: careful: discreet: dictated by forethought: frugal.--_n._ PRU'DENCE, quality of being prudent: wisdom applied to practice: attention to self-interest: caution.--_adj._ PRUDEN'TIAL, using or practising prudence.--_n._ a matter for prudence (generally _pl._).--_n._ PRUDENTIAL'ITY.--_advs._ PRUDEN'TIALLY; PRU'DENTLY. [Fr.,--L. _pr[=u]dens_, _pr[=u]dentis_, contr.

of _providens_, pr.p. of _provid[=e]re_, to foresee.]

PRUD'-HOMME, pr[=oo]-dom', _n._ a prudent man: a skilled workman: in France, one of a board of arbitrators formed from masters and workmen. [Fr.

_prud_ or _prod_, good, _homme_, a man.]

PRUINOSE, pr[=oo]'i-n[=o]s, _adj._ powdery, mealy.--Also PRU'INOUS. [L.

_pruina_, hoar-frost.]

PRUNE, pr[=oo]n, _v.t._ to trim by lopping off superfluous parts: to divest of anything superfluous: to arrange or dress feathers, as birds do.--_ns._ PRU'NER; PRU'NING, the act of pruning or trimming; PRU'NING-HOOK, a hooked bill for pruning with; PRU'NING-KNIFE, a large knife with a slightly hooked point for PRU'NING-SHEARS, shears for pruning shrubs, &c.

[Older form _proin_, prob. from Fr. _provigner_, _provin_, a shoot--L.

_propago_, _-inis_.]

PRUNE, pr[=oo]n, _n._ a plum, esp. a dried plum.--_adj._ PRUNIF'EROUS, bearing plums. [Fr.,--L. _prunum_--Gr. _prounon_.]

PRUNELLA, pr[=oo]-nel'a, _n._ sore throat: angina pectoris. [Low L., from Teut.; Ger. _braune_, quinsy.]

PRUNELLA, pr[=oo]-nel'a, _n._ a genus of plants, the best known of which is _Self-heal_, formerly used as a medicine. [Perh. from _prunella_, above.]

PRUNELLA, pr[=oo]-nel'a, _n._ a strong woollen stuff, generally black--also PRUNELL'O.--_n._ PRUNELL'O, a little prune: a kind of dried plum. [Prob.

Latinised form of Fr. _prunelle_, a sloe, dim. of Fr. _prune_, a plum.]

PRURIENCE, pr[=oo]'ri-ens, _n._ state of being prurient: eager desire--also PRU'RIENCY.--_adj._ PRU'RIENT, itching or uneasy with desire: given to unclean thoughts.--_adv._ PRU'RIENTLY. [L. _pruriens_, pr.p. of _prur[=i]re_, to itch.]

PRURIGO, pr[=oo]-r[=i]'g[=o], _n._ an eruption on the skin, causing great itching.--_adj._ PRURIG'INOUS.--_n._ PRUR[=I]'TUS. [L. _prurio_, an itching.]

PRUSSIAN, prush'an, _adj._ of or pertaining to _Prussia_.--_n._ an inhabitant of Prussia.--_v.t._ PRUSS'IANISE.--_n._ PRUSS'IATE, a salt of prussic acid: a cyanide.--_adj._ PRUSS'IC, pertaining to Prussian blue.--PRUSSIAN BLUE, cyanide of potassium and iron; PRUSSIC ACID, a deadly poison, an acid first obtained from Prussian blue--also _Hydrocyanic acid_.

PRY, pr[=i], _v.i._ to peer or peep into that which is closed: to inspect closely: to try to discover with curiosity:--_pa.t._ and _pa.p._ pried.--_n._ (_rare_) a peeping glance: one who pries--cf. _Paul Pry_, in John Poole's (1792-1879) comedy so called, first produced in 1825.--_ns._ PR[=I]'ER, PRY'ER.--_p.adj._ PRY'ING, looking closely into: inquisitive: curious.--_adv._ PRY'INGLY. [M. E. _prien_=_piren_, to peer; cf. _Peer_.]

PRYS, pr[=i]s, _n._ (_Spens._). Same as PRICE.

PRYSE, pr[=i]s, _v.t._ (_Spens._). Same as PRIZE.

PRYTANEUM, prit-an-[=e]'um, _n._ the town-hall of an ancient Greek city where ambassadors were received, and citizens who had deserved well of the state were sometimes allowed to dine at the public expense.

[Gr.,--_prytanis_, a presiding magistrate.]

PRYTHEE, prith'[=e] (_Shak._). Same as _Prithee_.

PSALM, sam, _n._ a sacred song.--_ns._ PSALM'-BOOK, a book containing psalms for purposes of worship; _Psalmist_ (sam'ist, or sal'mist), a composer of psalms, applied to David and to the writers of the Scriptural psalms.--_adjs._ PSALMOD'IC, -AL, pertaining to psalmody.--_v.i._ PSAL'MODISE, to practise psalmody.--_ns._ PSAL'MODIST, a singer of psalms; PSALMODY (sal'mo-di, or sam'o-di), the singing of psalms, esp. in public worship: psalms collectively.--_v.t._ to celebrate in psalms.--_ns._ PSALMOG'RAPHER, PSALMOG'RAPHIST, a writer of psalms; PSALMOG'RAPHY, the act or practice of writing psalms; PSALM'-TUNE, a tune to which a psalm is usually sung.--THE PSALMS, one of the books of the Old Testament. [A.S.

_sealm_--Low L. _psalmus_--Gr. _psalmos_--_psallein_, to play on a stringed instrument.]

PSALTER, sawl't[.e]r, _n._ the book of Psalms, esp. when separately printed: (_R.C._) a series of 150 devout sentences: a rosary of 150 beads, according to the number of the psalms.--_adj._ PSALT[=E]'RIAN, pertaining to a psalter: musical.--_ns._ PSAL'TERY, a stringed instrument used by the Jews: psalter; PSAL'TRESS, a woman who plays upon the psaltery. [O. Fr.

_psaltier_--L. _psalterium_, a song sung to the psaltery.]

PSALTERIUM, sawl-t[=e]'ri-um, _n._ the third division of a ruminant's stomach, the omasum or manyplies.

PSAMMITIC, sa-mit'ik, _adj._ in geology, applied to derivative rocks composed of rounded grains, as ordinary sandstone. [Gr. _psammos_, sand.]

PSCHENT, pshent, _n._ the sovereign crown of ancient Egypt, a combination of the white mitre of southern Egypt, with the red crown, square in front and pointed behind, of northern Egypt. [Egyptian.]

PSELLISM, sel'izm, _n._ a defect in articulation--also PSELLIS'MUS. [Gr.

_psellismos_--_psellos_, stammering.]

PSEUDO-, s[=u]'d[=o], a prefix signifying false or spurious, as in _ns._ PSEUDaeSTH[=E]'SIA, imaginary feeling, as in an amputated limb; PSEUDEPIG'RAPHA (_pl._), spurious writings, especially those writings claiming to be Biblical, but not judged genuine or canonical by the consent of scholars.--_adjs._ PSEUDEPIGRAPH'IC, -AL.--_n._ PSEUDEPIG'RAPHY, the ascription to books of false names of authors.--_n._ PSEU'DO-APOS'TLE, a pretended apostle.--_adj._ PSEU'DO-ARCH[=A]'IC, archaistic.--_ns._ PSEUDOBLEP'SIS, visual illusion; PSEU'DO-CHRISTIAN'ITY, counterfeit Christianity; PSEUDOCHR[=O]'MIA, false perception of colour; PSEU'DO-CLAS'SICISM, false or affected classicism.--_adjs._ PSEU'DODONT, having false teeth, as a monotreme; PSEU'DODOX, false.--_n._ a common fallacy.--_ns._ PSEUDOGEU'SIA, false taste-perception; PSEU'DOGRAPH, a false writing.--_v.i._ PSEUDOG'RAPHISE, to write incorrectly.--_ns._ PSEUDOG'RAPHY, bad spelling; PSEUDOL'OGY, the science of lying; PSEU'DO-MAR'TYR, a false martyr; PSEUDOMEM'BRANE, a false membrane, or lining, as in some diseases of the throat.--_adj._ PSEUDOMEM'BRANOUS.--_n._ PSEU'DOMORPH.--_adj._ PSEUDOMOR'PHOUS, deceptive in form: (_min._) noting crystals which have a form of crystallisation foreign to the species to which they belong.--_ns._ PSEU'DONYM, a fictitious name assumed, as by an author; PSEUDONYM'ITY, state of being pseudonymous.--_adj._ PSEUDON'YMOUS, bearing a fictitious name.--_adv._ PSEUDON' PSEUDOP[=O]'DIA, the processes alternately thrust forth and drawn back by amoeboid cells:--_sing._ PSEUDOP[=O]'DIUM, PSEU'DOPOD.--_n._ PSEU'DOSCOPE, a species of stereoscope which causes the parts of bodies in relief to appear hollow, and _vice versa_.--_adj._ PSEUDOSCOP'IC.--_n._ PSEU'DOSCOPY.

[Gr. _pseud[=e]s_, false.]

PSHAW, shaw, _interj._ expressing contempt.--_v.i._ to express contempt, as with this word. [Imit.]

PSHAW, shaw, _n._ an upright cylindrical hat once worn by women in Spain.

PSILANTHROPISM, s[=i]-lan'thr[=o]-pizm, _n._ the doctrine or belief of the mere human existence of Christ.--_adj._ PSILANTHROP'IC.--_ns._ PSILAN'THROPIST, one who thinks Christ a mere man; PSILAN'THROPY. [Gr.

_psilos_, bare, _anthr[=o]pos_, man.]

PSITTACI, sit'a-s[=i], the parrot tribe.--_adjs._ PSIT'TACINE, PSITT[=A]'CEOUS. [Gr. _psittakos_.]

PSOAS, s[=o]'as, _n._ a muscle of the loins and pelvis: the tenderloin.--_adj._ PSOAT'IC. [Gr. _psoa_, _psua_, generally in pl.

_psoai_, _psuai_.]

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