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PROTEIN, pr[=o]'t[=e]-in, _n._ the first element in any compound: formerly the supposed common radical of the group of bodies which form the most essential articles of food, albumen, fibrine, &c.--_n._ PR[=O]'T[=E]ID, a body containing protein: one of several bodies which go to make up the soft tissues of animals and vegetables. [Gr. _pr[=o]tos_, first, suffix _-in_.]

PRO TEMPORE, pr[=o] tem'po-r[=e], for the time being: temporary--sometimes written _pro tem._--_adj._ PROTEMPOR[=A]'NEOUS, temporary.

PROTEND, pr[=o]-tend', _v.t._ to stretch or hold out.--_ns._ PROTENSE'

(_Spens._), extension; PROTEN'SION, duration; PROTEN'SITY.--_adj._ PROTEN'SIVE. [L.,--_pro_, forth, _tend[)e]re_, _tensum_, to stretch.]

PROTEOLYTIC, pr[=o]-t[=e]-[=o]-lit'ik, _adj._ converting food material into protein.--_n._ PROTEOL'YSIS. [_Proteid_, Gr. _lyein_, to relax.]

PROTERANDRY, prot-e-ran'dri, _n._ the maturity of the anthers of a perfect flower before its stigma is ready to receive the pollen.--_adj._ PROTERAN'DROUS.

PROTEROGLYPHA, prot-e-rog'li-fa, a group of snakes having the anterior maxillary teeth grooved. [Gr. _proteros_, fore, _glyphein_, to carve.]

PROTEROGYNY, prot-e-roj'i-ni, _n._ the maturity of the stigmas of a perfect flower before its anthers have matured their pollen.--_adj._ PROTEROG'YNOUS.

PROTERVITY, pr[=o]-ter'vi-ti, _n._ peevishness, wantonness:--_pl._ PROTER'VITIES. [O. Fr.,--L.,--_protervus_, wanton--_pro_, forth, _ter[)e]re_, to bruise.]

PROTEST, pr[=o]-test', _v.i._ to bear witness before others: to declare openly: to give a solemn declaration of opinion (_against_).--_v.t._ to make a solemn declaration of: to note, as a bill of exchange, on account of non-acceptance or non-payment: (_rare_) to call as a witness: (_obs._) to publish, make known: (_Shak._) to vow.--_n._ PR[=O]'TEST, a solemn or formal declaration, esp. in writing, expressing dissent: the noting by a notary-public of an unpaid or unaccepted bill: a written declaration, usually by the master of a ship, stating the circumstances attending loss or injury of ship or cargo, &c.--_adj._ PROT'ESTANT, protesting: pertaining to the faith of those who protest against the errors of the Church of Rome.--_n._ one of those who, in 1529, protested against an edict of Charles V. and the Diet of Spires denouncing the Reformation: a member of one of those churches founded by the Reformers: one who protests.--_v.t._ PROT'ESTANTISE.--_ns._ PROT'ESTANTISM, the Protestant religion: state of being a Protestant; PROTEST[=A]'TION, an act of protesting: a solemn declaration: a declaration of dissent: a declaration in pleading; PROT'EST[=A]TOR; PROTEST'ER.--_adv._ PROTEST'INGLY. [Fr.,--L.

_protest[=a]ri_, _-[=a]tus_, to bear witness in public--_pro_, before, _test[=a]ri_--_testis_, a witness.]


PROTEVANGELIUM, pr[=o]-t[=e]-van-jel'i-um, _n._ the earliest announcement of the gospel (Gen. iii. 15): an apocryphal gospel ascribed to James, Jesus' brother.

PROTHALAMIUM, pr[=o]-tha-l[=a]'mi-um, _n._ a piece written to celebrate a marriage.--Also PROTHAL[=A]'MION. [Gr. _pro_, before, _thalamos_, a bride-chamber.]

PROTHALLIUM, pr[=o]-thal'i-um, _n._ the green, leaf-like, cellular expansion which grows from the spore of a fern.--Also PROTHALL'US. [Gr.

_pro_, before, _thallus_, a young shoot.]

PROTHESIS, proth'e-sis, _n._ in the Greek Church the preliminary oblation of the eucharistic elements before the liturgy: the table used.

[Gr.,--_pro_, before, _tithenai_, to place.]

PROTHONOTARY, pr[=o]-thon'[=o]-ta-ri, _n._ a chief notary or clerk: one of the chief secretaries of the chancery at Rome: a chief clerk or registrar of a court, in certain of the United States--also PROTON'OTARY.--_adj._ PROTHONOT[=A]'RIAL.--_n._ PROTHONOT[=A]'RIAT, the college constituted by the twelve apostolical prothonotaries in Rome. [Late L.,--Gr. _pr[=o]tos_, first, L. _notarius_, a clerk.]

PROTHORAX, pr[=o]-th[=o]'raks, _n._ the anterior segment of the thorax of insects.--_adj._ PROTHORAC'IC (-ras-).

PROTISTA, pr[=o]-tis'ta, a proposed term for a zoological kingdom including PROTOZOA and PROTOPHYTA. [Gr. _pr[=o]tistos_, superl. of _pr[=o]tos_, first.]

PROTOCOCCUS, pr[=o]-t[=o]-kok'us, _n._ a microscopic vegetable organism forming the green scum upon trees, tiles, &c. [Gr. _pr[=o]tos_, first, _kokkos_, a berry.]

PROTOCOL, pr[=o]'t[=o]-kol, _n._ the first copy of any document: the rough draft of an instrument or transaction: the original copy.--_v.i._ to issue, form protocols.--_v.t._ to make a protocol of--also PR[=O]'TOCOL[=I]SE.--_n._ PR[=O]'TOCOLIST, a registrar or clerk. [Fr.,--Low L. _protocollum_--Late Gr. _pr[=o]tokollon_, the first leaf, containing the writer's name, date, &c.--Gr. _pr[=o]tos_, first, _kolla_, glue.]

PROTOGENAL, pr[=o]-toj'e-nal, _adj._ primitive.--_n._ PROTOGEN'ESIS, abiogenesis.--_adjs._ PROTOGENET'IC, PROTOGEN'IC, noting crystalline or fire-formed rocks: noting intercellular spaces formed within undifferentiated plant tissues.--_n._ PR[=O]'TOGINE, a variety of granite in the Alps.

PROTOMARTYR, pr[=o]'t[=o]-mar-t[.e]r, _n._ St Stephen, the first Christian martyr: the first who suffers in any cause.

PROTOPHYTE, pr[=o]'t[=o]-f[=i]t, _n._ the first or lowest order of PROTOPH'YTA.--_adj._ PROTOPHYT'IC. [Gr. _pr[=o]tos_, first, _phyton_, a plant.]

PROTOPLASM, pr[=o]'t[=o]-plazm, _n._ living matter: a homogeneous, structureless substance, forming the physical basis of life, endowed with contractility, with a chemical composition allied to that of albumen.--_adj._ PROTOPLASM'IC.--_n._ PR[=O]'TOPLAST, he who, or that which, was first formed: an original: the first parent.--_adj._ PROTOPLAST'IC. [Gr. _pr[=o]tos_, first, _plasma_, form--_plassein_, to form.]

PROTOTHERIA, pr[=o]-t[=o]-th[=e]'ri-a, the hypothetical primitive mammals, ancestors of the monotremes. [Gr. _pr[=o]tos_, first, _th[=e]r_, wild beast.]

PROTOTYPE, pr[=o]'t[=o]-t[=i]p, _n._ the first or original type or model from which anything is copied: an exemplar: a pattern.--_adjs._ PR[=O]'TOTYPAL, PR[=O]TOTYP'ICAL. [Fr.,--L.,--Gr., _pr[=o]tos_, first, _typos_, a type.]

PROTOVERTEBRae, pr[=o]-t[=o]-ver'te-br[=e], the rudimentary segments formed in the vertebrate embryo from the medullary plates, from which the bodies of the vertebrae, spinal nerve-roots, &c. are developed.--_adjs._ PROTOVER'TEBRAL, PROTOVER'TEBRATE.

PROTOXIDE, pr[=o]-tok's[=i]d, _n._ the first oxide--that is, an oxide containing one equivalent of oxygen combined with one equivalent of a base.

PROTOZOA, pr[=o]-t[=o]-z[=o]'a, the first or lowest class of animals:--_sing._ PROTOZ[=O]'ON.--_adjs._ PROTOZ[=O]'AN; PROTOZ[=O]'IC, pertaining to the protozoa: containing remains of the earliest life of the globe. [Gr. _pr[=o]tos_, first, _z[=o]on_, an animal.]

PROTRACT, pr[=o]-trakt', _v.t._ to draw out or lengthen in time: to prolong: to put off in time: to draw to a scale.--_p.adj._ PROTRAC'TED, drawn out in time: tedious: prolonged: postponed.--_adv._ PROTRAC'TEDLY.--_n._ PROTRAC'TER.--_adj._ PROTRAC'TILE, susceptible of being thrust out.--_n._ PROTRAC'TION, act of protracting or prolonging: the delaying of the termination of a thing: the plotting or laying down of the dimensions of anything on paper.--_adj._ PROTRAC'TIVE, drawing out in time: prolonging: delaying.--_n._ PROTRAC'TOR, one who, or that which, protracts: a mathematical instrument for laying down angles on paper, used in surveying, &c. [L.,--_pro_, forth, _trah[)e]re_, to draw.]

PROTRUDE, pr[=o]-tr[=oo]d', _v.t._ to thrust or push forward: to drive along: to put out.--_v.i._ to be thrust forward or beyond the usual limit.--_adjs._ PROTRUD'ABLE, PROTRU'SILE, protractile; PROTRU'SIBLE, able to be protruded.--_n._ PROTRU'SION, the act of thrusting forward or beyond the usual limit: the state of being protruded: that which protrudes.--_adj._ PROTRU'SIVE, thrusting or impelling forward: protruding.--_adv._ PROTRU'SIVELY.--_n._ PROTRU'SIVENESS. [L.

_protrud[)e]re_--_pro_, forward, _trud[)e]re_, to thrust.]

PROTUBERANCE, pr[=o]-t[=u]b'[.e]r-ans, _n._ a prominence: a tumour.--_adj._ PROT[=U]'BERANT, swelling: prominent.--_adv._ PROT[=U]'BERANTLY.--_v.i._ PROT[=U]'BER[=A]TE, to bulge out.--_n._ PROT[=U]BER[=A]'TION. [L.

_protuber[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_--_pro_, forward, _tuber_, a swelling.]

PROUD, prowd (_comp._ PROUD'ER; _superl._ PROUD'EST), _adj._ having excessive self-esteem: arrogant: haughty: having a proper sense of what is becoming: daring: grand: ostentatious: giving reason for pride or boasting.--_n._ PROUD'-FLESH, a growth or excrescence of flesh in a wound.--_adjs._ PROUD'-HEART'ED (_Shak._), having a proud spirit; PROUD'ISH, somewhat proud.--_adv._ PROUD'LY.--_adj._ PROUD'-MIND'ED (_Shak._), proud in mind.--_n._ PROUD'NESS, the state or quality of being proud: pride.--_adjs._ PROUD'-PIED (_Shak._), gorgeously variegated; PROUD'-STOM'ACHED, of haughty spirit, arrogant. [A.S. _prut_, proud, _prte_, pride.]

PROVABLE, pr[=oo]v'a-bl, _adj._ that may be proved.--_n._ PROV'ABLENESS.--_adv._ PROV'ABLY, in a manner capable of proof. [O. Fr.

_provable_, _prouvable_--L. _probabilis_, probable.]

PROVAND, prov'and, _n._ (_Shak._) provender: provision--also PROV'END.--_adj._ PROV'ANT, belonging to a regular allowance: of common or inferior quality. [O. Fr.,--Low L. _praebenda_, a payment, pittance.]

PROVE, pr[=oo]v, _v.t._ to try by experiment or by a test or standard: to make certain: to try by suffering: to establish or ascertain as truth by argument or other evidence: to demonstrate: to ascertain the genuineness of: to experience or suffer: (_math._) to ascertain the correctness of any result.--_v.i._ to make trial: to turn out: to be shown afterwards.--_n._ PROV'ER.--THE EXCEPTION PROVES THE RULE, the exception tests the rule, proving its general truth. [O. Fr. _prover_ (Fr. _prouver_), which, like A.S. _profian_ and Ger. _proben_, is from L. _prob[=a]re_--_probus_, excellent.]

PROVECTION, pr[=o]-vek'shun, _n._ the transfer of the final consonant from a word to the beginning of the next.--_n._ PR[=O]VEC'TOR (_math._), a contravariant operator formed by substituting signs of partial differentiation for the facients of a quantic. [L. _proveh[)e]re_, _provectum_, to carry forward.]

PROVEDOR, (-E), prov'edor, (-d[=o]r), _n._ a purveyor. [Sp.]

PROVEN, prov'n, (_Scots law_) same as PROVED, _pa.p._ of PROVE.--NOT PROVEN, a verdict declaring that guilt has not been fully made out, but which leaves the accused still under serious suspicion.

PROVENANCE, prov'e-nans, _n._ the source from which anything comes or is derived.--Also PROV[=E]'NIENCE. [Fr.,--L. _pro_, forth, _ven[=i]re_, to come.]

PROVENcAL, pr[=o]-vang-sal', _adj._ of or pertaining to _Provence_, in France, or to its inhabitants--also PROVEN'CIAL.--_n._ a native, or the language of Provence, the _langue d'oc_ (q.v.).

PROVENDER, prov'en-d[.e]r, _n._ dry food for beasts, as hay or corn: esp. a mixture of meal and cut straw or hay.--_v.t._ to feed. [O. Fr.,--L.

_praebenda_, in Late L. a daily allowance of food.]

PROVERB, prov'[.e]rb, _n._ a short familiar sentence expressing a well-known truth or moral lesson: a byword: (_B._) a difficult saying that requires explanation: (_pl._) a book of the Old Testament: a dramatic composition in which a proverb gives name and character to the plot.--_v.t._ to speak of proverbially: make a byword of: to provide with a proverb.--_adj._ PROVER'BIAL, like or pertaining to proverbs: widely spoken of.--_v.t._ PROVER'BIALISE, to turn into a proverb.--_ns._ PROVER'BIALISM, a saying in the form of, or like, a proverb; PROVER'BIALIST.--_adv._ PROVER'BIALLY. [Fr. _proverbe_--L. _proverbium_--_pro_, publicly, _verbum_, a word.]

PROVIDE, pr[=o]-v[=i]d', _v.t._ to make ready beforehand: to prepare for future use: to supply: to appoint or give a right to a benefice before it is actually vacant.--_v.i._ to procure supplies or means of defence: to take measures: to arrange for as a necessary condition or arrangement.--_adj._ PROV[=I]'DABLE.--_conj._ PROV[=I]'DED, (often with _that_) on condition: upon these terms: with the understanding.--_n._ PROV[=I]'DER. [L. _provid[=e]re_--_pro_, before, _vid[=e]re_, to see.]

PROVIDENCE, prov'i-dens, _n._ timely preparation: (_theol._) the foresight and care of God over all His creatures: God, considered in this relation: something occurring in which God's care is clearly shown: prudence in managing one's affairs.--_adjs._ PROV'IDENT, seeing beforehand, and providing for the future: cautious: prudent: economical; PROVIDEN'TIAL, effected by, or proceeding from, divine providence.--_advs._ PROVIDEN'TIALLY; PROV'IDENTLY.--_n._ PROV'IDENTNESS. [L. _provid-ens_, _-entis_, pr.p. of _provid[=e]re_.]

PROVINCE, prov'ins, _n._ a portion of an empire or a state marked off for purposes of government: a part of a country as distinguished from the capital: the district over which a governor or an archbishop has jurisdiction: a region: a business or duty: a person's business or calling: a department of knowledge.--_adj._ PROVIN'CIAL, relating to a province: belonging to a division of a country: local: showing the habits and manners of a province: unpolished: narrow.--_n._ an inhabitant of a province or country district: (_R.C._) the superintendent of the heads of the religious houses in a province.--_v.t._ PROVIN'CIALISE, to render provincial:--_pr.p._ provin'cial[=i]sing; _pa.p._ provin'cial[=i]sed.--_ns._ PROVIN'CIALISM, a manner, a mode of speech, or a turn of thought peculiar to a province or a country district: a local expression: narrowness; PROVINCIAL'ITY.--_adv._ PROVIN'CIALLY.--PROVINCIAL LETTERS, a series of letters written (1656-57) by Pascal against the doctrines and policy of the Jesuits. [Fr.,--L. _provincia_, a province; perh. _pro_, for, _vinc[)e]re_, to conquer.]

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