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PENTAPODY, pen-tap'o-di, _n._ a measure of five feet.

PENTAPOLIS, pen-tap'o-lis, _n._ a group of five cities.--_adj._ PENTAPOL'ITAN, esp. of the ancient _Pentapolis_ of Cyrenaica in northern Africa. [Gr. _pente_, five, _polis_, a city.]

PENTARCHY, pen'tar-ki, _n._ government by five persons. [Gr. _pente_, five, _arch[=e]_, rule.]

PENTASEPALOUS, pen-ta-sep'a-lus, _adj._ having five sepals.

PENTASPERMOUS, pent-a-sp[.e]r'mus, _adj._ (_bot._) containing five seeds.

[Gr. _pente_, five, _sperma_, seed.]

PENTASTICH, pen'ta-stik, _n._ a composition of five verses.--_adj._ PENTAS'TICHOUS, five-ranked.

PENTASTYLE, pen'ta-st[=i]l, _adj._ having five columns in front.--_n._ (_archit._) a building with a portico of five columns. [Gr. _pente_, five, _stylos_, a pillar.]

PENTASYLLABIC, pen-ta-si-lab'ik, _adj._ having five syllables.

PENTATEUCH, pen'ta-t[=u]k, _n._ a name used to denote the Jewish Thorah, the first five books of the Old Testament.--_adj._ PEN'TATEUCHAL. [Gr.

_pente_, five, _teuchos_, a book--_teuchein_, to prepare.]

PENTATHLON, pen-tath'lon, _n._ a contest consisting of five exercises--wrestling, throwing the discus, spear-throwing, leaping, and running--also PENTATH'LUM.--_n._ PENTATH'L[=E]TE, one who contests in the pentathlon. [Gr. _pente_, five, _athlon_, a contest.]

PENTATONIC, pen-ta-ton'ik, _adj._ consisting of five tones.

PENTECONTER, pen't[=e]-kon-t[.e]r, _n._ an ancient Greek ship having fifty oars.

PENTECOST, pen't[=e]-kost, _n._ a Jewish festival held on the fiftieth day after the Passover, in commemoration of the giving of the law: the festival of Whitsuntide, held in remembrance of the descent of the Holy Ghost upon the assembled disciples at the feast of Pentecost.--_adj._ PENTECOST' offerings formerly made to the parish priest at Whitsuntide. [Gr. _pent[=e]kost[=e]_ (_h[=e]mera_), the fiftieth (day).]


PENTELIC, -AN, pen-tel'ik, -an, _adj._ describing a kind of marble found at Mount _Pentelicus_ near Athens.

PENTETERIC, pen-te-ter'ik, _adj._ occurring every five years. [Gr., _pente_, five, _etos_, a year.]

PENTHEMIMERAL, pen-th[=e]-mim'e-ral, _adj._ belonging to a metrical group of 2 feet. [Gr. _pente_, five, _h[=e]mi_, half, _meros_, a part.]

PENTHOUSE, pent'hows, _n._ a shed projecting from or adjoining a main building: a protection from the weather over a door or a window: anything resembling a penthouse.--_v.t._ to provide with a penthouse, shelter by means of a shed sloping from a wall, or anything similar. [A corr. of _pentice_, which is from Fr. _appentis_--L. _appendicium_, an appendage.]

PENTICE, pen'tis, _n._ See PENTHOUSE.


PENTROOF, pent'r[=oo]f, _n._ a roof with a slope on one side only. [A hybrid word, from Fr. _pente_, a slope--_pendre_, to hang, and Eng.


PENTSTEMON, pent-st[=e]'mon, _n._ a genus of perennial herbs of the order _Scrophularineae_, common in California. [Gr. _pente_, five, _st[=e]m[=o]n_, warp, stamen.]

PENTZIA, pent'si-a, _n._ a genus of South African shrubs, having yellow flowers in small heads, usually in corymbs.--The chief species is _Pentzia virgata_ or the 'sheep-fodder bush.' [Named after C. J. _Pentz_, a student under Thunberg.]

PENULT, p[=e]-nult', or p[=e]'nult, PENULT'IMA, _n._ the syllable last but one.--_adj._ PENULT'IM[=A]TE, last but one.--_n._ the penult: the last member but one of any series. [L. _penultima_--_paene_, almost, _ultimus_, last.]

PENUMBRA, p[=e]-num'bra, _n._ a partial or lighter shadow round the perfect or darker shadow of an eclipse: the part of a picture where the light and shade blend into each other.--_adjs._ PENUM'BRAL, PENUM'BROUS. [L. _paene_, almost, _umbra_, shade.]

PENURY, pen'[=u]-ri, _n._ want: absence of means or resources: great poverty.--_adj._ PEN[=U]'RIOUS, showing penury: not bountiful: too saving: sordid: miserly.--_adv._ PEN[=U]'RIOUSLY.--_n._ PEN[=U]'RIOUSNESS.

[Fr.,--L. _penuria_; Gr. _peina_, hunger, _pen[=e]s_, poor.]

PEON, p[=e]'on, _n._ a day-labourer, esp. in South America, one working off a debt by bondage: in India, a foot-soldier, a messenger, a native policeman.--_ns._ P[=E]'ONAGE, P[=E]'ONISM, this kind of agricultural servitude. [Sp.,--Low L. _pedo_--L. _pes_, _pedis_, a foot.]

PEONY, p[=e]'o-ni, _n._ a genus of plants of the natural order _Ranunculaceae_, with large showy flowers, carmine, in some white. [O. Fr.

_pione_ (Fr. _pivoine_)--L. _paeonia_, healing--Gr. _Pai[=o]n_.]

PEOPLE, p[=e]'pl, _n._ persons generally: the men, women, and children of a country or a nation: the mass of persons as distinguished from the rulers, &c.: an indefinite number: inhabitants: the vulgar: the populace:--_pl._ PEOPLES (p[=e]'plz), races, tribes.--_v.t._ to stock with people or inhabitants.--PEOPLE'S PALACE, an institution for the amusement, recreation, and association of the working-classes, as that in the East End of London, inaugurated in 1887.--CHOSEN PEOPLE, the Israelites; GOOD PEOPLE, or FOLK, a popular euphemistic name for the fairies; PECULIAR PEOPLE (see PECULIAR); THE PEOPLE, the populace, the mass. [Fr.

_peuple_--L. _populus_, prob. reduplicated from root of _plebs_, people.]

PEOTOMY, p[=e]-ot'[=o]-mi, _n._ the amputation of the penis. [Gr. _peos_, the penis, _temnein_, to cut.]

PEPERIN, pep'e-rin, _n._ a volcanic tufa found in the Alban Hills near Rome. [It. _peperino_--_pepe_, pepper--L. _piper_, pepper.]

PEPITA, pe-p[=e]'ta, _n._ a nugget of gold. [Sp.]

PEPLUM, pep'lum, _n._ an upper robe worn by women in ancient Greece.--Also PEP'LUS. [L.,--Gr. _peplos_.]

PEPO, p[=e]'p[=o], _n._ a fruit like that of the gourd. [Gr.]

PEPPER, pep'[.e]r, _n._ a pungent aromatic condiment consisting of the dried berries of the pepper-plant, entire or powdered: any plant of genus _Piper_: a plant of genus _Capsicum_, or one of its pods, whence _Cayenne pepper_.--_v.t._ to sprinkle with pepper: to hit or pelt with shot, &c.: to pelt thoroughly: to do for.--_adj._ PEPP'ER-AND-SALT', of a colour composed of a light ground dotted with fine spots of a dark colour, or of a dark ground with light spots.--_ns._ PEPP'ER-BOX, a box with a perforated top for sprinkling pepper on food; PEPP'ER-CAKE, a kind of spiced cake or gingerbread; PEPP'ER-CAST'ER, the vessel, on a cruet-stand, from which pepper is sprinkled; PEPP'ERCORN, the berry of the pepper plant: something of little value--PEPPERCORN RENT, a nominal rent; PEPP'ERER, one who sells pepper, a grocer; PEPP'ER-GIN'GERBREAD, hot-spiced gingerbread; PEPP'ER-GRASS, any plant of genus _Lepidium_; PEPP'ERINESS; PEPP'ERMINT, a species of mint, aromatic and pungent like pepper: a liquor distilled from the plant: a lozenge flavoured with peppermint--_Peppermint-drop_, a confection so flavoured; PEPP'ER-POT, a West Indian dish, of cassareep, together with flesh or dried fish and vegetables, esp. green okra and chillies: tripe shredded and stewed, with balls of dough and plenty of pepper; PEPP'ER-TREE, a shrub of the cashew family, native to South America, &c.--also PEPPER SHRUB and _Chili pepper_; PEPP'ERWORT, the dittander.--_adj._ PEPP'ERY, possessing the qualities of pepper: hot, choleric.--aeTHIOPIAN PEPPER, the produce of _Xylopia aethiopica_; BENIN PEPPER, of _Cubeba Clusii_; GUINEA PEPPER, or MALEGUETTA PEPPER, of _Amomum_; JAMAICA PEPPER, or PIMENTO, of species of Eugenia (_Myrtaceae_); LONG PEPPER, the fruit of _Piper Longum_; WHITE PEPPER, the seed freed from the skin and fleshy part of the fruit by soaking in water and rubbing the dried fruit. [A.S. _pipor_--L. _piper_--Gr. _peperi_--Sans. _pippala_.]

PEPPER'S GHOST, pep'[.e]rs g[=o]st, _n._ a device for associating on the same stage living persons and phantoms to act together--the phantom produced by a large sheet of unsilvered glass on the stage, practically invisible to the spectators, reflecting to them, along with a visible actor or actors, the appearance of another actor on an understage, himself invisible. [John H. _Pepper_ (b. 1821), the improver and exhibitor of Henry Dircks' invention.]

PEPSIN, PEPSINE, pep'sin, _n._ one of the essential constituents of the gastric juice: the active agent in fermenting food in the stomach--a hydrolytic ferment.--_adj._ PEP'TIC, relating to or promoting digestion: having a good digestion.--_ns._ PEPTIC'ITY, eupepsia; PEP'TICS, digestion considered as a science: the digestive organs; PEP'TOGEN, a substance producing peptone, any preparation that facilitates digestion.--_adjs._ PEPTOGEN'IC, PEPTOG'ENOUS, PEPTON'IC.--_ns._ PEP'T[=O]NE, one of a class of albumenoids formed by the action of the chemical ferment pepsin and hydrochloric acid, the latter first converting into a syntonin or acid protein, the former converting this syntonin into peptone--they are soluble in water, are not coagulated by boiling, and pass readily through an animal membrane, being therefore easily absorbed; PEPTONIS[=A]'TION.--_v.t._ PEP'TONISE, to convert into peptones.--_n._ PEP'TONOID, a substance like peptone: one of certain food preparations. [Fr.,--Gr. _pepsis_, digestion--_peptein_, to digest.]

PEPYSIAN, pep'is-i-an, _adj._ pertaining to Samuel _Pepys_ (1633-1703), his inimitable diary, or the collection of prints, books, ballads, &c. he bequeathed to Magdalene College, Cambridge.

PER, p[.e]r, _prep._ through, by means of, according to.--PER ANNUM, year by year: for each year; PER CAPITA, by heads, implying equal rights to two or more persons; PER CENT., per hundred; PER CONTRA, on the contrary: as a set-off; PER DIEM, every day: day by day; PER MENSEM, monthly: by the month; PER SALTUM, at a single leap: all at once; PER SE, by himself, &c.: essentially.

PERACUTE, per-a-k[=u]t', _adj._ very sharp or violent.

PERADVENTURE, per-ad-vent'[=u]r, _adv._ by adventure: by chance: perhaps.--_n._ uncertainty: question.

PERAMBULATE, per-am'b[=u]-l[=a]t, _v.t._ to walk through or over: to pass through for the purpose of surveying: to survey the boundaries of.--_ns._ PERAMBUL[=A]'TION, act of perambulating: a survey or inspection by travelling through: the district within which a person has the right of inspection; PERAM'BUL[=A]TOR, one who perambulates: an instrument for measuring distances on roads: a light carriage for a child.--_adj._ PERAM'BUL[=A]TORY. [L. _perambul[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_--_per_, through, _ambul[=a]re_, to walk.]

PERCALE, per-kal', _n._ a closely woven French cambric.--_n._ PER'CALINE, a glossy cotton cloth. [Fr.]

PERCASE, per-k[=a]s', _adv._ (_Bacon_) perchance, perhaps. [L. _per_, through, by, _casus_, a chance.]

PERCEABLE, p[.e]rs'a-bl, _adj._ (_Spens._)=_Pierceable_.

PERCEANT, p[.e]rs'ant, _adj._ piercing, penetrating.--_v.t._ PERC'EN (_Spens._), to pierce. [Fr. _percant_, pr.p. of _percer_, to pierce.]

PERCEIVE, per-s[=e]v', _v.t._ to become aware of through the senses: to get knowledge of by the mind: to see: to understand: to discern.--_adj._ PERCEIV'ABLE (same as PERCEPTIBLE).--_adv._ PERCEIV'ABLY (same as PERCEPTIBLY).--_ns._ PERCEIV'ER; PERCEIV'ING (_Bacon_), perception. [O. Fr.

_percever_--L. _percip[)e]re_, _perceptum_--_per_, perfectly, _cap[)e]re_, to take.]

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