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NIGHTINGALE, n[=i]t'in-g[=a]l, _n._ a kind of flannel scarf with sleeves, worn by invalids when sitting up in bed. [From the famous Crimean hospital nurse, Florence _Nightingale_, born 1820.]

NIGHTMARE, n[=i]t'm[=a]r, _n._ a dreadful dream accompanied with pressure on the breast, and a feeling of powerlessness to move or speak--personified as an incubus or evil-spirit.--_adj._ NIGHT'MARISH. [A.S. _niht_, night, _mara_, a nightmare; cf. Old High Ger. _mara_, incubus, Ice. _mara_, nightmare.]

NIGRESCENT, n[=i]-gres'ent, _adj._ growing black or dark: approaching to blackness.--_n._ NIGRESC'ENCE. [L., _nigresc[)e]re_, to grow black--_niger_, black.]

NIGRITE, nig'r[=i]t, _n._ an insulating composition consisting of the impure residuum obtained in the distillation of paraffin. [L. _niger_, black.]

NIGRITIAN, ni-grish'an, _adj._ pertaining to _Nigritia_, Upper Guinea, Senegambia, and the Soudan region generally, the home of the true negroes.--_n._ a native of this region, a negro.

NIGRITUDE, nig'ri-t[=u]d, _n._ blackness. [L. _nigritudo_--_niger_, black.]

NIGROSINE, nig'r[=o]-sin, _n._ a coal-tar colour prepared from the hydrochloride of violaniline. [L. _niger_, black.]

NIHIL, n[=i]'hil, _n._ nothing.--_ns._ N[=I]'HILISM, belief in nothing, extreme scepticism: in Russia, a revolutionary socialistic movement aiming at the overturn of all the existing institutions of society in order to build it up anew on different principles; N[=I]'HILIST, one who professes Nihilism.--_adj._ NIHILIST'IC.--_ns._ NIHIL'ITY, nothingness; NIL, nothing.


NIKE, n[=i]'k[=e], _n._ the goddess of victory. [Gr.]


NILL, nil, _v.t._ (_Spens._) to refuse, to reject.--_v.i._ to be unwilling.

[A.S. _nillan_--_ne_, not, _willan_, to will.]

NILOMETER, n[=i]-lom'e-t[.e]r, _n._ a gauge for measuring the height of water in the river _Nile_: any river-gauge--also N[=I]'LOSCOPE.--_adj._ NILOT'IC.

NIM, nim, _v.t._ to steal, pilfer. [A.S. _niman_, to take.]

NIMBLE, nim'bl, _adj._ light and quick in motion: active: swift.--_adjs._ NIM'BLE-FING'ERED, skilful with the fingers, thievish; NIM'BLE-FOOT'ED, swift of foot.--_ns._ NIM'BLENESS, NIM'BLESS (_Spens._), quickness of motion either in body or mind.--_adj._ NIM'BLE-WIT'TED, quick-witted.--_adv._ NIM'BLY. [M. E. _nimel_--A.S. _niman_, to catch; cf.

Ger. _nehmen_.]

NIMBUS, nim'bus, _n._ the raincloud: (_paint._) the disc or halo, generally circular or semicircular, which encircles the head of the sacred person represented.--_adj._ NIMBIF'EROUS, bringing clouds. [L.]

NIMIETY, ni-m[=i]'e-ti, _n._ (rare) state of being too much. [L.

_nimietas_--_nimis_, too much.]

NIMINY-PIMINY, nim'i-ni-pim'i-ni, _adj._ affectedly fine or delicate.--_n._ affected delicacy. [Imit.]

NIMROD, nim'rod, _n._ the founder of Babel (see Gen. x. 8-10): any great hunter.

NINCOMPOOP, nin'kom-poop, _n._ a simpleton. [Corr. of L. _non compos_ (_mentis_), not of sound mind.]

NINE, n[=i]n, _adj._ and _n._ eight and one.--_n._ NINE'-EYES, a popular name for the young lampreys found in rivers.--_adj._ NINE'FOLD, nine times folded or repeated.--_ns._ NINE'HOLES, a game in which a ball is to be bowled into nine holes in the ground or a board; NINE'PINS, a game at bowls, a form of skittles, so called from nine pins being set up to be knocked down by a ball.--_adj._ NINE'-SCORE, nine times twenty.--_n._ the number of nine times twenty.--_adj._ and _n._ NINE'TEEN, nine and ten.--_adj._ NINE'TEENTH, the ninth after the tenth: being one of nineteen equal parts.--_n._ a nineteenth part.--_adj._ NINE'TIETH, the last of ninety: next after the eighty-ninth.--_n._ a ninetieth part.--_adj._ and _n._ NINE'TY, nine tens.--_adj._ NINTH, the last of nine: next after the eighth.--_n._ one of nine equal parts.--_adv._ NINTH'LY, in the ninth place.--NINE DAYS' WONDER (see WONDER); NINE MEN'S MORRIS (see MORRIS); NINE WORTHIES, Hector, Alexander the Great, Julius Caesar, Joshua, David, Judas Maccabaeus, Arthur, Charlemagne, Godfrey of Bouillon; THE NINE, the nine muses (see MUSE); TO THE NINES, to perfection, fully, elaborately.

[A.S. _nigon_; Dut. _negen_, L. _novem_, Gr. _ennea_, Sans. _navan_.]

NINNY, nin'i, _n._ a simpleton.--Also NINN'Y-HAMM'ER. [It. _ninno_, child; Sp. _nino_, infant.]

NIOBE, n[=i]'o-b[=e], _n._ daughter of Tantalus, and wife of Amphion, king of Thebes. Proud of her many children, she gloried over Latona, who had but two, Artemis and Apollo. But these killed them all, on which the weeping mother was turned into stone by Zeus.--_adj._ NIOB[=E]'AN.

NIOBIUM, n[=i]-[=o]'bi-um, _n._ a rare metal, steel-gray in colour, discovered in the mineral Tantalite--sometimes called _Columbium_.

NIP, nip, _n._ a sip, esp. of spirits--also NIP'PER (_U.S._).--_v.i._ to take a dram.--_n._ NIP'PERKIN, a small measure of liquor. [Dut. _nippen_, to sip.]

NIP, nip, _v.t._ to pinch: to press between two surfaces: to cut off the edge: to check the growth or vigour of: to destroy: to bite, sting, satirise:--_pr.p._ nip'ping; _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ nipped.--_n._ a pinch: a seizing or closing in upon: a cutting off the end: a blast: destruction by frost: (_min._) a more or less gradual thinning out of a stratum: (_naut._) a short turn in a rope, the part of a rope at the place bound by the seizing or caught by jambing.--_ns._ NIP'-CHEESE, a stingy fellow: (_naut._) the purser's steward; NIP'PER, he who, or that which, nips: one of various tools or implements like pincers: one of a pair of automatically locking handcuffs: a chela or great claw, as of a crab: the young bluefish: a boy who attends on navvies: (_obs._) a thief: one of the four fore-teeth of a horse: (_pl._) small pincers.--_v.t._ to seize (two ropes) together.--_adv._ NIP'PINGLY.--NIP IN THE BUD, to cut off in the earliest stage. [From root of _knife_; Dut. _knijpen_, Ger. _kneipen_, to pinch.]

NIPPERTY-TIPPERTY, nip'[.e]r-ti-tip'[.e]r-ti, _adj._ (_Scot._) silly, frivolous.

NIPPLE, nip'l, _n._ the pap by which milk is drawn from the breasts of females: a teat: a small projection with an orifice, as the nipple of a gun.--_v.t._ to furnish with a nipple.--_ns._ NIPP'LE-SHIELD, a defence for the nipple worn by nursing women; NIPP'LE-WORT, a small, yellow-flowered plant of remedial use. [A dim. of _neb_ or _nib_.]

NIPPY, nip'i, _adj._ (_Scot._) sharp in taste: curt: parsimonious.

NIPTER, nip't[.e]r, _n._ the ecclesiastical ceremony of washing the feet--the same as maundy. [Gr. _nipt[=e]r_, a basin--_niptein_, to wash.]

NIRLES, NIRLS, nirlz, _n._ herpes.

NIRVANA, nir-va'na, _n._ the cessation of individual existence--the state to which a Buddhist aspires as the best attainable. [Sans., 'a blowing out.']

NIS, nis (_Spens._), is not. [A contr. of _ne is_.]

NIS, nis, _n._ a hobgoblin. [Same as _Nix_.]

NISAN, n[=i]'san, _n._ the name given after the Captivity to the Jewish month Abib. [Heb.]

NISI, n[=i]'s[=i], _conj._ unless, placed after the words 'decree' or 'rule,' to indicate that the decree or rule will be made absolute unless, after a time, some condition referred to be fulfilled.--NISI PRIUS, the name usually given in England to the sittings of juries in civil cases--from the first two words of the old Latin writ summoning the juries to appear at Westminster _unless_, _before_ the day appointed, the judges shall have come to the county.

NISUS, n[=i]'sus, _n._ effort, attempt.--NISUS FORMATIVUS (_biol._), formative effort. [L.]

NIT, nit, _n._ the egg of a louse or other small insect.--_adj._ NIT'TY, full of nits. [A.S. _hnitu_; Ger. _niss_.]

NITHING, n[=i]'_th_ing, _adj._ wicked, mean.--_n._ a wicked man. [A.S.

_nithing_; Ger. _neiding_.]

NITHSDALE, niths'd[=a]l, _n._ a hood which can be drawn over the face.

[From the Jacobite Earl of _Nithsdale_ who escaped from the Tower in women's clothes brought in by his wife, in 1716.]

NITID, nit'id, _adj._ shining: gay.--_n._ N[=I]'TENCY, brightness. [L.

_nitidus_--_nit[=e]re_, to shine.]

NITRE, n[=i]'t[.e]r, _n._ the nitrate of potash--also called _Saltpetre_.--_n._ N[=I]'TR[=A]TE, a salt of nitric acid.--_adjs._ N[=I]'TR[=A]TED, combined with nitric acid; N[=I]'TRIC, pertaining to, formed from, or containing or resembling nitre.--_n._ N[=I]'TRIC AC'ID, an acid got by distilling a mixture of sulphuric acid and nitrate of sodium--it acts powerfully on metals, and is known by the name of _Aqua-fortis_.--_adj._ NITRIF'EROUS, nitre-bearing.--_n._ NITRIFIC[=A]'TION.--_v.t._ N[=I]'TRIFY, to convert into nitre.--_v.i._ to become nitre:--_pr.p._ n[=i]'trifying; _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ n[=i]'trified.--_ns._ N[=I]'TRITE, a salt of nitrous acid; N[=I]'TRO-BEN'ZOL, a yellow oily fluid, obtained by treating benzol with warm fuming nitric acid--used in perfumery and known as _Essence of mirbane_; N[=I]'TRO-GLYC'ERINE, a powerfully explosive compound produced by the action of nitric and sulphuric acids on glycerine--sometimes used in minute doses as a medicine.--_adjs._ NITROSE', N[=I]'TROUS, resembling, or containing, nitre.--_n._ N[=I]'TROUS OX'IDE, a combination of oxygen and nitrogen, called also _Laughing gas_, which causes, when breathed, insensibility to pain.--_adj._ N[=I]'TRY, of or producing nitre.--CUBIC NITRE, nitrate of soda, so called because it crystallises in cubes.

[Fr.,--L. _nitrum_--Gr. _nitron_, natron, potash, soda--Ar. _nitrun_, _natrun_.]

NITROGEN, n[=i]'tro-jen, _n._ a gas forming nearly four-fifths of common air, a necessary constituent of every organised body, so called from its being an essential constituent of nitre.--_adjs._ NITROGEN'IC, NITROG'ENOUS.--_v.t._ NITROG'ENISE, to impregnate with nitrogen.--_n._ NITROM'ETER, an apparatus for estimating nitrogen in some of its combinations. [Gr. _nitron_, and _gennaein_, to generate.]

NITTER, nit'[.e]r, _n._ a bot-fly, the horse-bot.

NITTINGS, nit'ingz, small particles of coal or refuse of any ore.

NIVAL, n[=i]'val, _adj._ snowy, growing among snow.--_adj._ NIV'EOUS, snowy, white.--_n._ NIVoSE (n[=e]-v[=o]z'), the 4th month of the French revolutionary calendar, Dec. 21-Jan. 19. [L. _niveus_--_nix_, _nivis_, snow.]

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