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PLACULA, plak'[=u]-la, _n._ a little plate or plaque.--_adjs._ PLAC'ULAR, PLAC'UL[=A]TE.

PLAFOND, pla-fond', _n._ the ceiling of a room, any soffit. [Fr.]

PLAGAL, pl[=a]'gal, _adj._ in Gregorian music, denoting a mode or melody in which the final is in the middle of the compass instead of at the bottom--opp. to _Authentic_. [Gr. _plagios_, sidewise--_plagos_, a side.]

PLAGIARISE, pl[=a]'ji-ar-[=i]z, _v.t._ to steal from the writings or ideas of another.--_ns._ PL[=A]'GIARISM, the act or practice of plagiarising; PL[=A]'GIARIST, one who plagiarises; PL[=A]'GIARY, one who steals the thoughts or writings of others and gives them out as his own: the crime of plagiarism.--_adj._ practising literary theft. [Fr. _plagiaire_--L.

_plagiarius_, a kidnapper--_plaga_, a net.]

PLAGIOCLASE, pl[=a]'ji-[=o]-kl[=a]z, _n._ a group of triclinic feldspars whose cleavage planes are not at right angles to each other.--_adj._ PLAGIOCLAS'TIC. [Gr. _plagios_, oblique, _klasis_, a fracture.]

PLAGIODONT, pl[=a]'ji-[=o]-dont, _adj._ having the teeth oblique.

PLAGIOSTOME, pl[=a]'ji-[=o]-st[=o]m, _n._ a plagiostomous fish, one of the PLAGIOS'TOMI, a division of fishes, including sharks and rays.--_adjs._ PLAGIOSTOM'ATOUS, PLAGIOS'TOMOUS.

PLAGIOTROPISM, pl[=a]-ji-ot'r[=o]-pizm, _n._ a mode of turning of the organs of plants in the direction of gravitation or of the ray of light.--_adj._ PLAGIOTROP'IC.--_adv._ PLAGIOTROP'ICALLY. [Gr. _plagios_, oblique, _tropos_, a turning.]

PLAGIUM, pl[=a]'ji-um, _n._ the crime of kidnapping.

PLAGUE, pl[=a]g, _n._ any great natural evil: a deadly disease or pestilence: a very troublesome person or thing, esp. a malignant kind of contagious fever, prevailing epidemically, characterised by buboes, or swellings of the lymphatic glands, by carbuncles and petechiae.--_v.t._ to infest with disease or trouble: to harass or annoy:--_pr.p._ pl[=a]g'uing; _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ pl[=a]gued.--_ns._ PLAGUE'-MARK, -SPOT, a mark or spot of plague or foul disease: a place where disease is constantly present; PLAG'UER, one who plagues, vexes, or annoys; PLAGUE'-SORE.--_adv._ PLAG'UILY, vexatiously.--_adj._ PLAGUY (pl[=a]'gi), vexatious: (_Shak._) troublesome.--_adv._ vexatiously.--PLAGUE ON, may a curse rest on.--BE AT THE PLAGUE, to be at the trouble. [O. Fr. _plague_--L. _plaga_, a blow; Gr.


PLAICE, pl[=a]s, _n._ a broad, flat fish, in the same genus as the flounder. [O. Fr. _plas_ (Fr. _plie_)--Low L. _platessa_, a flat fish--Gr.

_platys_, flat.]

PLAID, plad, or pl[=a]d, _n._ a loose outer garment of woollen cloth, often of a tartan, or coloured striped pattern, a special dress of the Highlanders of Scotland.--_adj._ like a plaid in pattern or colours.--_adj._ PLAID'ED, wearing a plaid: made of plaid cloth.--_n._ PLAID'ING, a strong woollen twilled fabric. [Gael. _plaide_, a blanket, contr. of _peal-laid_, a sheepskin--_peall_, a skin, cog. with L. _pellis_, Eng. _fell_.]

PLAIN, pl[=a]n, _v.t._ and _v.i._ to complain: to lament.--_ns._ PLAIN'ANT, one who complains: a plaintiff; PLAIN'ING (_Shak._), complaint. [O. Fr.

_pleigner_ (Fr. _plaindre_)--L. _plang[)e]re_, to lament.]

PLAIN, pl[=a]n, _adj._ without elevations, even, flat: level, smooth, without obstructions: free from difficulties, easy, simple: without ornament or beauty, homely: artless: sincere: evident, unmistakable: mere: not coloured, figured, or variegated: not highly seasoned, natural, not cooked or dressed: not trumps at cards.--_n._ an extent of level land: an open field.--_adv._ clearly: distinctly.--_v.t._ (_obs._) to make PLAIN'-CLOTHES, clothes worn by an officer when off duty or not in uniform.--_ns._ PLAIN'-COOK, one able to cook all ordinary dishes; PLAIN'-DEAL'ER, one who deals or speaks his mind plainly.--_adj._ PLAIN'-DEAL'ING, speaking or acting plainly, candid.--_n._ candid speaking or acting, sincerity.--_adj._ PLAIN'-HEART'ED, having a plain or honest heart: sincere.--_n._ PLAIN'-HEART'EDNESS.--_adv._ PLAIN'LY.--_ns._ PLAIN'NESS; PLAIN'-SONG, the music of a recitative-like character and sung in unison, used in the Christian Church of the West from the earliest times, and still in use in all R.C. churches: a simple air without variations: a plain unvarnished statement; PLAIN'-SPEAK'ING, straight-forwardness or bluntness of speech.--_adj._ PLAIN'-SPOK'EN, speaking with plain, rough PLAIN'STANES (_Scot._), flagstones, pavement.--_n._ PLAIN'WORK, plain needlework, as distinguished from embroidery.--PLAIN AS A PIKESTAFF, perfectly plain or clear. [Fr.,--L.

_pl[=a]nus_, plain.]

PLAINT, pl[=a]nt, _n._ lamentation: complaint: a sad song: (_law_) the exhibiting of an action in writing by a complainant.--_adj._ PLAINT'FUL, complaining: expressing sorrow.--_n._ PLAINT'IFF (_Eng. law_), one who commences a suit against another--opp. to _Defendant_.--_adj._ PLAINT'IVE, complaining: expressing sorrow: sad.--_adv._ PLAINT'IVELY.--_n._ PLAINT'IVENESS.--_adj._ PLAINT'LESS, without complaint: unrepining. [O. Fr.

_pleinte_ (Fr. _plainte_)--L. _planctus_--_plang[)e]re_, _planctum_, to lament.]

PLAISE, pl[=a]s, _n._ Same as PLAICE.

PLAISTER, pl[=a]s't[.e]r, _n._ an obsolete form of _plaster_.

PLAIT, pl[=a]t, _n._ a fold: a doubling over, as of cloth upon itself: a braid.--_v.t._ to fold: to double in narrow folds: to interweave.--_adj._ PLAIT'ED, folded over in narrow folds: braided: interwoven: intricate.--_ns._ PLAIT'ER, one who plaits or braids: a machine for making plaits, as in cloth; PLAIT'ING, the act of making plaits. [O. Fr. _pleit_, _ploit_ (Fr. _pli_)--L. _plic[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_, to fold.]

PLAN, plan, _n._ a drawing of anything on a plane or flat surface: a drawing of a building as it stands on the ground: a scheme or project for accomplishing a purpose: a contrivance: a method or custom.--_v.t._ to make a sketch of on a flat surface: to form in design: to lay plans for:--_pr.p._ plan'ning; _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ planned.--_adj._ PLAN'LESS.--_ns._ PLAN'NER, one who forms a plan: a projector; WORK'ING-PLAN, a draft on a large scale given to workmen to work from.--PLAN OF CAMPAIGN, the method of conducting the struggle of the Irish tenants against the landlords, organised by the National League in 1886, its officers collecting what they considered a fair rent, and offering it to the landlord, and where he refused to accept it spending it on the support of the persons evicted. [Fr.,--L. _planus_, flat.]

PLANARIAN, pl[=a]-n[=a]'ri-an, _adj._ and _n._ a term practically coextensive with Turbellarian, applicable to the members of the lowest class of worm-like animals, living in fresh and salt water, and sometimes in damp earth.--_adjs._ PLANAR'IFORM, PLAN[=A]'RIOID. [L. _planarius_, flat.]

PLANCH, planch, _v.t._ (_Shak._) to cover with planks. [Fr. _planche_--L.


PLANCHET, plan'chet, _n._ a flat piece of metal ready to receive impression as a coin.

PLANCHETTE, plan-shet', _n._ a small heart-shaped or triangular piece of board resting on three props, two of which are castors and one a pencil-point, which, while a person's fingers are lightly resting on it, sometimes moves, as if of its own accord, and traces with the pencil marks and even words upon a piece of paper below it. [Fr. _planchette_, a small board.]

PLANE, pl[=a]n, _n._ (_geom._) a surface on which, if any two points be taken, the straight line joining them will lie entirely on the surface: (_astron._) a surface thought of as bounded by the line round which a heavenly body moves: any flat or level surface: any incline on which coal is lowered by the effect of gravity: any grade of life or of development.--_adj._ having the character of a plane: pertaining to, lying in, or forming a plane.--_v.t._ to make plane or smooth.--_adj._ PL[=A]'NARY, relating to a plane: flat.--_n._ PLANE'-T[=A]'BLE, a topographical instrument used in field-mapping, and having a sighting-telescope for observing objects, whose angles may be noted on a paper on the table of the instrument: an inclined table on which ore is dressed.--_v.t._ to survey with a plane-table.--_ns._ PLAN'IGRAPH, an instrument for reducing or enlarging drawings; PLANIM'ETER, an instrument for measuring the area of a plane figure.--_adjs._ PLANIMET'RIC, -AL.--_n._ PLANIM'ETRY, the mensuration of plane surfaces.--_adj._ PLANIPET'ALOUS, having flat petals.--_ns._ PLAN'ISHER, a thin flat-ended tool used for smoothing tin-plate and brasswork: a workman who planishes, esp. one who prepares copper-plates for engravers; PLAN'ISPHERE, a sphere projected on a plane.--_adjs._ PLANISPHER'IC; PL[=A]NO-CON'CAVE, plane on one side and concave on the other; PL[=A]'NO-CON'ICAL, plane on one side and conical on the other; PL[=A]'NO-CON'VEX, plane on one side and convex on the other.--_n._ PLANOG'RAPHIST, a map-maker.--_adj._ PL[=A]'NO-HORIZON'TAL, having a plane horizontal surface or position.--_ns._ PLANOM'ETER, a plane surface used in machine-making as a gauge for plane surfaces; PLANOM'ETRY, the measurement of plane surfaces.--_adj._ PL[=A]'NO-SUB'ULATE, smooth and awl-shaped.--PLANE ANGLE, an angle contained by two straight lines in a plane; PLANE FIGURE, a figure all of whose points lie in one plane; PLANE GEOMETRY, the geometry of plane figures; PLANE SAILING, the calculation of a ship's place in its course, as if the earth were flat instead of spherical: easy work; PLANE TRIGONOMETRY, that branch of trigonometry which treats of triangles described on a plane.--INCLINED PLANE (see INCLINE); PERSPECTIVE PLANE (see PERSPECTIVE). [Fr.,--L. _planus_, plain.]

PLANE, pl[=a]n, _n._ a carpenter's tool for producing a level or smooth surface.--_v.t._ to make a surface (as of wood) level by means of a plane.--_ns._ PL[=A]'NER, a tool or machine for planing: a smooth wooden block used for levelling a form of type; PL[=A]N'ING-MACHINE', a machine for planing wood or metals.--_v.t._ PLAN'ISH, to make smooth: to polish.

[Fr.,--Low L. _plan[=a]re_, to make level.]

PLANET, plan'et, _n._ one of the bodies in the solar system which revolve in elliptic orbits round the sun.--_n._ PLANET[=A]'RIUM, a machine showing the motions and orbits of the planets.--_adjs._ PLAN'ETARY, pertaining to the planets: consisting of, or produced by, planets: under the influence of a planet: erratic: revolving; PLANET'IC, -AL.--_n._ PLAN'ETOID, a celestial body having the form or nature of a planet: one of a number of very small planets, often called asteroids, moving round the sun between Mars and Jupiter.--_adjs._ PLANETOI'DAL; PLAN'ET-STRICK'EN, PLAN'ET-STRUCK (_astrol._), affected by the influence of the planets: blasted.--_n._ PLAN'ETULE, a little planet.--MINOR PLANETS, the numerous group of very small planets which is situated in the solar system between Mars and Jupiter. [Fr. _planete_--Gr. _plan[=e]t[=e]s_, wanderer--_plan[=a]n_, to make to wander.]

PLANE-TREE, pl[=a]n'-tr[=e], _n._ any one of the several trees constituting the genus _Platanus_, esp. the oriental or common plane-tree, with its variety the maple-leaved plane-tree, and the American plane-tree, usually called _sycamore_ or _buttonwood_ or _buttonball_: in Great Britain, the sycamore maple. [Fr. _plane_--L. _platanus_--Gr. _platanos_--_platys_, broad.]

PLANGENT, plan'jent, _adj._ resounding: noisy. [L. _plangens_, _-gentis_--_plang[)e]re_, to beat.]

PLANK, plangk, _n._ a long piece of timber, thicker than a board: one of the principles or aims of an associated party.--_v.t._ to cover with planks.--_n._ PLANK'ING, the act of laying planks: a series of planks: work made up of planks.--WALK THE PLANK, to be compelled to walk along a plank projecting over the ship's edge into the sea. [L. _planca_, a board; cf.

_Plain_, even.]

PLANKTON, plangk'ton, _n._ pelagic animals collectively. [Gr., _planktos_, wandering.]

PLANODIA, pl[=a]-n[=o]'di-a, _n._ a false passage, such as may be made in using a catheter.

PLANT, plant, _n._ a something living and growing, fixed on the ground and drawing food therefrom by means of its root, and developing into a stem, leaves, and seed: a sprout: any vegetable production: the tools or material of any trade or business: (_slang_) a trick, dodge, hidden plunder.--_v.t._ to put into the ground for growth: to furnish with plants: to set in the mind, implant: to establish.--_v.i._ to set shoots in the ground.--_adj._ PLANT'ABLE.--_ns._ PLANT'AGE (_Shak._), plants in general, or the vegetable kingdom; PLANT[=A]'TION, a place planted: a wood or grove: (_U.S._) a large estate: a colony: act or process of introduction: (_Milt._) the act of planting; PLANT'ER, one who plants or introduces: the owner of a plantation; PLANT'-HOUSE, a garden structure designed for the protection and cultivation of the plants of warmer climates than our own; PLANT'ICLE, a young plant; PLANT'ING, the act of setting in the ground for growth: the art of forming plantations of trees: a plantation.--_adj._ PLANT'LESS, destitute of vegetation.--_ns._ PLANT'LET, a little plant; PLANT'-LOUSE, a small homopterous insect which infests plants; PLANT'ULE, the embryo of a plant. [A.S. _plante_ (Fr. _plante_)--L. _planta_, a shoot, a plant.]

PLANTAIN, plan't[=a]n, _n._ an important food-plant of tropical countries, so called from its broad leaf: a common roadside plant of several species, with broad leaves and seed-bearing spikes.--PLANTAIN EATER, one of a family of African, arboreal, vegetarian Pie-like birds. [Fr.,--L. _plantago_, _plantaginis_.]

PLANTIGRADE, plant'i-gr[=a]d, _adj._ that walks on the sole of the foot.--_n._ a plantigrade animal, as the bear.--_adj._ PLANT'AR, pertaining to the sole of the foot. [L. _planta_, the sole, _gradi_, to walk.]

PLANULA, plan'[=u]-la, _n._ the locomotory embryo of the coelenterates.--_adjs._ PLAN'ULAR; PLAN'ULIFORM; PLAN'ULOID.

PLANURIA, pl[=a]-n[=u]'ri-a, _n._ the discharge of urine through an abnormal passage, uroplania.--Also PLAN'URY.

PLAP, plap, _v.i._ to plash, fall with plashing sound. [Imit.]

PLAQUE, plak, _n._ a flat piece of metal or other material, used for ornament, as a brooch, &c., or for painting on, to form a wall-picture.--_n._ PLAQUETTE', a small plaque. [Fr.; cf. _Plack_.]

PLASH, plash, _v.t._ to bind and interweave the branches of.--_v.i._ to bend down a branch.--_n._ a small branch of a tree partly cut and bound to or twisted among other branches.--_n._ PLASH'ING, a mode of repairing a hedge by bending the branches and twisting them about each other. [O. Fr.

_plassier_--L. _plexus_--_plect[)e]re_, to twist.]

PLASH, plash, _n._ a dash of water: a puddle: a shallow pool: a splashing sound: a sudden downpour: a flash.--_v.i._ to dabble in water: to splash.--_v.t._ to sprinkle with colouring matter, as a wall.--_adj._ PLASH'Y, full of puddles: watery. [Imit.]

PLASM, plazm, _n._ a mould or matrix: protoplasm--also PLAS'MA.--_adjs._ PLASMAT'IC, -AL, plastic, formative; PLAS'MIC, pertaining to plasma, protoplasmic.--_ns._ PLASM[=O]'DIUM, composite masses of primitive protozoa, in which numerous units are fused, or in rare cases simply combined in close contact; PLAS'MOGEN, true protoplasm; PLASMOG'ONY, the generation of an organism from plasma; PLASMOL'OGY, minute or microscopic anatomy, histology.--_v.t._ PLAS'MOLYSE.--_n._ PLASMOL'YSIS, the contraction of the protoplasm in active cells under the action of certain reagents.--_adj._ PLASMOLYT'IC.

PLASMA, plas'ma, _n._ a green variety of translucent quartz or silica.--_adj._ PLAS'MIC. [Gr.,--_plassein_, to form.]

PLASTER, plas't[.e]r, _n._ something that can be moulded into figures: a composition of lime, water, and sand for overlaying walls, &c.: (_med._) a medicinal agent consisting of an adhesive substance spread upon cloth or leather, so as to stick to the part of the body to which it is applied.--_adj._ made of plaster.--_v.t._ to cover with plaster: to cover with a plaster, as a wound: to besmear: (_fig._) to smooth over.--_ns._ PLAS'TERER, one who plasters, or one who works in plaster; PLAS'TERING, the art of covering the internal faces of walls, the partitions and ceiling of a building, with plaster: a covering of plaster: the plasterwork of a building; PLAS'TER-STONE, gypsum.--_adj._ PLAS'TERY, like plaster, containing plaster.--PLASTER CAST, a copy of an object got by pouring a mixture of plaster of Paris and water into a mould formed from the object; PLASTER OF PARIS, a kind of gypsum, originally found near _Paris_, used in building and in making casts of figures; POROUS PLASTER, a plaster for application to the body, full of small holes, which prevent it from wrinkling. [A.S. _plaster_--O. Fr. _emplastre_--L. _emplastrum_--Gr.


PLASTIC, plas'tik, _adj._ having power to give form to: capable of being moulded: of or pertaining to moulding.--_ns._ PLASTIC'ITY, state or quality of being plastic; PLASTIL[=I]'NA, a modelling clay which remains soft and plastic for a considerable time; PLASTOG'RAPHY, imitation of handwriting.

[Gr. _plastikos_--_plassein_, to mould.]

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