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PLASTRON, plas'tron, _n._ a breast-plate: a detachable part of a woman's dress hanging from the throat to the waist: a man's shirt-bosom: a fencer's wadded shield of leather worn on the breast: the ventral part of the shell of a chelonian or testudinate, the lower shell of a turtle or tortoise: the sternum with costal cartilages attached.--_adj._ PLAS'TRAL.

PLAT, plat, _v.t._ Same as PLAIT.

PLAT, plat, _n._ a piece of ground: a piece of ground ornamentally laid out: (_obs._) a plan, scheme.--_v.t._ to make a map or plan of.--_n._ PLAT'-BAND, a border of flowers in a garden: (_archit._) a slightly projecting square moulding, an architrave fascia, a list between flutings.


PLATANE, plat'[=a]n, _n._ the plane-tree.--Also PLAT'AN. [L.

_platanus_--Gr. _platanos_--_platys_, broad.]

PLATE, pl[=a]t, _n._ something flat: a thin piece of metal: wrought gold and silver: household utensils in gold and silver: a shallow dish nearly flat: an engraved piece of metal.--_v.t._ to overlay with a coating of plate or metal: to arm or defend with metal plates: to adorn with metal: to beat into thin plates.--_n._ PLATE'-ARM'OUR, armour of strong metal plates for protecting ships-of-war, &c.--_adj._ PL[=A]'TED, covered with plates of metal for strength, as ships: covered with a coating of a more precious metal: (_zool._) covered with hard scales.--_ns._ PLATE'-FLEET (_Milt._), vessels used for carrying precious metals; PLATE'FUL, as much as a plate will hold; PLATE'-GLASS, a fine kind of glass, cast in thick plates, used for mirrors and large shop-windows; PLATE'-LAY'ER, a workman whose occupation it is to lay the rails of a railway and fix them to the sleepers; PLATE'-MARK, a mark or stamp on gold or silver plate to indicate its purity and the place where it was made; PLATE'-POW'DER, a composition of rouge and prepared chalk used for cleaning gold and silver plate and plated articles; PLATE'-PRINT'ING, the process of printing from engraved plates; PL[=A]'TER, one who plates articles with a coating of gold or silver; PLATE'-RACK, a frame for holding plates, &c., when not in use; PLATE'-WARM'ER, an apparatus in which plates are warmed before the fire; PL[=A]'TING, the covering of an inferior metal with one of the precious metals: a thin coating of metal on another.--_adj._ PL[=A]'TY, like a plate.--HALF'-PLATE, in photography, a size of plate measuring 4 by 6 in.

(4 by 5 in U.S.); QUAR'TER-PLATE, 3 by 4 in.; WHOLE'-PLATE, 6 by 8 in. [O. Fr. _plate_, fem. of _plat_, flat--Gr. _platys_, broad.]

PLATEAU, pla-t[=o]', _n._ a broad flat space on an elevated position: a tableland:--_pl._ PLATEAUS, PLATEAUX (pla-t[=o]z'). [Fr.,--O. Fr. _platel_, dim. of _plat_.]

PLATEN, plat'en, _n._ the flat part of a printing-press which comes down upon the form, and by which the impression is made.

PLATFORM, plat'form, _n._ a raised level surface: a part of a floor raised above the rest to form a standing-place for speakers, workmen, &c.: (_mil._) an elevated floor for cannon: a statement of principles to which a body of men declare their adhesion, and on which they act: (_Shak._) a scheme, plan.--_v.t._ (_Milt._) to sketch, plan: (_Mrs Browning_) to support as on a platform.--_ns._ PLAT'FORM-BRIDGE (_Amer._), a movable gangway between the platforms of two railway carriages; PLAT'FORM-CAR, a railway car open all round and without a roof; PLAT'FORM-CRANE, a crane used on a railway platform, or one mounted on a movable truck; PLAT'FORM-SCALE, a weighing-machine with a flat surface for holding the thing to be weighed.--THE PLATFORM, the function of public oratory. [Fr.

_plate-forme_, 'flat form.']

PLATIASMUS, plat-i-as'mus, _n._ imperfect speech.

PLATINUM, plat'in-um, _n._ an important metal of a dim silvery appearance, between gold and silver in value, and very difficult to melt--older name PLAT'INA.--_adjs._ PLATIN'IC; PLATINIF'EROUS.--_v.t._ PLAT'INISE, to coat with platinum.--_ns._ PLAT'INOID, one of the metals with which platinum is always found associated--_palladium iridium_, &c.; PLAT'INOTYPE, a method of producing photographs by means of paper coated with a preparation of platinum: a picture so produced.--_adj._ PLAT'INOUS, containing or consisting of platinum. [Sp. _platina_--_plata_, plate.]

PLATITUDE, plat'i-t[=u]d, _n._ flatness: that which exhibits dullness of thought: an empty remark made as if it were important.--_n._ PLATITUDIN[=A]'RIAN, one who indulges in platitudes.--_adj._ PLATIT[=U]'DINOUS. [Fr.,--_plat_, flat.]

PLATONIC, -AL, pl[=a]-ton'ik, -al, _adj._ pertaining to _Plato_, the Greek philosopher (about 427-347 B.C.), or to his philosophical opinions.--_adv._ PL[=A]TON'ICALLY.--_v.t._ and _v.i._ PL[=A]'TONISE, to reason like Plato.--_ns._ PL[=A]'TONISM, the philosophical opinions of Plato; PL[=A]'TONIST, PL[=A]TON'IC, a follower of Plato.--PLATONIC LOVE, the love of soul for soul, a love into which sensual desire is supposed not to enter at all.

PLATOON, pla-t[=oo]n', _n._ a number of recruits assembled for exercise--originally a small body of soldiers in a hollow square, to strengthen the angles of a longer formation: a subdivision of a company.

[Fr. _peloton_, a ball, a knot of men--_pelote_--L. _p[)i]la_, a ball.]

PLATTER, plat'[.e]r, _n._ a large flat plate or dish. [M. E. _plater_--O.

Fr. _platel_--_plat_, a plate.]

PLATTING, plat'ing, _n._ the process of making interwoven work: such work itself.

PLATYCEPHALOUS, plat-i-sef'a-lus, _adj._ having the vault of the skull flattened.--Also PLATYCEPHAL'IC.

PLATYPUS, plat'i-poos, _n._ the duck-bill (q.v.). [Gr. _platys_, flat, _pous_, a foot.]

PLATYRHINE, plat'i-rin, _adj._ broad-nosed.--_n._ a platyrhine monkey.

PLAUDIT, plawd'it, _n._ a mark of applause: praise bestowed.--_adj._ PLAUD'ITORY, applauding.--_adj._ PLAUS'IVE, applauding, approving: (_Shak._) plausible. [Shortened from L. _plaudite_, praise ye, a call for applause, 2d pers. pl. imper. of _plaud[)e]re_, _plausum_, to praise.]

PLAUSIBLE, plawz'i-bl, _adj._ that may be applauded: seemingly worthy of approval or praise: superficially pleasing: apparently right: fair-spoken: popular.--_ns._ PLAUSIBIL'ITY, PLAUS'IBLENESS, an appearance of being right or worthy of approval: that which seems right and true at first sight.--_adv._ PLAUS'IBLY. [L. _plausibilis_--_plaud[)e]re_, to praise.]

PLAUSTRAL, pla'stral, _adj._ of or pertaining to a wagon. [L. _plaustrum_, a wagon.]

PLAY, pl[=a], _v.i._ to engage in some amusing exercise: to take part in a game, or a piece of diversion: to gamble: to sport: to trifle: to move irregularly or (_mech._) freely: to operate: to act in a theatre: to perform on a musical instrument: to practise a trick: to act a character: to act with repeated strokes.--_v.t._ to put in motion: to perform upon: to perform: to act a sportive part: to compete with.--_n._ amusement: any exercise for amusement: a contending for victory or for a prize: practice in a contest: gaming: action or use: manner of dealing, as fair-play: a dramatic composition: movement: room for action or motion: liberty of action.--_ns._ PLAY'-ACT'OR, one who acts a part in a play: an actor; PLAY'-ACT'ORISM, the manner or habits of a play-actor; PLAY'-BILL, a bill or advertisement of a play; PLAY'BOOK, a book of plays or dramas; PLAY'-CLUB, a wooden-headed golf-club used for driving the ball the longest distances; PLAY'-DAY, PLAY'-TIME, a day devoted to play: a holiday; PLAY'ER, one who plays: an actor of plays or dramas: a trifler: a musician: a professional at cricket; PLAY'FELLOW, PLAY'MATE, a fellow or mate in play or amusements.--_adj._ PLAY'FUL, given to play: sportive.--_adv._ PLAY'FULLY.--_ns._ PLAY'FULNESS; PLAY'-G[=O]'ER, one who habitually attends the theatre; PLAY'-G[=O]'ING; PLAY'-GROUND, a ground or place on which to play, esp. that connected with a school; PLAY'-HOUSE, a house where dramatic performances are represented: a theatre; PLAY'ING-CARD, one of a set of fifty-two cards used in playing games; PLAY'-MARE, the hobby-horse, one of the chief parts in the ancient morris-dance; PLAY'THING, anything for playing with: a toy; PLAY'WRIGHT, PLAY'-WRIT'ER, a writer of plays: one who adapts dramatic compositions for the stage.--PLAYED OUT, worked to the end: used up: tired; PLAY FAST AND LOOSE, to act in a tricky, inconstant way: to say one thing and do another; PLAY FINE, at billiards, to strike the object-ball near the edge--opp. to PLAY FULL, to strike it nearer the centre than the edge; PLAY OFF, to show or display; PLAY UP, to make a beginning of playing: to play more vigorously; PLAY UPON, to trifle with: to delude.--A PLAY UPON WORDS, a use of words so as to give them a double meaning; BRING INTO PLAY, to bring into exercise or use; COME INTO PLAY, to come into use; HOLD IN PLAY, to keep the attention of. [A.S. _plegan_, to play.]

PLEA, pl[=e], _n._ the defender's answer to the plaintiff's demand or charge: an excuse: an apology: an action in a court of law: urgent entreaty. [O. Fr. _plait_ (Fr. _plaid_)--Low L. _placitum_, a decision--L.

_placet_, it pleases, _plac[=e]re_, to please.]

PLEACH, pl[=e]ch, _v.t._ to intertwine the branches of, as a hedge: (_Shak._) to fold, as the arms. [O. Fr. _plesser_--L. _plec-t[)e]re_, plait; Gr. _plek-ein_, weave.]

PLEAD, pl[=e]d, _v.i._ to carry on a plea or lawsuit: to argue in support of a cause against another: to seek to persuade: to admit or deny a charge of guilt.--_v.t._ to discuss by arguments: to allege in pleading or defence: to offer in excuse:--_pa.t._ and _pa.p._ plead'ed, or (less correctly and coll.) pled.--_adj._ PLEAD'ABLE, capable of being pleaded.--_n._ PLEAD'ER.--_adj._ PLEAD'ING, imploring.--_n._ act of pleading or of conducting any cause: (_pl._) the statements of the two parties in a lawsuit (_law_).--_adv._ PLEAD'INGLY.--PLEAD GUILTY, or NOT GUILTY, to admit, or deny, guilt.--SPECIAL PLEADING, unfair argument aiming rather at victory than at truth. [O. Fr. _plaider_; cf. _Plea_.]

PLEASE, pl[=e]z, _v.t._ to give pleasure to: to delight: to satisfy.--_v.i._ to like: to think fit: to choose: to give pleasure: used impers., followed by an object, originally dative, of the person=if it please you.--_n._ PLEAS'ANCE, merriment: a pleasure garden.--_adj._ PLEAS'ANT, pleasing: agreeable: cheerful: gay: facetious.--_adv._ PLEAS'ANTLY.--_ns._ PLEAS'ANTNESS; PLEAS'ANTRY, anything that promotes pleasure: merriment: lively or humorous talk: a trick:--_pl._ PLEAS'ANTRIES; PLEASE'MAN (_Shak._), an officious fellow, a pick-thank; PLEAS'ER, one who pleases or gratifies.--_adj._ PLEAS'ING, giving pleasure: agreeable: gratifying.--_n._ (_Shak._) pleasure given: (_B._) approbation.--_adv._ PLEAS'INGLY.--_n._ PLEAS'INGNESS, the quality of giving pleasure.--_adj._ PLEAS'URABLE, able to give pleasure: delightful: gratifying.--_n._ PLEAS'URABLENESS.--_adv._ PLEAS'URABLY.--_n._ PLEASURE (plezh'[=u]r), agreeable emotions: gratification of the senses or of the mind: what the will prefers: purpose: command: approbation.--_v.t._ (_arch._) to give pleasure to.--_ns._ PLEAS'URE-BOAT, a boat used for pleasure or amusement; PLEAS'URE-GROUND, ground laid out in an ornamental manner for pleasure; PLEAS'URE-HOUSE, a house to which one retires for recreation or pleasure.--_adj._ PLEAS'URELESS.--_ns._ PLEAS'URER, one who seeks pleasure; PLEAS'URE-TRIP, an excursion for pleasure.--AT PLEASURE, whenever and as one pleases. [O. Fr. _plaisir_ (Fr. _plaire_)--L.

_plac[=e]re_, to please.]

PLEAT, pl[=e]t, _v.t._ Same as PLAIT.

PLEBEIAN, pl[=e]-b[=e]'an, _adj._ pertaining to, or consisting of, the common people: popular: vulgar.--_n._ originally one of the common people of ancient Rome: one of the lower classes.--_v.t._ PLEBEI'ANISE.--_ns._ PLEBEI'ANISM, state of being a plebeian: the conduct or manners of plebeians: vulgarity; PLEBIFIC[=A]'TION, the act of making plebeian.--_v.t._ PLEB'IFY, to make plebeian: to vulgarise. [Fr.

_plebeien_--L. _plebeius_--_plebs_, _plebis_, the common people.]

PLEBISCITE, pleb'i-s[=i]t, _n._ a decree of an entire nation, obtained by an appeal to universal suffrage, as in France under Napoleon III.: a method of obtaining an expression of opinion upon a certain point from the inhabitants of a district--also PLEBISC[=I]'TUM:--_pl._ PLEB'ISCITES, PLEBIS'CITA.--_adj._ PLEB'ISCITARY. [Fr.,--L. _plebiscitum_, decree of the people--_plebs_, the people, _scitum_, a decree--_sc[=i]re_, to know.]

PLEBS, plebz, _n._ the common people. [L.]

PLECTOGNATHI, plek-tog'n[=a]-th[=i], _n._ an order of bony fishes, including file-fishes, globe-fishes, coffer-fishes, sun-fishes.--_adjs._ PLECTOGNATH'IC, PLECTOG'NATHOUS. [Gr. _plectos_, plaited, _gnathos_, a jaw.]

PLECTRUM, plek'trum, _n._ the quill or other form of instrument by which the strings of the Greek lyre were struck.--Also PLEC'TRE, PLEC'TRON.

[L.--Gr.,--_pl[=e]ssein_, to strike.]

PLED, pled, _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ of _plead_.

PLEDGE, plej, _n._ something given as a security: one who becomes surety for another: a sentiment of goodwill or friendship expressed by drinking together.--_v.t._ to give as security: to engage for by promise: to invite to drink by partaking of the cup first: to drink to the health of.--_ns._ PLEDGEE', the person to whom a thing is pledged; PLEDG'ER.--PLEDGE CARD, a card given, as a remembrancer, to a person who has signed the total abstinence pledge; PLEDGE CUP, a cup for drinking pledges.--HOLD IN PLEDGE, to keep as security; PUT IN PLEDGE, to pawn; TAKE, or SIGN, THE PLEDGE, to give a written promise to abstain from intoxicating liquor. [O. Fr. _plege_ (Fr. _pleige_); prob. L. _praeb[=e]re_, to afford.]

PLEDGET, plej'et, _n._ a wad of lint, cotton, &c., as for a wound or sore: an oakum string used in caulking.

PLEIAD, pl[=i]'ad, _n._ one of the seven daughters of Atlas and Pleione, after death changed into stars:--_pl._ PLEI'ADS, PLEI'ADES, (_astron._) a group of seven or more stars in the shoulder of the constellation Taurus.


PLEIOCHROISM, pl[=i]-ok'r[=o]-izm, _n._ the property in some crystals, such as some species of topaz, where three distinct colours may be observed on looking through them along three rectangular axes.--Also POL'YCHR[=O]ISM.

[Gr. _plei[=o]n_, _ple[=o]n_, more, _chroa_, colour.]

PLEISTOCENE, pl[=i]s't[=o]-s[=e]n, _n._ (_geol._) the name given to the system comprising the older accumulations belonging to the Quaternary or Post-Tertiary division. [Gr. _pleistos_, most, _kainos_, recent.]

PLENARY, pl[=e]'n[=a]-ri, _adj._ full: entire: complete: (_law_) passing through all its stages--opp. to _Summary_: having full powers.--_adv._ PLEN'ARILY.--_ns._ PLEN'ARINESS; PL[=E]'NARTY, the state of a benefice when occupied; PL[=E]'NIST, one who believes all space to be filled with matter; PLEN'ITUDE, fullness: completeness: repletion; PL[=E]'NUM, space considered as in every part filled with matter.--PLENARY INSPIRATION, inspiration which excludes all mixture of error. [Low L. _plenarius_--L. _ple-nus_, full--_pl[=e]re_, to fill.]

PLENICORN, plen'i-korn, _adj._ solid-horned, as a ruminant.

PLENILUNAR, plen-i-l[=u]'nar, _adj._ pertaining to the full moon.

PLENIPOTENCE, pl[=e]-nip'o-tens, _n._ complete power--also PLENIP'OTENCY.--_adj._ PLENIP'OTENT, having full power. [L. _plenus_, full, _potens_, _-entis_, powerful.]

PLENIPOTENTIARY, plen-i-po-ten'shi-a-ri, _adj._ conferring or having full powers.--_n._ a person invested with full powers, esp. a special ambassador or envoy to some foreign court. [Low L. _plenipotentiarius_--L. _plenus_, full, _potens_, powerful.]

PLENISH, plen'ish, _v.t._ to furnish: to provide, as a house or farm, with necessary furniture, implements, stock, &c.--_n._ PLEN'ISHING (_Scot._), furniture. [Fr.,--L. _plenus_, full.]

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