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PENKNIFE, pen'n[=i]f, _n._ a small knife, originally for making and mending quill pens.

PENMAN, pen'man, _n._ a man skilled in the use of the pen: an author:--_pl._ PEN'MEN.--_n._ PEN'MANSHIP, the use of the pen: art or manner of writing.

PENNA, pen'a, _n._ a feather, esp. one of the large feathers of the wings or tail.--_adj._ PENN[=A]'CEOUS. [L.]

PENNAL, pen'al, _n._ a freshman at a German university--so called from their pennales or pen-cases.--_n._ PENN'ALISM, a system of fagging once in vogue at German universities.

PEN-NAME, pen'-n[=a]m, _n._ a name, other than his real one, by which an author is known to the public: a nom de plume.

PENNANT, pen'ant, _n._ a flag many times as long as it is wide: a streamer: a long narrow piece of bunting at the mast-heads of war-ships.--Also PENN'ON. [_Pennant_ is formed from _pennon_, with excrescent _t_; _pennon_ is Fr. _pennon_--L. _penna_, a wing.]

PENNATE, -D, pen'[=a]t, -ed, _adj._ winged: (_bot._) same as PINNATE.--_adj._ PENNATIF'ID (see PINNATIFID).--_n._ PENNE (_Spens._), a feather.--_adj._ PENNED, having wings: winged: written with a pen.--_n._ PEN'NER, a case for holding pens: (_her._) a representation of such carried at the girdle.--_adjs._ PENNIF'EROUS, PENNIG'EROUS, feathered; PEN'NIFORM, like a feather in form. [L. _pennatus_--_penna_, wing.]

PENNILL, pen'il, _n._ a kind of Welsh verse, in which the singer has to change words and measure according to the variations of his accompanist on the harp. [W. 'a verse,' pl. _pennillion_.]

PENNON, pen'on, _n._ a flag, a medieval knight-bachelor's ensign: a long narrow flag: a pinion or wing.--_ns._ PENN'ONCELLE, a small flag like a pennon; PENN'ONCIER, a knight-bachelor.--_adj._ PENN'ONED, bearing a pennon. [Cf. _Pennant._]

PENNY, pen'i, _n._ a copper coin (bronze since 1860), originally silver=1/12 of a shilling, or four farthings: a small sum: money in general: (_N.T._) a silver coin=7d.: pound, in _fourpenny_, _sixpenny_, _tenpenny nails_=four, six, ten _pound_ weight to the thousand:--_pl._ PENNIES (pen'iz), denoting the number of coins; PENCE (pens), the amount of pennies in value.--_adjs._ PENN'IED, possessed of a penny; PENN'ILESS, without a penny: without money: poor.--_ns._ PENN'ILESSNESS; PENN'Y-A-LIN'ER, one who writes for a public journal at so much a line: a writer for pay; PENN'Y-A-LIN'ERISM, hack-writing; PENN'Y-DOG, the tope or miller's dog, a kind of shark; PENN'Y-POST, a means of carrying a letter for a penny; PENN'Y-RENT, income; PENN'YWEIGHT, twenty-four grains of troy weight (the weight of a silver penny); PENN'Y-WIS'DOM, prudence in petty matters.--_adj._ PENN'Y-WISE, saving small sums at the risk of larger: niggardly on improper occasions.--_ns._ PENN'Y-WORTH, a penny's worth of anything: the amount that can be given for a penny: a good bargain--also PENN''ORTH (_coll._); P[=E]'TER'S-PENCE, the name given to an old tribute offered to the Roman Pontiff, now a voluntary contribution.--PENNY FEE (_Scot._), a small wage; PENNY GAFF (_slang_), a low-class theatre; PENNY MAIL (_Scot._), rent in money, not in kind: a small sum paid to the superior of land; PENNY WEDDING, a wedding ceremonial in Scotland, at which the invited guests made contributions in money to pay the general expenses.--A PRETTY PENNY, a considerable sum of money; TURN AN HONEST PENNY, to earn money honestly. [A.S. _penig_, oldest form _pending_, where _pend_=Eng. _pawn_, Ger. _pfand_, Dut. _pand_, a pledge, all which are from L. _pannus_, a rag, a piece of cloth.]

PENNYROYAL, pen'i-roi-al, _n._ a species of mint, much in use in domestic medicine, in the form of a warm infusion, to promote perspiration and as an emmenagogue. [Corr. from old form _pulial_, which is traced through O. Fr.

to L. _puleium regium_, the plant pennyroyal--_pulex_, a flea.]

PENOLOGY, PaeNOLOGY, p[=e]-nol'[=o]-ji, _n._ the study of punishment in its relation to crime: the management of prisons.--_n._ PENOL'OGIST. [Gr.

_poin[=e]_, punishment, _logia_, description.]

PENSeE, pang-s[=a]', _n._ a thought. [Fr.]

PENSEROSO, pen-se-r[=o]'so, _adj._ melancholy: thoughtful:--_fem.

Penser[=o]'sa._ [It.]

PENSILE, pen's[=i]l, _adj._ hanging: suspended.--_ns._ PEN'SILENESS, PENSIL'ITY. [Fr.,--L.,--_pend[=e]re_, hang.]

PENSION, pen'shun, _n._ a stated allowance to a person for past services performed by himself or by some relative: a payment made to a person retired from service on account of age or weakness: a boarding-school or boarding-house on the Continent (pron. pong-siong'): a sum paid to a clergyman in place of tithes.--_v.t._ to grant a pension to.--_adjs._ PEN'SIONABLE, entitled, or entitling, to a pension; PEN'SIONARY, receiving a pension: consisting of a pension.--_n._ one who receives a pension: the syndic or legal adviser of a Dutch town.--_ns._ PEN'SIONER, one who receives a pension: a dependent: one who pays out of his own income for his commons, chambers, &c. at Cambridge University=an Oxford _commoner_; PEN'SIONNAIRE.--GRAND PENSIONARY, the president of the States-general of Holland. [Fr.,--L. _pension-em_--_pend[)e]re_, _pensum_, to weigh, pay.]

PENSIVE, pen'siv, _adj._ thoughtful: reflecting: expressing thoughtfulness with sadness.--_adj._ PEN'SIVED (_Shak._), thought over.--_adv._ PEN'SIVELY.--_n._ PEN'SIVENESS, state of being pensive: gloomy thoughtfulness: melancholy. [Fr. _pensif_--L. _pens[=a]re_, to weigh--_pend[)e]re_, to weigh.]

PENSTOCK, pen'stok, _n._ a trough conveying water to a water-wheel.

PENSUM, pen'sum, _n._ an extra task given a scholar in punishment.

PENT, _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ of pen, to shut up.

PENTACAPSULAR, pen-ta-kap's[=u]-lar, _adj._ having five capsules.

PENTACHORD, pen'ta-kord, _n._ a musical instrument with five strings: a diatonic series of five tones.

PENTACLE, pent'a-kl, _n._ a figure formed by two equilateral triangles intersecting regularly so as to form a six-pointed star: properly a five-pointed object, the same as PENTAGRAM (q.v.), a defence against demons.--_adj._ PENTAC'ULAR. [O. Fr., but prob. not from Gr. _pente_, five, but O. Fr. _pente_, _pendre_, to hang. As applied to a magical figure prob.

a corr. of _pentangle_, perh. _pentacol_--_pendre_, to hang, a, on, _col_, the neck.]

PENTACOCCOUS, pen-ta-kok'us, _adj._ (_bot._) having five grains or seeds.

PENTACROSTIC, pen-ta-kros'tik, _adj._ containing five acrostics of the same name.--_n._ a set of such verses.

PENTACT, pen'takt, _adj._ five-rayed.--Also PENTAC'TINAL.

PENTAD, pen'tad, _n._ the number five, a group of five things: a mean of temperature, &c., taken every five days.

PENTADACTYLOUS, pen-ta-dak'ti-lus, _adj._ having five digits--also PENTADAC'TYL.--_n._ PENTADAC'TYLISM.

PENTADELPHOUS, pen-ta-del'fus, _adj._ (_bot._) grouped together in five sets.

PENTAGLOT, pen'ta-glot, _adj._ of five tongues.--_n._ a work in five languages.


PENTAGON, pen'ta-gon, _n._ (_geom._) a plane figure having five angles and five sides: a fort with five bastions.--_adj._ PENTAG'ONAL.--_adv._ PENTAG'ONALLY. [Gr. _pentag[=o]non_--_pente_, five, _g[=o]nia_, angle.]


PENTAGRAM, pen'ta-gram, _n._ a five-pointed star: a magic figure so called.--This is the proper _pentacle_.--_adj._ PENTAGRAMMAT'IC. [Gr.

_pente_, five, _gramma_, a letter.]


PENTAGYNIA, pent-a-jin'i-a, _n._ (_bot._) a Linnaean order of plants, characterised by their flowers having five pistils.--_n._ PENT'AGYN (_bot._), a plant having five styles.--_adjs._ PENTAGYN'IAN, PENTAG'YNOUS.

[Gr. _pente_, five, _gyn[=e]_, a female.]

PENTAHEDRON, pen-ta-h[=e]'dron, _n._ (_geom._) a solid figure bounded by five plane faces.--_adj._ PENTAH[=E]'DRAL. [Gr. _pente_, five, _hedra_, base.]

PENTALPHA, pen-tal'fa, _n._ a five-pointed star: a pentacle. [Gr. _pente_, five, _alpha_.]

PENTAMERON, pen-tam'e-ron, _n._ a famous collection of fifty folk-tales (Naples 1637) written in the Neapolitan dialect by Giambattista Basile, supposed to be told during five days by ten old women, for the entertainment of a Moorish slave who has usurped the place of the rightful princess. [It. _pentamerone_.]

PENTAMEROUS, pen-tam'[.e]r-us, _adj._ (_bot._) consisting of or divided into five parts.--PENTAMERUS BEDS (_geol._), a name applied to the upper and lower Llandovery rocks, full of the brachiopods called _Pentamerus_.

[Gr. _pente_, five, _meros_, part.]

PENTAMETER, pen-tam'e-t[.e]r, _n._ a verse of five measures or feet.--_adj._ having five feet.--ELEGIAC PENTAMETER, a verse of six dactylic feet, the third and sixth with the first member only; IAMBIC PENTAMETER, in English, heroic couplets and blank verse. [Gr.

_pentametros_--_pente_, five, _metron_, a measure.]

PENTANDRIA, pen-tan'dri-a, _n._ (_bot._) a Linnaean order of plants, characterised by their flowers having five stamens.--_n._ PENTAN'DER, a plant of the class Pentandria.--_adjs._ PENTAN'DRIAN, PENTAN'DROUS. [Gr.

_pente_, five, _an[=e]r_, _andros_, a man, a male.]

PENTANGULAR, pen-tang'g[=u]-lar, _adj._ having five angles.

PENTAPETALOUS, pen-ta-pet'a-lus, _adj._ having five petals.

PENTAPHYLLOUS, pen-ta-fil'us, _adj._ having five leaves. [Gr. _pente_, five, _phyllon_, a leaf.]

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