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NEWFOUNDLAND, n[=u]-fownd'land, _n._ a large dog of great intelligence, a strong swimmer, black without any white markings, first brought from _Newfoundland_.

NEWGATE, n[=u]'g[=a]t, _n._ a famous prison in London.--NEWGATE CALENDAR, a list of Newgate prisoners, with their crimes; NEWGATE FRILL, or FRINGE, a beard under the chin and jaw.

NEWMARKET, n[=u]'mar-ket, _n._ a card-game for any number of persons, on a table on which duplicates of certain cards have been placed face up: a close-fitting coat, originally a riding-coat, a long close-fitting coat for women.

NEWS, n[=u]z, _n.sing._ something heard of that is new: recent account: first information of something that has just happened or of something not formerly known: intelligence.--_v.t._ to report.--_ns._ NEWS'AGENT, one who deals in newspapers; NEWS'BOY, NEWS'MAN, a boy or man who delivers or sells newspapers; NEWS'-HOUSE, a printing-office for newspapers only; NEWS'LETTER, an occasional letter or printed sheet containing news, the predecessor of the regular newspaper; NEWS'MONGER, one who deals in news: one who spends much time in hearing and telling news; NEWS'PAPER, a paper published periodically for circulating news, &c.--the first English newspaper was published in 1622; NEWS'PAPERDOM; NEWS'PAPERISM.--_adj._ NEWS'PAPERY, superficial.--_ns._ NEWS'ROOM, a room where newspapers, magazines, &c. lie to be read; NEWS'VENDER, a seller of newspapers; NEWS'-WRIT'ER, a reporter or writer of news.--_adj._ NEWS'Y, gossipy. [Late M. E., an imit. of Fr. _nouvelles_.]

NEWT, n[=u]t, _n._ a genus of amphibious animals like small lizards.

[Formed with initial _n_, borrowed from the article _an_, from _ewt_--A.S.


NEWTONIAN, n[=u]-t[=o]'ni-an, _adj._ relating to, formed, or discovered by Sir Isaac _Newton_, the celebrated philosopher (1642-1727)--also NEWTON'IC.--NEWTONIAN TELESCOPE, a form of reflecting telescope.

NEXT, nekst, _adj._ (_superl._ of NIGH) nearest in place, time, &c.--_adv._ nearest or immediately after.--_prep._ nearest to.--_n._ NEXT'NESS.--NEXT DOOR TO (see DOOR); NEXT TO NOTHING, almost nothing at all. [A.S. _nehst_, superl. of _neh_, _neah_, near; Ger. _nachst_.]

NEXUS, nek'sus, _n._ a tie, connecting principle, bond: (_Rom. law_) a person who had contracted a _nexum_ or obligation of such a kind that, if he failed to pay, his creditor could compel him to serve until the debt was paid. [L.--_nect[)e]re_, to bind.]

NIB, nib, _n._ something small and pointed: a point, esp. of a pen: the bill of a bird: the handle of a scythe-snath.--_v.t._ to furnish with a nib: to point.--_adj._ NIBBED, having a nib. [NEB.]

NIBBLE, nib'l, _v.t._ to bite by small bits: to eat by little at a time.--_v.i._ to bite gently: to find fault.--_n._ act of nibbling: a little bit.--_ns._ NIBB'LER; NIBB'LING.--_adv._ NIBB'LINGLY. [Freq. of _nip_.]

NIBELUNGEN, n[=e]'bel-[=oo]ng-en, a supernatural race in German mythology guarding a treasure wrested from them by Siegfried, the hero of the _Nibelungenlied_, an epic of _c._ 1190-1210.

NIBLICK, nib'lik, _n._ a golf-club with cup-shaped head.

NICE, n[=i]s, _adj._ foolishly simple: over-particular: hard to please: fastidious: marking or taking notice of very small differences: done with great care and exactness, accurate: easily injured: delicate: dainty: agreeable: delightful.--_adv._ NICE'LY.--_ns._ NICE'NESS, quality of being nice: exactness: scrupulousness: pleasantness; NIC'ETY, quality of being nice: delicate management: exactness of treatment: fineness of perception: fastidiousness: that which is delicate to the taste: a delicacy.--TO A NICETY, with great exactness. [O. Fr. _nice_, foolish, simple--L.

_nescius_, ignorant--_ne_, not, _sc[=i]re_, to know.]

NICENE, n[=i]'s[=e]n, _adj._ pertaining to the town of _Nice_ or _Nicaea_, in Bithynia, Asia Minor, where an ecumenical council was held in 325 for the purpose of defining the questions raised in the Arian controversy--it promulgated the _Nicene Creed_. A second council, the seventh general council, held here in 787, condemned the Iconoclasts.


NICHE, nich, _n._ a recess in a wall for a statue, vase, &c.: a person's proper place or condition in life or public estimation, one's appointed or appropriate place.--_v.t._ to place in a niche.--_adj._ NICHED, placed in a niche. [Fr.,--It. _nicchia_, a niche, _nicchio_, a shell--L. _mytilus_, _mitulus_, a sea-mussel.]

NICK, nik, _n._ a notch cut into something: a score for keeping an account: the precise moment of time: a lucky throw at hazard.--_v.t._ to cut in notches: to hit the precise time: to strike as if making a nick: to cheat: catch in the act: to cut short: (_Scot._) to cut with a single snip, as of shears: to make a cut with the pick in the face of coal to facilitate blasting or wedging.--_adj._ NICK'-EARED, crop-eared.--_n._ NICK'ER, one who, or that which, nicks: a woodpecker: a street-ruffian in the early part of the 18th century.--NICK A HORSE'S TAIL, to make a cut at the root of the tail, making the horse carry it higher. [Another spelling of _nock_, old form of _notch_.]

NICK, nik, _n._ the devil, esp. OLD NICK. [Prob. a corr. of St _Nicholas_, or from A.S. _nicor_, a water-spirit; Ice. _nykr_, Ger. _nix_, _nixe_.]

NICKEL, nik'el, _n._ a grayish-white metal related to cobalt, very malleable and ductile.--_v.t._ to plate with nickel.--_ns._ NICK'ELAGE, NICK'ELURE, the art of nickel-plating.--_adjs._ NICK'ELIC, NICK'ELOUS; NICKELIF'EROUS, containing nickel.--_ns._ NICK'ELINE, NIC'COLITE, native nickel arsenide.--_v.t._ NICK'ELISE, to plate with nickel.--_ns._ NICK'EL-PLAT'ING, the plating of metals with nickel; NICK'EL-SIL'VER, German silver (see GERMAN). [Sw. _koppar-nickel_ (Ger. _kupfernickel_), _koppar_, copper, _nickel_, a word corresponding to Ger. _nickel_, the devil (cf. _Cobalt_ and _Kobold_), or to Ice. _hnikill_, a lump.]

NICKER, nik'[.e]r, _v.i._ to neigh: to snigger.--_n._ a neigh: a loud laugh--(_obs._) NICH'ER.

NICKNACK, nik'nak, _n._ a trifle--dim. NICK'NACKET.--_n._ NICK'NACKERY.

[Same as _Knick-knack_.]

NICKNAME, nik'n[=a]m, _n._ a name given in contempt or sportive familiarity.--_v.t._ to give a nickname to. [M. E. _neke-name_, with intrusive initial _n_ from _eke-name_, surname; from _eke_ and _name_.]

NICOTINE, nik'o-tin, _n._ a poisonous, volatile, alkaloid base, obtained from tobacco.--_adj._ NIC[=O]'TIAN, pertaining to tobacco, from Jean _Nicot_ (1530-1600), the benefactor who introduced it into France in 1560.--_n._ a smoker of NICOTI[=A]'NA, the literature of tobacco.--_n._ NIC'OTINISM, a morbid state induced by excessive misuse of tobacco.

NICTATE, nik't[=a]t, _v.i._ to wink--also NIC'TITATE.--_ns._ NIC'T[=A]TION, NICTIT[=A]'TION.--NICTITATING MEMBRANE, a thin movable membrane covering the eyes of birds. [L. _nict[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_.]

NIDDER, nid'[.e]r, _v.t._ (_Scot._) to keep under: to pinch with cold or hunger: to molest.

NIDDLE-NODDLE, nid'l-nod'l, _adj._ vacillating.--_v.i._ to wag the head.

NIDERLING, nid'[.e]r-ling, _n._ a wicked fellow--also NID'ERING, NITH'ING.--_n._ NIDD'ERING, a noodle.

NIDGE, nij, _v.t._ to dress the face of (a stone) with a sharp-pointed hammer.

NIDGING, nij'ing, _adj._ trifling.--_n._ NIDG'ET, a fool.

NIDIFICATION, nid-i-fi-k[=a]'shun, _n._ the act or art of building a nest, and the hatching and rearing of the young.--_adj._ NIDAMENT'AL, pertaining to nests or what protects eggs.--_n._ NIDAMENT'UM, an egg-case.--_vs.i._ NID'IFICATE, NID'IFY.--_adjs._ NID'ULANT, NID'ULATE, lying free in a cup-shaped body, or in pulp.--_n._ NIDUL[=A]'TION, nest-building. [L.

_nidus_, a nest, _fac[)e]re_, to make.]

NIDOR, n[=i]'dor, _n._ odour, esp. of cooked food.--_adjs._ N[=I]'DOROSE, N[=I]'DOROUS, N[=I]'DOSE. [L.]

NIDUS, n[=i]'dus, _n._ a place, esp. in an animal body, in which a germ lodges and begins to develop. [L.]

NIECE, n[=e]s, _n._ (_fem._ of NEPHEW) the daughter of a brother or sister: (_orig._) a granddaughter. [O. Fr.,--Low L. _nepta_--L. _neptis_, a granddaughter, niece.]

NIELLO, ni-el'lo, _n._ a method of ornamenting silver or gold plates by engraving the surface, and filling up the lines with a black composition, to give clearness and effect to the incised design: a work produced by this method: an impression taken from the engraved surface before the incised lines have been filled up: the compound used in niello-work.--_v.t._ to decorate with niello.--_n._ NIELL'URE, the process, also the work done.

[It. _niello_--Low L. _nigellum_, a black enamel--L. _nigellus_, dim. of _niger_, black.]

NIERSTEINER, n[=e]r'st[=i]-ner, _n._ a variety of Rhine wine, named from _Nierstein_, near Mainz.

NIFFER, nif'[.e]r, _v.t._ (_Scot._) to barter.--_n._ an exchange.

NIFFLE, nif'l, _v.t._ (_prov._) to pilfer.--_n._ NIFF'NAFF, a trifle.--_adj._ NIFF'NAFFY, fastidious.

NIFLHEIM, nifl'h[=i]m, _n._ (_Scand. myth._) a region of mist, ruled over by Hel.

NIFTY, nif'ti, _adj._ (_slang_) stylish.

NIGELLA, n[=i]-jel'a, _n._ a genus of ranunculaceous plants, with finely dissected leaves, and whitish, blue, or yellow flowers, often almost concealed by their leafy involucres--_Nigella damascena_, called Love-in-a-mist, Devil-in-a-bush, and Ragged Lady.

NIGGARD, nig'ard, _n._ a person who is unwilling to spend or give away: a miser.--_adjs._ NIGG'ARD, NIGG'ARDLY, having the qualities of a niggard: miserly; NIGG'ARDISH, rather niggardly.--_n._ NIGG'ARDLINESS, meanness in giving or spending--(_Spens._) NIGG'ARDISE.--_adv._ NIGG'ARDLY. [Ice.

_hnoggr_, stingy; Ger. _genau_, close.]

NIGGER, nig'[.e]r, _n._ a black man, a negro: a native of the East Indies or one of the Australian aborigines: a black caterpillar: a Cornish holothurian.--_v.t._ to exhaust soil by cropping it year by year without manure.--_n._ NIGG'ERDOM, niggers collectively.--_adjs._ NIGG'ERISH, NIGG'ERY.--_ns._ NIGG'ER-KILL'ER, a scorpion; NIGG'ERLING, a little nigger.

NIGGLE, nig'l, _v.i._ to trifle, busy one's self with petty matters: to cramp.--_v.t._ to fill with excessive detail: to befool.--_n._ small cramped handwriting.--_ns._ NIGG'LER, one who trifles; NIGG'LING, fussiness, finicking work.--_adj._ mean: fussy. [Freq. of _nig_, which may be a variant of _nick_.]

NIGH, n[=i], _adj._ near: not distant in place or time: not far off in degree, kindred, &c.: close.--_adv._ nearly: almost.--_prep._ near to: not distant from.--_adv._ NIGH'LY, nearly: within a little.--_n._ NIGH'NESS, the state or quality of being nigh: nearness. [A.S. _neah_, _neh_; Dut.

_na_, Ger. _nahe_.]

NIGHT, n[=i]t, _n._ the end of the day: the time from sunset to sunrise: darkness: ignorance, affliction, or sorrow: death.--_ns._ NIGHT'-BELL, a bell for use at night--of a physician, &c.; NIGHT'-BIRD, a bird that flies only at night, esp. the owl: the nightingale, as singing at night; NIGHT'-BLIND'NESS, inability to see in a dim light, nyctalopia; NIGHT'-BRAWL'ER, one who raises disturbances in the night; NIGHT'CAP, a cap worn at night in bed (so NIGHT'DRESS, -SHIRT, &c.): a dram taken before going to bed: a cap drawn over the face before hanging; NIGHT'-CART, a cart used to remove the contents of privies before daylight; NIGHT'-CHAIR, a night-stool; NIGHT'-CHURR, or -JAR, the British species of goat-sucker, so called from the sound of its NIGHT'-CLOTHES, garments worn in bed.--_ns._ NIGHT'-CROW, a bird that cries in the night; NIGHT'-DOG (_Shak._), a dog that hunts in the night.--_adj._ NIGHT'ED, benighted: (_Shak._) darkened, clouded.--_ns._ NIGHT'FALL, the fall or beginning of the night: the close of the day: evening; NIGHT'FARING, travelling by night; NIGHT'FIRE, a fire burning in the night: a will-o'-the-wisp; NIGHT'-FISH'ERY, a mode of fishing by night, or a place where this is done; NIGHT'-FLY, a moth that flies at night; NIGHT'-FOE, one who makes his attack by night; NIGHT'-FOSS'ICKER, one who robs a digging by night.--_adj._ NIGHT'-FOUN'DERED, lost in the night.--_ns._ NIGHT'-FOWL, a night-bird; NIGHT'-GLASS, a spy-glass with concentrating lenses for use at night; NIGHT'-GOWN, a long loose robe for sleeping in, for men or women; a loose gown for wearing in the house; NIGHT'-HAG, a witch supposed to be abroad at night; NIGHT'-HAWK, a species of migratory goat-sucker, common in America; NIGHT'-HER'ON, a heron of nocturnal habit; NIGHT'-HOUSE, a tavern allowed to be open during the night; NIGHT'-HUNT'ER, a degraded woman who prowls about the streets at night for her prey; NIGHT'-LAMP, or -LIGHT, a light left burning all night.--_adj._ NIGHT'LESS, having no night.--_n._ NIGHT'-LINE, a fishing-line set overnight.--_adj._ and _adv._ NIGHT'LONG, lasting all night.--_adj._ NIGHT'LY, done by night: done every night.--_adv._ by night: every night.--_ns._ NIGHT'-MAN, a night-watchman or scavenger; NIGHT'-OWL, an owl of exclusively nocturnal habits: one who sits up very late; NIGHT'-PAL'SY, a numbness of the lower limbs, incidental to women; NIGHT'PIECE, a picture or literary description of a night-scene: a painting to be seen best by artificial light; NIGHT'-POR'TER, a porter in attendance during the night at hotels, railway stations, &c.; NIGHT'-RAIL, a night-gown: a 17th-century form of head-dress; NIGHT'-RAV'EN (_Shak._), a bird that cries at night, supposed to be of ill-omen; NIGHT'-REST, the repose of the night; NIGHT'-RULE (_Shak._), a frolic at night.--_adv._ NIGHTS (_obs._), by night.--_ns._ NIGHT'-SCHOOL, a school held at night, esp. for those at work during the day; NIGHT'-SEA'SON, the time of night; NIGHT'SHADE, a name of several plants of the genus _Solanum_, having narcotic properties, often found in damp shady woods; NIGHT'-SHRIEK, a cry in the night; NIGHT'-SIDE, the dark, mysterious, or gloomy side of anything; NIGHT'-SING'ER, any bird like the nightingale, esp. the Irish sedge-warbler; NIGHT'-SOIL, the contents of privies, cesspools, &c., generally carried away at night; NIGHT'-SPELL, a charm against accidents by night; NIGHT'-STEED, one of the horses in the chariot of NIGHT; NIGHT'-STOOL, a close-stool for use in a bedroom; NIGHT'-T[=A]'PER, a night-light burning NIGHT'-TERR'ORS, the sudden starting from sleep of children in a state of fright.--_p.adj._ NIGHT'-TRIP'PING (_Shak._), tripping about in the night.--_ns._ NIGHT'-WAK'ING, watching in the night; NIGHT'-WALK, a walk in the night; NIGHT'-WALK'ER, one who walks in his sleep at night, a somnambulist: one who walks about at night for bad purposes, esp. a prostitute; NIGHT'-WALK'ING, walking in one's sleep, somnambulism: roving about at night with evil designs; NIGHT'-WAN'DERER, one who wanders by night.--_adjs._ NIGHT'-WAR'BLING, singing in the night; NIGHT'WARD, toward night.--_ns._ NIGHT'-WATCH, a watch or guard at night: time of watch in the night; NIGHT'-WATCH'MAN, one who acts as a watch during the night; NIGHT'-WORK, work done at night. [A.S. _niht_; Ger.

_nacht_, L. _nox_.]

NIGHTINGALE, n[=i]t'in-g[=a]l, _n._ a small sylviine bird, of the Passerine family, widely distributed in the Old World, celebrated for the rich love-song of the male heard chiefly at night. [A.S. _nihtegale_--_niht_, night, _galan_, to sing; Ger. _nachtigall_.]

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