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PLUMB, plum, _n._ a mass of lead or other material, hung on a string, to show the perpendicular position: the perpendicular direction or position.--_adj._ perpendicular.--_adv._ perpendicularly.--_v.t._ to adjust by a plumb-line: to make perpendicular: to sound the depth of, as water by a plumb-line.--_n._ PLUMB'-BOB, a conoid-shaped metal weight at the end of a plumb-line.--_adjs._ PLUM'B[=E]AN, PLUM'B[=E]OUS, consisting of, or resembling, lead: stupid; PLUMB'IC, pertaining to, or obtained from, lead; PLUMBIF'EROUS, producing lead.--_n._ PLUMB'ING, the art of casting and working in lead, &c.--_adj._ PLUMB'LESS, incapable of being sounded.--_ns._ PLUMB'-LINE, a line to which a mass of lead is attached to show the perpendicular: a plummet; PLUMB'-RULE, a narrow board with a plumb-line fastened to the top, used to determine a perpendicular. [Fr. _plomb_--L.

_plumbum_, lead.]

PLUMBAGINEae, plum-ba-jin'[=e]-[=e], a natural order of oxogenous plants found on seashores and salt-marshes.

PLUMBAGO, plum-b[=a]'go, _n._ a mineral composed of carbon, iron, and other materials, used for pencils, &c., popularly called 'blacklead:' graphite: a genus of plants with blue or violet flowers.--_adj._ PLUMBAG'INOUS. [L.

_plumbum_, lead.]

PLUMBER, plum'[.e]r, _n._ one who works in lead, esp. one who fits into buildings the tanks, pipes, and fittings for conveying water, gas, and sewage.--_ns._ PLUMB'ER-BLOCK, a metal frame or case for holding the end of a revolving shaft: a pillow-block; PLUMB'ERY, articles of lead: the business of a plumber: a place for plumbing.

PLUME, pl[=oo]m, _n._ a feather: a tuft of feathers: a feather worn as an ornament: a crest: a token of honour: a prize in a contest.--_v.t._ to dress the feathers of, as a bird: to adorn with plumes: to strip of feathers: to boast (used reflexively).--_ns._ PLUMASSIER (pl[=oo]-ma-s[=e]r'), one who prepares or deals in plumes; PLUME'-BIRD, a term sometimes given to the _Epimachidae_ or long-tailed birds-of-Paradise.--_adjs._ PLUMED, adorned with feathers; PLUME'LESS.--_n._ PLUME'LET, a down-feather, a plumule: anything resembling a small plume.--_adj._ PLUME'-PLUCKED, stripped of plumes: (_Shak._) humbled.--_n._ PLUM'ERY, a display of plumes.--_adjs._ PLUMIG'EROUS, plumaged; PLU'MIPED, having feathered feet.--_n._ PLU'MIST, a feather-dresser.--_adjs._ PLU'MOSE, PLU'MOUS, feathery: plume-like; PLU'MY, covered or adorned with plumes. [O. Fr.,--L. _pluma_, a small soft feather.]


PLUMMET, plum'et, _n._ a weight of lead hung at a string, used for ascertaining the direction of the earth's attraction, and for sounding depths: a plumb-line. [O. Fr. _plomet_, dim. of _plom_, lead.]

PLUMP, plump, _adv._ falling straight downward (like lead): heavily: suddenly.--_adj._ downright: unqualified.--_v.i._ to fall or sink suddenly: to give all one's votes to one candidate where there are more than one to be elected.--_v.t._ to cause to fall suddenly.--_n._ (_Scot._) a sudden downfall of rain.--_n._ PLUMP'ER, a vote given to one candidate only when more than one are to be elected: one who so votes: (_slang_) a downright lie.--_adv._ PLUMP'LY, fully, without reserve. [_Plumb._]

PLUMP, plump, _adj._ fat and rounded: sleek: in good condition.--_v.i._ to grow fat or plump: to swell.--_v.t._ to make plump: to fatten.--_ns._ PLUMP'ER, a ball kept in the mouth to give the cheeks a rounded appearance; PLUMP'NESS.--_adj._ PLUMP'Y (_Shak._), plump, fat. [Teut.; Dut. _plomp_, lumpish, Ger. _plump_.]

PLUMP, plump, _n._ a cluster: a clump (of persons or things).

PLUMULARIA, pl[=oo]-m[=u]-l[=a]'ri-a, _n._ a genus of hydrozoa, belonging to the division _hydroidea_.--_adj._ PLUMUL[=A]'RIAN. [L. _plumula_, a little feather.]

PLUMULE, pl[=oo]'m[=u]l, _n._ (_bot._) the first bud of a plant growing from seed, springing from between the cotyledons or seed leaves: a soft feather: a feathery scale on a butterfly's wing.--Also PLUM'ULA. [L.

_plumula_, dim. of _pluma_, a feather.]

PLUNDER, plun'd[.e]r, _v.t._ to seize the goods of another by force: to pillage.--_n._ that which is seized by force: booty: (_U.S._) household goods.--_ns._ PLUN'DERAGE, the stealing of goods on board ship; PLUN'DERER.--_adj._ PLUN'DEROUS. [Ger. _plundern_, to pillage--_plunder_, trash, baggage; akin to Low Ger. _plunnen_, rags.]

PLUNGE, plunj, _v.t._ to cast suddenly into water or other fluid: to force suddenly (into): to immerse.--_v.i._ to sink suddenly into any fluid: to dive: to pitch suddenly forward and throw up the hind-legs, as a horse: to rush into any danger: (_slang_) to gamble recklessly.--_n._ act of plunging: act of rushing headlong, as a horse.--_n._ PLUNG'ER, one who plunges: a diver: a long solid cylinder used as a forcer in pumps: (_mil._) a cavalry-man: one who bets heavily.--_adj._ PLUNG'ING, rushing headlong: aimed from higher ground, as fire upon an enemy.--_n._ the putting or sinking under water, or other fluid: the act of a horse trying to throw its rider.--PLUNGE BATH, a bath large enough to allow the whole body under water. [O. Fr. _plonger_--L. _plumbum_, lead.]

PLUPERFECT, pl[=oo]'p[.e]r-fekt, _adj._ (_gram._) noting that an action happened before some other past action referred to. [A corr. of L.

_plus-quam-perfectum_, (lit.) _more than_ or _before perfect_.]

PLURAL, pl[=oo]'ral, _adj._ containing or expressing more than one.--_n._ (_gram._) the form denoting more than one.--_n._ PLURALIS[=A]'TION.--_v.t._ PLU'RALISE, to make plural.--_v.i._ to hold two or more benefices simultaneously.--_ns._ PLU'RALISM, the state of being plural: the holding by one person of more than one office at once, esp. applied to ecclesiastical livings; PLU'RALIST, one who holds more than one office at one time; PLURAL'ITY, the state of being plural: a number consisting of more than one: the majority: the holding of more than one benefice at one time: the living held by a pluralist.--_adv._ PLU'RALLY. [Fr.,--L.

_pluralis_--_plus_, _pluris_, more.]

PLURILITERAL, pl[=oo]-ri-lit'[.e]r-al, _adj._ containing more letters than three.

PLURILOCULAR, pl[=oo]-ri-lok'[=u]-lar, _adj._ multilocular.

PLURIPAROUS, pl[=oo]-rip'a-rus, _adj._ having several young at a birth.--_n._ PLURIP'ARA, one who has borne two or more children.

PLURIPRESENCE, pl[=oo]-ri-prez'ens, _n._ presence in more places than one.

[L. _plus_, more, _praesentia_, presence.]

PLURISY, pl[=oo]r'i-si, _n._ (_Shak._) superabundance. [L. _plus_, _pluris_, more.]

PLUS, plus, _adj._ more: to be added: positive.--_n._ the sign (+) prefixed to positive quantities, and set between quantities or numbers to be added together: the sign of addition--opp. to _Minus_. [L. _plus_, more.]

PLUSH, plush, _n._ a variety of cloth woven like velvet, but differing from it in having a longer and more open pile.--_adj._ PLUSH'Y, of or resembling plush. [Fr. _peluche_, through Low L., from L. _pilus_, hair. See PILE, a hairy surface.]

PLUTOCRACY, pl[=oo]-tok'ra-si, _n._ government by the wealthy.--_n._ PLU'TOCRAT.--_adj._ PLUTOCRAT'IC.--_ns._ PLUTOL'OGIST; PLUTOL'OGY, the science of wealth: political economy. [Gr. _ploutokratia_--_ploutos_, wealth, _kratia_--_kratein_, to rule.]

PLUTONIAN, pl[=oo]-t[=o]'ni-an, _adj._ infernal: dark: (_geol._) formed by the agency of heat at a depth below the surface of the earth, as granite--also PLUTON'IC.--_ns._ PLU'TONISM; PLU'TONIST.--PLUTONIC ACTION, the action of volcanic fires under the surface; PLUTONIC ROCKS, rocks formed under the surface by the action of fire, as granite, porphyry, &c.; PLUTONIC THEORY, the theory that the present state of the earth's crust is the result of the action of fire--opp. to _Neptunian theory_. [L.,--Gr.

_Plout[=o]nios_--_Plout[=o]n_, Pluto, the god of the nether world.]

PLUVIAL, pl[=oo]'vi-al, _adj._ pertaining to rain: rainy.--_ns._ PLU'VIOGRAPH, a self-recording rain-gauge; PLUVIOM'ETER, an instrument for measuring the amount of rain that falls.--_adjs._ PLUVIOMET'RIC, -AL; PLU'VIOUS, rainy. [Fr.,--_pluvialis_--_pluvia_, rain.]

PLY, pl[=i], _v.t._ to work at steadily: to use diligently: to urge: to address with importunity.--_v.i._ to work steadily: to go in haste: to make regular passages, as a boat, between two ports: (_naut._) to make way against the wind:--_pa.t._ and _pa.p._ plied.--_n._ a fold: bent: direction.--_n._ PLY'ER. [O. Fr. _plier_, to fold--L. _plic[=a]re_, to bend.]


PLYMOUTH BRETHREN, plim'uth breth'ren, a rigid religious sect, originating at _Plymouth_ about 1830, out of a reaction against High Church principles and against a dead formalism associated with unevangelical doctrine.--_n._ PLYM'OUTHISM.

PNEUMA, n[=u]'ma, _n._ breath: spirit, soul. [Gr.]

PNEUMATIC, -AL, n[=u]-mat'ik, -al, _adj._ relating to air: consisting of air: moved by air or wind.--_n._ (_coll._) a bicycle fitted with pneumatic tires.--_adv._ PNEUMAT'ICALLY.--_n.sing._ PNEUMAT'ICS, the science which treats of air and other elastic fluids or gases.--_adj._ PNEUMATOLOG'ICAL.--_ns._ PNEUMATOL'OGIST, one versed in pneumatology; PNEUMATOL'OGY, the science of elastic fluids: pneumatics: the branch of philosophy which treats of spirits or mind: (_theol._) the doctrine of the Holy Spirit; PNEUMATOM'ETER, PNEUMOM'ETER, an instrument for measuring the quantity of air inhaled into the lungs at a single inspiration.--_adj._ PNEUMOGAS'TRIC, pertaining to the lungs and the stomach.--_n._ PNEUM[=O]'NIA, inflammation of the tissues of the lungs--also PNEU'MON[=I]'TIS.--_adj._ PNEUMON'IC, pertaining to the lungs.--_n._ a medicine for lung diseases.--PNEUMATIC DESPATCH, a method of sending letters, telegrams, and small parcels through tubes by means of compressed air; PNEUMATIC RAILWAY, a railway along which the carriages are driven by compressed air; PNEUMATIC TROUGH, a trough of wood or iron, filled with water and used for collecting gases for experiment or examination; PNEUMATIC TIRE, a flexible air-inflated tube used as a tire on cycles, &c.

[L.,--Gr. _pneumatikos_--_pneum-a_, _-atos_, wind, air--_pnein_, to blow, to breathe.]

PNYX, niks, _n._ in ancient Athens, the public place of meeting for deliberation on political affairs: the assembly. [Gr.,--_pyknos_, crowded.]

POACEae, p[=o]-[=a]'s[=e]-[=e], a division of the order _Gramineae_, the grasses.--_n._ P[=O]'A, a genus of grasses. [Gr. _poa_, grass.]

POACH, p[=o]ch, _v.t._ to dress eggs by breaking them into boiling water.

[Perh. Fr. _pocher_, to put in a pocket--_poche_, pouch.]

POACH, p[=o]ch, _v.i._ to intrude on another's preserves in order to steal game.--_v.t._ to steal game.--_ns._ POACH'ER, one who poaches or steals game: the widgeon, from its habit of stealing the prey of other ducks; POACH'ING. [O. Fr. _pocher_, orig. to pocket--_poche_, pouch.]

POACH, p[=o]ch, _v.t._ to stab: poke: to tread on, and make slushy.--_n._ POACH'INESS.--_adj._ POACH'Y, wet and soft. [O. Fr. _pocher_, to poke.]

POCHARD, p[=o]'chard, _n._ a genus of diving ducks which are marine during the greater part of the year. [_Poacher_, the widgeon.]

POCK, pok, _n._ a small elevation of the skin containing matter, as in smallpox.--_adjs._ POCKED, POCK'Y, infected with, or marked by, smallpox.--_ns._ POCK'MARK, POCK'PIT, the mark, pit, or scar left by a pock.--_adj._ POCK'PITTED. [A.S. _poc_, a pustule; Ger. _pocke_, Dut.

_pok_. The correct pl. form was _pocks_, erroneously _pox_, and treated as singular.]

POCKET, pok'et, _n._ a little pouch or bag, esp. one attached to a dress or to a billiard table: any cavity in which anything can lie: in mining, an irregular cavity filled with veinstone and ore: money, as being carried in the pocket: a bag of wool, &c., containing about 168 lb.--_v.t._ to put in the pocket: to take stealthily: to conceal:--_pr.p._ pock'eting; _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ pock'eted.--_ns._ POCK'ET-BOOK, a note-book: a book for holding papers or money carried in the pocket: a book for frequent perusal, to be carried in the pocket; POCK'ET-BOR'OUGH (see BOROUGH); POCK'ET-CLOTH, a pocket-handkerchief; POCK'ETFUL, as much as a pocket will hold; POCK'ET-GLASS, a small looking-glass for the pocket; POCK'ET-HAND'KERCHIEF, a handkerchief carried in the pocket; POCK'ET-HOLE, the opening into a pocket; POCK'ET-KNIFE, a knife with one or more blades folding into the handle for carrying in the pocket; POCK'ET-MON'EY, money carried for occasional expenses; POCK'ET-PICK'ING, act or practice of picking the pocket; POCK'ET-PIS'TOL, a pistol carried in the pocket: a small travelling flask for liquor.--POCKET AN INSULT, AFFRONT, &c., to submit to or put up with it; POCKET EDITION, a small portable edition of a standard book.--IN POCKET, in possession of money; OUT OF POCKET, to lose money by a transaction; PICK A PERSON'S POCKET, to steal from his pocket. [Fr.

_pochette_, dim. of _poche_, pouch.]

POCKMANTY, pok-man'ti, _n._ (_Scot._) portmanteau.

POCOCURANTE, p[=o]-k[=o]-k[=oo]-ran'te, _n._ a careless or inattentive person.--_ns._ POCOCURANT'ISM, carelessness: inaccuracy; POCOCURANT'IST.

[It. _poco_, little, _curare_, to care.]

POCULIFORM, pok'[=u]-li-form, _adj._ cup-shaped. [L. _poculum_, cup.]

POD, pod, _n._ the covering of the seed of plants, as the pea or bean: a shoal of fishes.--_v.i._ to fill, as a pod: to produce pods:--_pr.p._ pod'ding; _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ pod'ded. [Allied to _pad_, anything stuffed.]

PODAGRA, p[=o]-dag'ra, _n._ gout in the feet.--_adjs._ POD'AGRAL, PODAG'RIC, -AL, POD'AGROUS, gouty.--_n._ PODAL'GIA, pain, esp. neuralgia, in the foot. [Gr. _pous_, _podos_, the foot, _agra_, a catching.]

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