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POLEMONIACEae, pol-e-m[=o]-ni-[=a]'s[=e]-[=e], a natural order of plants--the phlox family.

POLENTA, po-len'ta, _n._ an Italian dish, the chief ingredients of which are maize, meal, and salt. [It.,--L. _polenta_, peeled barley.]

POLEY, p[=o]'li, _adj._ without horns: polled. [Prov. Eng.]

POLIANTHES, pol-i-an'th[=e]z, _n._ a small genus of ornamental plants of the amaryllis family--the tuberose. [Gr. _polios_, white, _anthos_, a flower.]

POLICE, p[=o]-l[=e]s', _n._ the system of regulations of a city, town, or district for the preservation of order and enforcement of law: the internal government of a state: (short for POLICE'-FORCE) the civil officers employed to preserve order, &c.--_v.t._ to guard or maintain order in: to put in POLICE'-COMMISS'IONERS, a body of men appointed to regulate the appointments and duties of the police.--_ns._ POLICE'-INSPECT'OR, a superior officer of police who has charge of a department, next in rank to a superintendent; POLICE'-MAG'ISTRATE, one who presides in a police court; POLICE'MAN, a member of a police-force; POLICE'-OFF'ICE, -ST[=A]'TION, the headquarters of the police of a district, used also as a temporary place of confinement; POLICE'-OFF'ICER, -CON'STABLE, a policeman; POLICE'-RATE, a tax levied for the support of the police.--POLICE COURT, a court for trying small offences brought before it by the police. [Fr.,--L. _politia_--Gr. _politeia_, the condition of a state--_polit[=e]s_, a citizen--_polis_, a city.]

POLICY, pol'i-si, _n._ the art or manner of regulating or guiding conduct: the method and forms according to which the government and business of a country are carried on: a system of administration guided more by interest than by principle: dexterity of management: prudence: cunning: in Scotland, (esp. in _pl._) the pleasure-grounds around a mansion. [O. Fr. _policie_ (Fr. _police_)--L. _politia_--Gr. _politeia_.]

POLICY, pol'i-si, _n._ a warrant for money in the funds: a writing containing a contract of insurance: a kind of gambling by betting on the numbers to be drawn in a lottery.--_n._ POL'ICY-HOLD'ER, one who holds a policy or contract of insurance. [Fr. _police_, a policy--L. _polyptychum_, a register--Gr. _polyptychon_--_polys_, many, _ptyx_, _ptychos_, fold.]

POLING, p[=o]'ling, _n._ act of using a pole for any purpose.

POLISH, p[=o]'lish, _adj._ relating to _Poland_ or to its people.

POLISH, pol'ish, _v.t._ to make smooth and glossy by rubbing: to refine: to make elegant.--_v.i._ to become smooth and glossy.--_n._ a smooth, glossy surface: refinement of manners: anything used to produce a polish.--_adjs._ POL'ISHABLE; POL'ISHED, made smooth by rubbing: trained to act with great fineness and exactness: refined: polite.--_ns._ POL'ISHER, one who, or that which, polishes; POL'ISHING-PASTE, polishing material made in the form of paste; POL'ISHING-POW'DER, polishing material made in the form of powder, as whiting, diamond-dust, &c.; POL'ISHING-SLATE, a mineral used for polishing glass, marble, and metals, composed chiefly of silica, with a little alumina, lime, oxide of iron, and water; POL'ISHMENT. [O. Fr.

_polir_, _polissant_--L. _pol[=i]re_, to make to shine.]

POLITE, p[=o]-l[=i]t', _adj._ polished: smooth: refined: well-bred: obliging.--_adv._ POLITE'LY.--_ns._ POLITE'NESS, state or quality of being polite: refinement of manners: good-breeding; POLITESSE', politeness. [L.

_politus_, pa.p. of _pol[=i]re_.]

POLITIC, p[=o]l'i-tik, _adj._ pertaining to policy: well-devised: judicious in management: skilled in political affairs: prudent: discreet: cunning: (_Shak._) concerned with politics.--_adj._ POLIT'ICAL, pertaining to polity or government: pertaining to nations, or to parties in a nation who differ in their views of how it ought to be governed: derived from government.--_adv._ POLIT'ICALLY.--_ns._ POLIT'ICASTER (_Milt._), a petty politician; POLITIC'IAN, one versed in or devoted to politics: a man of artifice and cunning.--_adj._ (_Milt._) politic.--_adv._ POL'ITICLY.--_n.sing._ POL'ITICS, the art or science of government: the management of a political party: political affairs or opinions.--_adj._ POL'ITIQUE (_Bacon_), political, civil.--_n._ POL'ITY, the constitution of the government of a state or an institution: civil constitution: a body of people arranged under a system of government.--POLITICAL ECONOMY, the science which treats of the production, distribution, and consumption of wealth; POLITICAL SCIENCE, the science or study of government, as to its principles, aims, methods, &c.--BODY POLITIC, the whole body of a people, as constituting a state. [Fr. _politique_--Gr. _politikos_--_polit[=e]s_, a citizen.]

POLKA, p[=o]l'ka, _n._ a dance of Bohemian origin, invented in 1830, and introduced into England in 1843--also its tune: a knitted jacket worn by women.--_v.i._ POLK, to dance a polka. [Bohem. _pulka_, half, from the half-step prevalent in it; or from Slav. _polka_, a Polish woman.]

POLL, pol, _v.t._ (_Spens._) to exact from, to plunder.

POLL, pol, _n._ a familiar name, often of a parrot. [Contr. of _Polly_, a form of _Molly_=_Mary_.]

POLL, p[=o]l, _n._ the round part of the head, esp. the back of it: a register of heads or persons: the entry of the names of electors who vote for civil officers, such as members of Parliament: an election of civil officers: the place where the votes are taken.--_v.t._ to remove the top: to cut: to clip: to lop, as the branches of a tree: to enter one's name in a register: to bring to the poll as a voter: to give or to receive a vote.--_v.i._ to give a vote.--_ns._ POLL'ARCHY, government by the mob or masses; POLL'-BOOK, a register of voters; POLL'-CLERK, a clerk who assists at the polling of voters.--_adj._ POLLED, deprived of a poll: lopped: cropped, hence bald: having cast the horns, hence wanting horns.--_ns._ POLL'ER, one who polls; POLL'-MAN, one who takes the ordinary university degree, without honours; POLL'-TAX, a tax by the poll or head--i.e. on each person.--AT THE HEAD OF THE POLL, having the greatest number of votes at an election. [Old Dut. _polle_, _bol_, a ball, top--Ice. _kollr_, top, head.]

POLLACK, pol'ak, _n._ a common fish on British coasts, belonging to the cod, haddock, and whiting group.--Also POLL'OCK. [Celt., as in Gael.

_pollag_, a whiting.]

POLLAN, pol'an, _n._ a fresh-water fish of the family _Salmonidae_, a native of lakes in Ireland.

POLLARD, pol'ard, _n._ a tree having the whole crown cut off, leaving it to send out new branches from the top of the stem: an animal without horns: a coarse kind of bran from wheat.--_v.t._ to make a pollard of. [Cf. _Poll_, the head.]


POLLEN, pol'en, _n._ the fertilising powder contained in the anthers of flowers: the male or fecundating element in flowers.--_v.t._ to cover with pollen.--_adj._ POLLEN[=A]'RIOUS, consisting of pollen.--_v.t._ POLL'ENISE, to supply with pollen.--_n._ POLL'EN-TUBE, the tube by which the fecundating element is conveyed to the ovule.--_adj._ POLL'INAR, covered with a fine dust like pollen.--_v.t._ POLL'INATE, to convey pollen to the stigma of.--_n._ POLLIN[=A]'TION, the transferring or supplying of pollen to the stigma of a flower, esp. by aid of insects or other external agents.--_adj._ POLLINIF'EROUS, bearing pollen.--_n._ POLLIN'IUM, an agglutinated mass of pollen grains.--_adjs._ POLLINIV'OROUS, feeding upon pollen; POLL'INOSE, covered with a powdery substance like pollen. [L., fine flour.]

POLLENT, pol'ent, _adj._ powerful: strong. [L. _pollens_, _-entis_, pr.p.

of _poll[=e]re_, to be strong.]

POLLEX, pol'eks, _n._ the thumb or the great-toe:--_pl._ POLLICES (pol'i-s[=e]z).--_adj._ POLL'ICAL. [L., the thumb.]

POLLICITATION, po-lis-i-t[=a]'shun, _n._ a promise, a paper containing such: a promise without mutuality.

POLLIWIG, pol'i-wig, _n._ a tadpole.--Also POLL'YWIG.

POLLUSION, pol-l[=u]'shun, _n._ (_Shak._) for _allusion_.

POLLUTE, pol-l[=u]t', _v.t._ to soil: to defile: to make foul: to taint: to corrupt: to profane: to violate.--_adj._ defiled.--_adj._ POLLUT'ED.--_adv._ POLLUT'EDLY.--_ns._ POLLUT'EDNESS; POLLUT'ER; POLL[=U]'TION, act of polluting: state of being polluted: defilement. [L.

_pollu[)e]re_, _pollutus_--_pol_, towards, _lu[)e]re_, to wash.]

POLLUX, pol'uks, _n._ (_myth._) the twin brother of Castor: a star in the constellation of the twins. [L.]

POLLY. See POLL (2).

POLO, p[=o]'lo, _n._ an equestrian game, which may be shortly described as hockey on horseback--of Oriental origin and high antiquity.

POLO, p[=o]'lo, _n._ a Spanish gipsy dance.

POLONAISE, p[=o]-l[=o]-n[=a]z', _n._ a light kind of gown looped up at the sides to show an ornamented petticoat: a short overcoat bordered with fur: a Polish national dance of slow movement in time, during which the dancers march or promenade: music for such a dance. [Fr., 'Polish.']

POLONY, po-l[=o]'ni, _n._ a dry sausage made of meat partly cooked. [Prob.

a corr. of _Bologna sausage_.]

POLT, p[=o]lt, _n._ a blow.

POLTROON, pol-tr[=oo]n', _n._ an idle, lazy fellow: a coward: a dastard: one without spirit.--_adj._ base, vile, contemptible.--_n._ POLTROON'ERY, laziness: cowardice: want of spirit. [Fr. _poltron_--It. _poltro_ (for _polstro_), lazy--Ger. _polster_, a bolster.]

POLVERINE, pol'v[.e]r-in, _n._ the calcined ashes of a Levantine and Syrian plant, used in glass-making. [It. _polverino_--L. _pulvis_, _pulv[)e]ris_, dust.]

POLYACOUSTIC, pol-i-a-kowst'ik, _adj._ multiplying or magnifying sound.--_n._ an instrument for effecting this.

POLYACT, pol'i-akt, _adj._ having numerous rays.--Also POLYAC'TINAL.

POLYAD, pol'i-ad, _n._ (_chem._) an element whose valence is greater than two.

POLYADELPH, pol'i-a-delf, _n._ a plant having its stamens united in three or more bundles by the POLYADEL'PHIA, the 18th class in the Linnaean system.--_adjs._ POLYADEL'PHIAN, POLYADEL'PHOUS.

POLYANDRIA, pol-i-an'dri-a, _n._ a class of plants in the Linnaean system, having more than twenty stamens inserted on the receptacle.--_adjs._ POLYAN'DRIAN, POLYAN'DROUS.--_n._ POLYAN'DRY, the social usage of some races in certain stages of civilisation in which the woman normally forms a union with several husbands. [Gr. _polys_, many, _an[=e]r_, _andros_, a man.]

POLYANTHUS, pol-i-an'thus, _n._ a kind of primrose much prized and cultivated by florists:--_pl._ POLYAN'THUSES.--_n._ POLYAN'THEA, a note-book for keeping choice quotations. [Gr. _polys_, many, _anthos_, a flower.]

POLYARCHY, pol'i-ar-ki, _n._ government by many persons of whatever class.--_n._ POL'YARCHIST. [Gr. _polys_, many, _archein_, to rule.]

POLYATOMIC, pol-i-a-tom'ik, _adj._ (_chem._) noting elements or radicals with an equivalency greater than two: with more than one atom in the molecule.

POLYAUTOGRAPHY, pol-i-aw-tog'ra-fi, _n._ the art of multiplying copies of one's own handwriting.

POLYBASIC, pol-i-b[=a]'sik, _adj._ (_chem._) capable of combining with more than two univalent bases.

POLYCARPIC, pol-i-kar'pik, _adj._ fruiting many times or year after year.

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