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PODARGUS, p[=o]-dar'gus, _n._ a genus of arboreal and nocturnal birds allied to the true Goatsuckers. [Gr. _pous_, the foot, _argos_, swift.]

PODESTA, p[=o]-des'ta, _n._ a chief magistrate in the medieval Italian republics: an inferior municipal judge. [It.,--L. _potestas_, power.]

PODGY, poj'i, _adj._ short and fat: thick.

PODIUM, p[=o]'di-um, _n._ a continuous pedestal, a stylobate: (_anat._) a foot: (_bot._) a support, as a foot-stalk.--__adj.__ P[=O]'DIAL.--_ns._ PODIS'MUS, spasm of the muscles of the foot; P[=O]'DITE, a limb of a crustacean when ambulatory.--__adj.__ PODIT'IC.

PODOCARPUS, pod-[=o]-kar'pus, _n._ a genus of tropical coniferous trees.

[Gr. _pous_, _podos_, foot, _karpos_, fruit.]

PODOPHTHALMA, pod-of-thal'ma, a name often applied to a section of Crustacea. [Gr. _pous_, foot, _ophthalmos_, the eye.]

PODOPHYLLUM, pod-[=o]-fil'um, _n._ a genus of plants of the barberry family, the fruit edible, other parts actively cathartic.--_n._ PODOPHYLL'IN, the resin obtained by means of rectified spirit from its root.--__adj.__ PODOPHYLL'OUS, having compressed leaf-like locomotive organs. [Gr. _pous_, _podos_, foot, _phyllon_, leaf.]

PODURA, p[=o]-d[=u]'ra, _n._ a genus of apterous insects--_spring-tails_, _snow-fleas_. [Gr. _pous_, foot, _oura_, tail.]

POE, p[=o]'e, _n._ the parson-bird of New Zealand.

POEM, p[=o]'em, _n._ a composition in verse: a composition of high beauty of thought or language, although not in verse.--__adj.__ POEMAT'IC, relating to a poem. [Fr. _poeme_--L. _poema_--Gr. _poi[=e]ma_, _poiein_, to make.]


POEPHAGOUS, p[=o]-ef'a-gus, _adj._ eating grass.

POESY, p[=o]'e-si, _n._ the art of composing poems: poetry: a poem: poetical compositions. [Fr. _poesie_--L. _poesis_--Gr.

_poi[=e]sis_--_poiein_, to make.]

POET, p[=o]'et, _n._ the author of a poem: one skilled in making poetry: one with a strong imagination:--_fem._ P[=O]'ETESS.--_ns._ P[=O]'ETASTER, a petty poet: a writer of contemptible verses; P[=O]'ETASTRY.--_adjs._ POET'IC, -AL, pertaining or suitable to a poet or to poetry: expressed in poetry: marked by poetic language: imaginative.--_adv._ POET'ICALLY, in a poetic manner.--_n.sing._ POET'ICS, the branch of criticism which relates to poetry.--_n._ POET'ICULE, a petty poet.--_v.i._ P[=O]'ETISE, to write as a poet: to make verses.--_ns._ P[=O]'ET-LAU'REATE (see LAUREATE); P[=O]'ETRESS (_Spens._), a poetess; P[=O]'ETRY, the art of expressing in melodious words the thoughts which are the creations of feeling and imagination: utterance in song: metrical composition.--POETIC JUSTICE, ideal administration of reward and punishment; POETIC LICENSE, a departing from strict fact or rule by a poet for the sake of effect. [Fr. _poete_--L.

_poeta_--Gr. _poi[=e]t[=e]s_--_poiein_, to make.]

POGGE, pog, _n._ the armed bullhead.

POH, p[=o], _interj._ exclamation of contempt.

POIGNANT, poin'ant, _adj._ stinging, pricking: sharp: penetrating: acutely painful: satirical: pungent.--_n._ POIGN'ANCY, state of being poignant.--_adv._ POIGN'ANTLY. [O. Fr. _poignant_, _poindre_--L.

_pung[)e]re_, to sting.]

POIND, poind, _v.t._ (_Scot._) to seize.--_n._ POIND'ING (_Scots law_), the seizing and selling of a debtor's goods under process of law, or under the warrant of a heritable security. [_Pound._]

POINT, point, _n._ anything coming to a sharp end: the mark made by a sharp instrument: (_geom._) that which has position but not length, breadth, or thickness: a mark showing the divisions of a sentence: (_mus._) a dot at the right hand of a note to lengthen it by one-half: needle-point lace: a very small space: a moment of time: a small affair: a single thing: a single assertion: the precise thing to be considered: anything intended: exact place: degree: the unit of count in a game: (_print._) a unit of measurement for type-bodies: an advantage: that which stings, as the point of an epigram: an imaginary relish, in 'potatoes and point:' a lively turn of thought: that which awakens attention: a peculiarity, characteristic: (_cricket_) the fielder standing at the immediate right of the batsman, and slightly in advance: a signal given by a trumpet: (_pl._) chief or excellent features, as of a horse, &c.: the switch or movable rails which allow a train to pass from one line to another.--_v.t._ to give a point to: to sharpen: to aim: to direct one's attention: to punctuate, as a sentence: to fill the joints of with mortar, as a wall.--_v.i._ to direct the finger, the eye, or the mind towards an object: to show game by looking, as a dog.--_adj._ POINT'ED, having a sharp point: sharp: intended for some particular person: personal: keen: telling: (_archit._) having sharply-pointed arches, Gothic.--_adv._ POINT'EDLY.--_ns._ POINT'EDNESS; POINT'ER, that which points: a dog trained to point out game; POINT'ING, the act of sharpening: the marking of divisions in writing by points or marks: act of filling the crevices of a wall with mortar; POINT'ING-STOCK, a thing to be pointed at, a laughing-stock; POINT'-LACE, a fine kind of lace wrought with the needle.--_adj._ POINT'LESS, having no point: blunt: dull: wanting keenness or smartness; POINTS'MAN, a man who has charge of the points or switches on a railway; POINT'-SYS'TEM, a standard system of sizes for type-bodies, one point being .0138 inch.--POINT FOR POINT, exactly: all particulars; POINT OF ORDER, a question raised in a deliberative society as to whether proceedings are according to the rules; POINT OF VIEW, the position from which one looks at anything; POINT OUT (_B._), to assign; POINTS OF THE COMPASS, the points _north_, _south_, _east_, and _west_, along with the twenty-eight smaller divisions, marked on the card of the mariner's compass.--At all points, completely; AT, or ON, THE POINT OF, just about to; CARDINAL POINT (see CARDINAL); CARRY ONE'S POINT, to gain what one contends for in controversy; FROM POINT TO POINT, from one particular to another; GIVE POINTS TO, to give odds to: to give an advantageous hint on any subject; IN POINT, apposite; IN POINT OF, with regard to; MAKE A POINT OF, to attach special importance to; STAND UPON POINTS, to be over-scrupulous; Strain a point, to go beyond proper limits; TO THE POINT, appropriate. [O. Fr.,--L. _punctum_--_pung[)e]re_, to prick.]

POINT-BLANK, point'-blangk', _adj._ aimed directly at the mark: direct.--_adv._ directly.--POINT-BLANK SHOT, a shot fired in a horizontal line towards an object. [Fr. _point-blanc_, white point.]

POINT-DEVICE, POINT-DEVISE, point'-de-v[=i]s', _n._ (_orig._) a lace worked with devices: anything uncommonly nice and exact.--_adj._ (_arch._) scrupulously neat. [Fr. _point_, lace, _devise_, with a device.]

POINTEL, poin'tel, _n._ a sharp instrument: any sharp-pointed thing. [O.

Fr.,--Low L. _punctillum_, a little point.]

POISE, poiz, _v.t._ to balance: to make of equal weight: to examine.--_v.i._ to hang in suspense.--_n._ weight: state of balance: equilibrium: a weight which balances another: a regulating power: the weight used in steelyards.--_n._ POIS'ER, one who, or that which, poises.

[O. Fr. _poiser_ (Fr. _peser_)--L. _pens[=a]re_, inten. of _pend[)e]re_, to hang.]

POISON, poi'zn, _n._ any substance which, introduced into the living organism, tends to destroy its life or impair its health: anything malignant or infectious: that which taints or destroys moral purity.--_v.t._ to infect or to kill with poison: to taint: to mar: to embitter: to corrupt.--_adj._ POI'SONABLE.--_ns._ POI'SONER; POI'SON-FANG, one of two large tubular teeth in the upper jaw of venomous serpents, through which poison passes from glands at their roots when the animal bites; POI'SON-GLAND, a gland which secretes poison; POI'SON-[=I]'VY, a shrub-vine of North America, causing a cutaneous eruption; POI'SON-NUT, the nux vomica.--_adj._ POI'SONOUS, having the quality of poison: destructive: impairing soundness or purity.--_adv._ POI'SONOUSLY.--_n._ POI'SONOUSNESS.

[Fr.,--L. _potio_, a draught--_pot[=a]re_, to drink.]

POITREL, poi'trel, _n._ armour to protect the horse's breast. [O. Fr.

_poitral_--L. _pectorale_, a breast-plate--_pectus_, the breast.]

POITRINE, poi'trin, _n._ the breast-plate of a knight.

POKAL, p[=o]'kal, _n._ an ornamental drinking-vessel.

POKE, p[=o]k, _n._ a bag: a pouch.--A PIG IN A POKE, a blind bargain, as of a pig bought without being seen. [Prob. Celt., as Ir. _poc_, a bag.]

POKE, p[=o]k, _v.t._ to thrust or push against with something pointed: to search for with a long instrument: to thrust at with the horns.--_v.i._ to grope or feel, as in the dark.--_n._ act of pushing or thrusting: a thrust: a bonnet having a projecting front worn earlier in the century--also POKE'-BONN'ET.--_ns._ P[=O]'KER, an iron rod for poking or stirring the fire; PO'KER-DRAW'ING, a design burnt into lime-tree or other wood with 'pokers,' which rather resembled plumbers' soldering irons.--_adj._ P[=O]'KERISH, like a poker: stiff.--_adv._ P[=O]'KERISHLY.--_adj._ P[=O]'KING, drudging, servile.--_n._ P[=O]'KING-STICK, a small stick or rod of steel formerly used for adjusting the plaits of ruffs.--_adj._ P[=O]'KY, stupid: dull: confined, with little room: poor, shabby.--POKE FUN AT, to ridicule, make fun of. [Ir. _poc_, a blow, Gael. _puc_, to push.]

POKER, p[=o]'k[.e]r, _n._ a bugbear.--_adj._ P[=O]'KERISH, causing terror: uncanny.--OLD POKER, the devil.

POKER, p[=o]'k[.e]r, _n._ a round game at cards, first played in America about 1835. [Ety. uncertain.]

POLABIAN, p[=o]-l[=a]'bi-an, _n._ one of an ancient Slavic race, belonging to the same group as the _Poles_, occupying the basin of the lower Elbe.

POLACCA, po-lak'a, _n._ a species of vessel used in the Mediterranean, with three masts and a jib-boom; the fore and main masts being of one piece, and the mizzen-mast with a top and topmast. [It., 'a Polish vessel.']

POLACK, p[=o]l'ak, _n._ (_Shak._) a Pole.--Also POL'ANDER.

POLAR, p[=o]'lar, _adj._ pertaining to, or situated near, either of the poles: pertaining to the magnetic poles: having a common meeting-point.--_n._ (_geom._) the line joining the points of contact, of tangents drawn to meet a curve from a point called the pole of the P[=O]LAR-CO-OR'DINATES, co-ordinates defining a point by means of a radius vector and the angle which it makes with a fixed line through the origin; P[=O]'LAR-FOR'CES, forces that act in pairs and in different directions, as in magnetism.--_n._ POLARIM'ETER, the polariscope.--_adj._ POLAR[=I]'SABLE, capable of polarisation.--_ns._ POLARIS[=A]'TION (_opt._), a particular modification of rays of light, by the action of certain media or surfaces, so that they cannot be reflected or refracted again in certain directions: state of having polarity; POLAR'ISCOPE, an instrument for polarising light, and analysing its properties.--_v.t._ P[=O]'LARISE, to give polarity to.--_ns._ P[=O]'LARISER, that which polarises or gives polarity to; POLAR'ITY, state of having two opposite poles: a condition in certain bodies according to which their properties arrange themselves so as to have opposite powers in opposite directions, as in a magnet with its two poles.--POLAR BEAR, a large white bear found in the Arctic regions; POLAR CIRCLE, a parallel of latitude encircling each of the poles at a distance of 23 28' from the pole--the north polar being called the arctic, the south the antarctic, circle; POLAR LIGHTS, the aurora borealis or australis. [L.

_polaris_--_polus_, a pole.]

POLDER, p[=o]l'd[.e]r, _n._ in the Netherlands, land below the level of the sea or nearest river, which, originally a morass or lake, has been drained and brought under cultivation: a morass. [Prob. cog. with _pool_.]

POLE, p[=o]l, _n._ that on which anything turns, as a pivot or axis: one of the ends of the axis of a sphere, esp. of the earth: (_physics_) one of the two points of a body in which the attractive or repulsive energy is concentrated, as in a magnet: (_geom._) a point from which a pencil of rays radiates (see POLAR).--_n._ POLE'-STAR, a star at or near the pole of the heavens: a guide or director.--POLES OF THE HEAVENS, the two points in the heavens opposite to the poles of the earth--called also _Celestial poles_.

[Fr.,--L. _polus_--Gr. _polos_--_pelein_, to be in motion.]

POLE, p[=o]l, _n._ a pale or pile: a long piece of wood: an instrument for measuring: a measure of length, 5 yards: in square measure, 30 yards.--_v.t._ to push or stir with a pole.--_v.i._ to use a pole.--__adj.__ POLE'-CLIPT (_Shak._), hedged in with poles.--UNDER BARE POLES, with all sails furled. [A.S. _pal_ (Ger. _pfahl_)--L. _palus_, a stake.]

POLE, p[=o]l, _n._ a native of _Poland_.


POLE-AXE, p[=o]l'-aks, _n._ a battle-axe consisting of an axe-head on a long handle: an axe used by sailors for cutting away rigging of ships.

[Orig. _pollax_, from _poll_, the head, and _axe_.]

POLECAT, p[=o]l'kat, _n._ a kind of weasel, which emits a stink--called also the _Fitchet_ and _Foumart_. [M. E. _polcat_; prob. Fr. _poule_, hen, and _cat_.]

POLEMARCH, pol'e-mark, _n._ a title of several officials in ancient Greek states.

POLEMIC, -AL, po-lem'ik, -al, _adj._ given to disputing: controversial.--_n._ one who disputes: one who speaks or writes in opposition to another: a controversy.--_adv._ POLEM'ICALLY.--_n.sing._ POLEM'ICS, contest or controversy: (_theol._) the history of ecclesiastical controversy.--_n._ POL'EMOSCOPE, a perspective glass so constructed as to give views of objects not lying directly before the eye. [Gr. _polemos_, war.]

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