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RUE, r[=oo], _n._ a plant of any species of genus _Ruta_, with bitter leaves and greenish-yellow flowers--an emblem of bitterness and grief--called _Herb of grace_: any bitter infusion.--_ns._ RUE'-ANEM'ONE, an American wild-flower; RUE'-WORT, a plant of the rue family. [Fr.

_rue_--L. _ruta_--Gr. _rhyt[=e]_.]

RUE, r[=oo], _v.t._ to be sorry for: to lament: to repent of: to compassionate: to try to withdraw from, as a bargain.--_v.i._ to be sorrowful: to suffer: to have pity upon:--_pr.p._ rue'ing; _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ rued.--_n._ sorrow.--_n._ RUE'-BAR'GAIN, a forfeit for withdrawing from a bargain.--_adj._ RUE'FUL, sorrowful: piteous: deplorable: mournful: melancholy.--_adv._ RUE'FULLY.--_ns._ RUE'FULNESS; RU'ING, repentance.

[A.S. _hreowan_, to be sorry for--_hreow_, sorrow; Ger. _reue_, Old High Ger. _hriuwa_, mourning.]

RUELLE, r[=oo]-el', _n._ the space between the bed and the wall, a bed-chamber where great French ladies held receptions in the morning in the 17th and 18th centuries. [Fr., a lane--L. _ruga_, a wrinkle.]

RUELLIA, r[=oo]-el'i-a, _n._ a genus of gamopetalous plants, tropical and American--the _manyroot_, _spiritleaf_, _Christmas-pride_ of Jamaica, &c.

[From the 16th-century French botanist, Jean _Ruel_.]

RUFESCENCE, r[=oo]-fes'ens, _n._ reddishness.--_adj._ RUFES'CENT. [L.

_rufesc[)e]re_, to grow reddish--_rufus_, red.]

RUFF, ruf, _n._ an ornament of frills formerly worn round the neck: anything plaited: a bird belonging to the sandpiper sub-family of the Snipe family, the male with an erectile ruff during the breeding season--_fem._ REEVE: a band of long hair growing round the neck of some dogs: (_mach._) an annular ridge formed on a shaft to prevent motion endwise: a breed of domestic pigeons: (_obs._) a display.--_v.t._ to pucker: to draw up in folds: to ruffle, disorder: in falconry, to hit without trussing: (_Scot._) to applaud by making noise with hands or feet.--_adj._ RUFFED, having a ruff, as the ruffed grouse. [Prob. _ruffle_.]

RUFF, ruf, _n._ an old game at cards: the act of trumping when the player has no cards of the suit left.--_v.t._ to trump in this way. [Perh. conn.

with It. _ronfa_, a card-game.]

RUFF, ruf, _n._ ruggedness.--_v.t._ to heckle flax on a coarse heckle: to nap hats.--_n._ RUFF'ER, a coarse heckle for flax.--_adj._ RUFF'Y-TUFF'Y, disordered, rough.--_adv._ helter-skelter, pell-mell.

RUFF, ruf, _n._ a low vibrating beat of a drum.

RUFF, ruf, _n._ a small fresh-water fish of the Perch family, abundant in England, about six inches long, with only one dorsal fin.--Also _Pope_.

RUFFIAN, ruf'i-an, _n._ a brutal, boisterous fellow: a robber: a murderer: a pander.--_adj._ brutal: boisterous: licentious: stormy.--_v.i._ to play the ruffian, to rage.--_n._ RUFF'IANAGE.--_adj._ RUFF'IANISH, having the qualities or manners of a ruffian.--_n._ RUFF'IANISM, conduct of a ruffian.--_adjs._ RUFF'IANLY, like a ruffian: violent; RUFF'INOUS (_obs._), ruffianly, outrageously. [O. Fr. _ruffian_ (Fr. _rufien_; It. _rufiano_), prob. from Old Dut. _roffen_, _roffelen_, a pander.]

RUFFIN, ruf'in, _n._ (_Spens._) the ruff-fish.

RUFFLE, ruf'l, _v.t._ to make like a ruff, to wrinkle: to form into plaits: to form with ruffles: to disorder: to agitate.--_v.i._ to grow rough: to flutter.--_n._ annoyance: a quarrel: a plaited article of dress: a tumult: agitation.--_adj._ RUFF'LED.--_ns._ RUFF'LEMENT; RUFF'LER, a machine for making ruffles; RUFF'LING, ruffles generally.--RUFFLE ONE'S FEATHERS, to make one angry. [Cf. Dut. _ruifelen_, to wrinkle, _ruyffel_, a wrinkle.]

RUFFLE, ruf'l, _v.i._ to act turbulently: to swagger.--_v.t._ to bully.--_n._ RUFF'LER, a bully. [_Ruffian._]

RUFOUS, r[=oo]'fus, _adj._ reddish or brownish-red: having reddish hair.--_adj._ RU'F[=U]LOUS, somewhat rufous. [L. _rufus_, akin to _ruber_, red.]

RUG, rug, _n._ a coarse, rough woollen cloth or coverlet: a soft, woolly mat: a cover for a bed: a blanket or coverlet: a covering for the floor: a travelling robe: a rough, shaggy dog: a kind of strong liquor.--_n._ RUG'GING, heavy napped cloth for rugs: a coarse cloth for horse-boots.

[Scand., Sw. _rugg_; cf. _Rough_.]

RUG, rug, _v.t._ (_Scot._) to pull roughly.--_n._ a tug.--GET A RUG, to get a haul at something desirable.

RUG, rug, _adj._ (_prov._) snug: warm.

RUGA, r[=oo]'ga, _n._ a fold: a crease: a corrugation.--_adj._ RU'GATE.

[L., a fold.]

RUGBY, rug'bi, _n._ the game of football according to the rules of the _Rugby_ Football Union (1871), the sides numbering 15 each, played on ground 110 by 75 yards.

RUGGED, rug'ed, _adj._ rough: uneven: shaggy: sour: stormy: grating to the ear: wrinkled: ruffled: homely: unpolished: rough: ungentle: (_U.S._) robust.--_adv._ RUGG'EDLY.--_n._ RUGG'EDNESS.--_adjs._ RUGG'Y, rough: uneven; RUG'-HEAD'ED, shock-headed. [Scand.; cf. _Rug_.]

RUGINE, r[=oo]'jin, _n._ a surgeon's rasp, a nappy cloth.--_v.t._ to use a rugine. [Fr.]

RUGOSA, r[=oo]-g[=o]'sa, _n._ an order of sclerodermatous stone corals.

RUGOSE, r[=oo]'g[=o]s, _adj._ wrinkled: full of wrinkles: (_bot._) having the veinlets sunken and the spaces between them elevated, as the leaves of the sage--also RU'GOUS.--_adv._ RU'GOSELY.--_n._ RUGOS'ITY.--_adj._ RU'G[=U]LOSE. [L. _rugosus_--_ruga_, a wrinkle.]

RUIN, r[=oo]'in, _n._ a rushing or falling down violently: destruction: overthrow: that which destroys: the remains of a building demolished or decayed (usually in _pl._): the state of being ruined: wreck, material or moral.--_v.t._ to demolish: to destroy: to defeat: to impoverish: to bring to ruin: to undo: to spoil: to seduce, debauch.--_v.i._ to run to ruin: to fall into decay: to do irreparable harm.--_adj._ RU'INABLE (_Bacon_), capable of being ruined.--_v.t._ RU'IN[=A]TE (_Shak._), to ruin, to destroy: to demolish: to reduce to poverty.--_v.i._ (_Spens._) to fall:--_pr.p._ ru'in[=a]ting; _pa.p._ ru'in[=a]ted.--_adj._ (_obs._) falling to ruin: ruined.--_ns._ RUIN[=A]'TION, overthrow: subversion; RU'INER.--_adjs._ RU'INIFORM, having the appearance of ruins; RU'INOUS, fallen to ruins: decayed: pernicious.--_adv._ RU'INOUSLY.--_n._ RU'INOUSNESS, the state or quality of being ruinous: mischievousness.

[Fr.,--L. _ruina_--_ru[)e]re_, to tumble down.]

RULE, r[=oo]l, _n._ government: a principle: a standard: a statute, a maxim, formula, or order: an instrument used in drawing lines or making calculations mechanically: a minor law, something established for guidance and direction, esp. the regulations of monasteries, corporate societies, &c.: the limits of a prison (esp. in _pl._): conformity to rule, uniformity: in American parliamentary law, the regulations adopted by a deliberative body for the regulation of its proceedings: (_gram._) the expression of some established form of construction: the description of a process for solving a problem: a general proposition, as 'Failure is the rule, success the exception': (_law_) an order regulating the court: (_print._) a thin strip of rolled brass, cut type high, used for printing: in plastering, a strip of wood on the face of the wall as a guide to assist in keeping the plane surface.--_v.t._ to dispose: to regulate: to dominate: to govern: to manage: to prevail upon: to settle as by a rule: to establish by decision: to determine, as a court: to mark with lines.--_v.i._ to exercise power (with _over_): to decide: to lay down and settle: to stand or range, as prices.--_adj._ RU'LABLE, governable: allowable.--_ns._ RULE'-CASE (_print._), a tray with partitions for rules; RULE'-CUT'TER (_print._), a machine for cutting brass rules into short lengths; RULE'-DRILL'ER, a teacher who teaches by rote; RULE'-JOINT, a pivoted joint used by surveyors, &c.--_adj._ RULE'LESS, lawless.--_ns._ RULE'LESSNESS; RULE'-MONG'ER, a stickler for rules; RU'LER, a sovereign: a governor: an instrument used in drawing lines: in engraving, a straight steel bar employed in engraving the lines; RU'LERSHIP; RULE'-WORK (_print._), work with many rules, as tables of figures, &c.--_adj._ RU'LING, predominant: prevailing: reigning.--_n._ the determination by a judge, esp. an oral decision: the act of making ruled lines.--_n._ RU'LING-EN'GINE, a machine for ruling diffraction gratings.--_adv._ RU'LINGLY.--_ns._ RU'LING-MACHINE', a machine used by engravers for ruling in flat tints: a machine for ruling parallel coloured lines upon writing-paper; RU'LING-PEN, a form of pen for drawing lines of even thickness; SLID'ING-RULE, a rule having one or more scales which slide over others for the purpose of facilitating calculations.--RULE OF FAITH, not the sum of the Christian faith as laid down in creeds and confessions, but, in polemical theology, the sources whence the doctrines of the faith are to be authoritatively derived--the Scriptures, the tradition of the Church, the teaching of the Fathers, &c.; RULE OF THE ROAD, the regulations to be observed in the movements of conveyances either on land or at sea--thus in England drivers, riders, and cyclists take the left side in meeting, and the right in passing; RULE OF THREE, the method of finding the fourth term when three are given; RULE OF THUMB, any rough process of measurement.--A RULE TO SHOW CAUSE, or A RULE NISI, a rule which is conditional (see NISI); As a rule, on the whole; ONE HOUR RULE, a rule prohibiting members of the United States House of Representatives speaking more than an hour. [O. Fr. _reule_ (Fr. _regle_)--L. _regula_--_reg[)e]re_, to rule.]

RULE, r[=oo]l, _n._ revelry.--_v.i._ to revel. [_Revel._]

RULLION, rul'yon, _n._ a shoe made of untanned leather: a coarse woman: (_Scot._) an ill-conditioned beast. [A.S. _rifeling_, a kind of shoe.]

RUM, rum, _n._ a spirit distilled from the fermented juice of the sugar-cane, or from molasses.--_ns._ RUM'-BARGE, a warm drink; RUM'-BLOSS'OM, -BUD, a pimple on the nose; RUM'-CHERR'Y, the wild black cherry of North America; RUM'-SELL'ER (_U.S._), the keeper of a rum-shop; RUM'-SHOP; RUM'-SHRUB, a liqueur of rum, sugar, lime or lemon juice, &c.

[Abbrev. of _rumbullion_; prob. related to _rumble_.]

RUM, rum, _adj._ good: queer, droll, odd.--_n._ any odd person or thing.--_adv._ RUM'LY, finely (used ironically). [A Gipsy word, _rom_, a husband.]

RUMAL, r[=oo]'mal, _n._ a handkerchief: a small shawl or veil.--Also ROO'MAL, RO'MAL. [Hind.]

RUMBLE, rum'bl, _v.i._ to make a confused noise from rolling heavily: to roll about.--_v.t._ to rattle.--_n._ a low, heavy, continued sound: a jarring roar, rumour: confusion: a seat for servants behind a carriage: a revolving box in which articles are polished by mutual attrition.--_ns._ RUM'BLER; RUM'BLE-TUM'BLE, a rumble-seat; RUM'BLING, a low, heavy, continued sound.--_adv._ RUM'BLINGLY. [Teut.; found in Dut. _rommelen_, _rummeln_.]

RUMBO, rum'b[=o], _n._ a strong liquor.--_n._ RUMBOOZE', a tipple: a mixed drink. [_Rum._]

RUMBULLION, rum-bul'yon, _n._ a great tumult: a strong liquor.--Also RUMBOUL'ING.

RUMEN, r[=oo]'men, _n._ the paunch and first stomach of a ruminant:--_pl._ RU'MINA. [L.]

RUMEX, r[=oo]'meks, _n._ a genus of apetalous plants to which belong dock and sorrel, &c.

RUMFUSTIAN, rum-fus'tyan, _n._ a hot drink of sherry, eggs, &c.

RUMGUMPTION, rum-gump'shun, _n._ (_Scot._) rough and homely common-sense: shrewdness of intellect--also RUM'BLEGUMP'TION.--_adj._ RUMGUMP'TIOUS, shrewd: sharp.

RUMINANT, r[=oo]'mi-nant, _adj._ having the power of ruminating or chewing the cud--also RU'MINAL.--_n._ an animal that chews the cud, as the ox, & RUMINAN'TIA, the even-toed or Artiodactyl Ungulates, which chew the cud--the _Tragulidae_, often called musk-deer; the _Cotylophora_, including antelopes, sheep, goats, oxen, giraffes, deer; the _Camelidae_, or camels and llamas.--_adv._ RU'MINANTLY.--_v.i._ RU'MIN[=A]TE, to chew the cud: to meditate.--_v.t._ to chew over again: to muse on.--_adj._ (_bot._) appearing as if chewed, as in the nutmeg, &c.--_adv._ RU'MIN[=A]TINGLY.--_n._ RUMIN[=A]'TION, act of chewing the cud: calm reflection.--_adj._ RU'MINATIVE, well-considered.--_n._ RU'MIN[=A]TOR. [L.

_rumin[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_--_rumen_, the gullet.]

RUMKIN, rum'kin, _n._ (_obs._) a kind of drinking-vessel.

RUMKIN, rum'kin, _n._ a tailless fowl.

RUMMAGE, rum'[=a]j, _v.t._ to turn things over in search: to clear a ship's hold of goods: to pack: to stow closely: to ransack: to explore: to bring to light: to stir.--_v.i._ to make a search.--_n._ a careful search: an upheaval.--_n._ RUMM'AGER.--RUMMAGE SALE, a sale of unclaimed goods.


RUMMER, rum'[.e]r, _n._ a large drinking-glass. [Dut. _roemer_; Ger.

_romer_--prob. from such being used in the _Romersaal_ at Frankfurt.]

RUMMY, rum'i, _adj._ rum: queer.

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