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GRISKIN, gris'kin, _n._ (_prov._) the spine of a hog. [Obs. _gris_, _grice_, a pig--Ice. _griss_, a young pig.]

GRISLED, griz'ld. Same as GRIZZLED.

GRISLY, griz'li, _adj._ frightful: hideous.--_n._ GRIS'LINESS. [A.S.

_gryslic_, _agrisan_, to dread; Ger. _grasslich_.]

GRIST, grist, _n._ corn for grinding at one time: supply: profit.--_n._ GRIST'-MILL, a mill for grinding grain.--Bring grist to the mill, to be a source of profit. [A.S. _grist_, _gerst_, a grinding; from root of _grind_.]

GRISTLE, gris'l, _n._ a soft elastic substance in animal bodies--also called _Cartilage_.--_n._ GRIST'LINESS.--_adj._ GRIST'LY. [A.S.

_gristle_--_grist_, grinding.]

GRIT, grit, _n._ the coarse part of meal: gravel: a kind of hard sandstone: firmness of character, spirit: (_pl._) oats coarsely ground, groats.--_ns._ GRIT'STONE; GRIT'TINESS.--_adj._ GRIT'TY, having hard particles: sandy: determined, plucky. [A.S. _greot_; Dut. _grut_, groats, Ger. _gries_, gravel.]

GRIT, grit, a Scotch form of _great_.

GRIZE. See GREE (2).

GRIZZLE, griz'l, _n._ a gray colour.--_adjs._ GRIZZ'LED, gray, or mixed with gray; GRIZZ'LY, of a gray colour.--_n._ the grizzly bear (_Ursus horribilis_) of the Rocky Mountains. [M. E. _grisel_--Fr. _gris_, gray--Mid. High Ger. _gris_, gray, Ger. _greis_.]

GROAN, gr[=o]n, _v.i._ to utter a moaning sound in distress: (_fig._) to be afflicted: to express disapprobation of a speaker by means of audible groans or similar sounds.--_n._ a deep moaning sound as of distress: a sound of disapprobation.--_adj._ GROAN'FUL (_Spens._), sad, agonising.--_n._ GROAN'ING, a deep moan as of pain: any low rumbling sound.

[A.S. _granian_.]

GROAT, grawt, or gr[=o]t, _n._ an English silver coin, worth fourpence--only coined after 1662 as Maundy money--the silver fourpenny-piece, coined from 1836-56, was not called a groat: a very small sum, proverbially. [Old Low Ger. _grote_, a coin of Bremen--orig. _grote sware_, 'great pennies,' as compared with the smaller copper coins, five to the groat.]

GROATS, gr[=o]ts, the grain of oats deprived of the husks. [M. E.

_grotes_, prob. Ice. _grautr_, barley; cog. with A.S. _grut_, coarse meal.]

GROBIAN, gr[=o]'bi-an, _n._ a boorish rude fellow. [Ger. _grob_, coarse; cf. _gruff_--Dut. _grof_.]

GROCER, gr[=o]s'[.e]r, _n._ a dealer in tea, sugar, &c.--_n._ GROC'ERY (generally used in _pl._), articles sold by grocers. [Earlier _grosser_ or _engrosser_, a wholesale dealer; O. Fr. _grossier_--_gros_, great.]

GROG, grog, _n._ a mixture of spirits and cold water, without sugar.--_ns._ GROG'-BLOSS'OM, a redness of the nose due to drinking; GROG'GERY (_U.S._), a low public-house; GROG'GINESS, state of being groggy; GROG'GING, extracting the spirit from the wood of empty spirit-casks with water.--_adj._ GROG'GY, affected by grog, partially intoxicated: (_boxing_) weak and staggering from blows: applied to a horse that bears wholly on his heels in trotting.--_n._ GROG'-SHOP, a dram-shop. [From 'Old Grog,' the nickname of Admiral Vernon, who introduced it about 1745--from his _grogram_ breeches.]

GROGRAM, grog'ram, _n._ a kind of coarse cloth of silk and mohair. [O. Fr.


GROIN, groin, _n._ the part of the body on either side of the belly where the thigh joins the trunk: (_archit._) the angular curve formed by the crossing of two arches.--_v.t._ to form into groins, to build in groins.--_n._ GROIN'-CEN'TRING, the centring of timber during construction.--_adj._ GROINED, having angular curves made by the intersection of two arches.--_n._ GROIN'ING.--UNDERPITCH GROINING, a kind of vaulting used when the main vault of a groined roof is higher than the transverse intersecting vault, as in St George's Chapel, Windsor--sometimes called _Welsh groining_. [Ice. _grein_, division, branch--greina, to divide; Sw. _gren_, branch, space between the legs; Scot. _graine_, _grane_, the branch of a tree or river.]

GROIN, groin, _v.i._ (_obs._) to grunt, to growl. [O. Fr. _grogner_--L.

_grunn[=i]re_, to grunt.]

GROLIER, gr[=o]'lye, _n._ a book or a binding from the library of the French bibliophile, Jean _Grolier_ (1479-1565).--_adj._ GROLIERESQUE', after the style of Grolier's bindings, with geometrical or arabesque figures and leaf-sprays in gold lines.

GROMMET, grom'et, _n._ a ring formed of a single strand of rope, laid in three times round, fastening the upper edge of a sail to its stay: a ship-boy. [O. Fr.]

GROMWELL, grom'wel, _n._ a herb of the borage family. [O. Fr. _grumel_--L.

_grumulus_, a hillock.]

GROOM, gr[=oo]m, _n._ one who has the charge of horses: a title of several officers of the royal household: a bridegroom.--_v.t._ to tend, as a horse.--_n._ GROOMS'MAN, the attendant on a bridegroom at his marriage.

[Prob. from A.S. _guma_ (in bride_groom_), a man, Goth. _guma_, Ice.

_gumi_, L. _homo_.]

GROOVE, gr[=oo]v, _n._ a furrow, or long hollow, such as is cut with a tool.--_v.t._ to grave or cut a groove or furrow in. [Prob. Dut. _groef_, _groeve_, a furrow; cog. with Ger. _grube_, a pit, Ice. _grof_, Eng.


GROPE, gr[=o]p, _v.i._ to search for something, as if blind or in the dark.--_v.t._ to search by feeling.--_adv._ GROP'INGLY, in a groping manner. [A.S. _grapian_, to seize; allied to _grab_, _gripe_.]

GROSBEAK, gr[=o]s'b[=e]k, _n._ a name applied to not a few highly specialised finches (_Fringillidae_), with thick, heavy, seed-crushing bills--also to many other birds, as the cardinal grosbeaks and the rose-breasted grosbeak. [_Gross_ and _beak_.]

GROSCHEN, gr[=o]'shen, _n._ a small silver coin till 1873-76 current in the north of Germany, in value 1/30th of a thaler. [Ger.,--L. _grossus_, thick.]

GROSER, gr[=o]'ser, _n._ (_prov._) a gooseberry--(_Scot._) GROS'SART.--_adj._ GROSSUL[=A]'CEOUS, pertaining to the gooseberry. [See GOOSEBERRY.]

GROSS, gr[=o]s, _adj._ coarse: rough: dense: palpable, glaring, shameful: whole: coarse in mind: stupid: sensual: obscene.--_n._ the main bulk: the whole taken together: a great hundred--i.e. twelve dozen.--_adv._ GROSS'LY.--_n._ GROSS'NESS.--IN GROSS, in bulk, wholesale. [Fr. _gros_--L.

_grossus_, thick.]

GROTESQUE, gr[=o]-tesk', _adj._ extravagantly formed: ludicrous.--_n._ (_art_) extravagant ornament, containing animals, plants, &c. not really existing.--_adv._ GROTESQUE'LY.--_ns._ GROTESQUE'NESS; GROTESQU'ERY. [Fr.

_grotesque_--It. _grotesca_--_grotta_, a grotto.]

GROTIAN, gr[=o]'shi-an, _adj._ of or pertaining to Hugo _Grotius_ (1583-1645), the Latinised form of Huig van _Groot_, founder of the science of international law.--GROTIAN THEORY, the theory that man is essentially a social being, and that the principles of justice are of perpetual obligation and in harmony with his nature; GROTIAN, or GOVERNMENTAL, THEORY OF THE ATONEMENT, a divine acquittal for Christ's sake, rather than a real satisfaction on the part of Christ.

GROTTO, grot'[=o], _n._ a cave: a place of shade, for pleasure--also GROT:--_pl._ GROTT'OS--_n._ GROTT'O-WORK, a grotto-like structure. [It.

_grotta_ (Fr. _grotte_)--L. _crypta_--Gr. _krypt[=e]_, a crypt.]

GROUND, grownd, _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ of _grind_.

GROUND, grownd, _n._ the surface of the earth: a portion of the earth's surface: land, field, soil: the floor, &c.: position: field or place of action: (_lit._ or _fig._) that on which something is raised: foundation: sufficient reason: (_art_) the surface on which the figures are represented.--_v.t._ to fix on a foundation or principle: to instruct in first principles: to cover with a layer of plaster, &c., as a basis for painting: to coat with a composition, as a surface to be etched.--_v.i._ to strike the bottom and remain fixed.--_ns._ GROUND'AGE, the tax paid by a ship for the space occupied while in port; GROUND'-ANG'LING, fishing without a float, with a weight placed a few inches from the hook--called also _Bottom-fishing_; GROUND'-ASH, a sapling of ash; GROUND'-BAIT, bait dropped to the bottom of the water.--_adv._ GROUND'EDLY (_Browning_), on good grounds.--_ns._ GROUND'ER, at baseball, &c., a ball thrown low rather than rising into the air; GROUND'-FLOOR, the floor of a house on a level with the street or exterior ground; GROUND'-GAME, hares, rabbits, as distinguished from winged game; GROUND'-HOG, the American marmot, or woodchuck: the aardvark of Africa; GROUND'-HOLD (_Spens._), ground-tackle; GROUND-ICE, the ice formed at the bottom of a water first--also AN'CHOR-ICE; GROUND'ING, the background of embroidery, &c.; GROUND'-[=I]'VY, a common British creeping-plant whose leaves were once used for flavouring ale (_gill-ale_ or _gell-ale_).--_adj._ GROUND'LESS, without ground, foundation, or reason.--_adv._ GROUND'LESSLY.--_ns._ GROUND'LESSNESS; GROUND'LING, a fish which keeps near the bottom of the water, esp. the spinous loach: a spectator in the pit of a theatre---hence one of the common herd: (_pl._) the vulgar.--_adj._ (_Lamb_) base.--_ns._ GROUND'-NUT, ground-bean, or pea-nut, the fruit of the annual leguminous plant _Arachis hypogaea_; GROUND'-OAK, a sapling of oak; GROUND'-PLAN, plan of the horizontal section of the lowest or ground story of a building: GROUND'-PLOT, the plot of ground on which a building stands; GROUND'-RENT, rent paid to a landlord for the use of the ground for a specified term, usually in England ninety-nine GROUNDS, dregs of drink: sediment at the bottom of liquors (explained by Skeat as Celtic--Gael.

_grunndas_, lees, _grunnd_, bottom, Ir. _gruntas_, _grunnt_, bottom).--_ns._ GROUND'SELL, GROUND'SILL, the timber of a building which lies next to the ground; GROUND-SQUIRR'EL, the chipmuck or hackee; GROUND'-SWELL, a broad, deep undulation of the ocean, proceeding from a distant storm; GROUND'-TACK'LE, the tackle necessary for securing a vessel at anchor; GROUND'WORK, that which forms the ground or foundation of anything: the basis: the essential part: the first principle.--GROUND ANNUAL, in the law of Scotland, an annual payment, sometimes called a rent-charge, made for land--a substitute for feu-duty.--BE ON ONE'S OWN GROUND, to be dealing with a matter in which one is specially versed; BREAK GROUND, to take the first step in any project; FALL TO THE GROUND, to come to nothing; GAIN GROUND, to advance, to obtain an advantage; GIVE GROUND, to yield advantage; LOSE GROUND, to retire, to lose advantage; SLIPPERY GROUND, an insecure footing; STAND, or HOLD, ONE'S GROUND, to stand firm.

[A.S. _grund_; most prob. _grund-en_, pa.p. of _grindan_, and orig. meaning 'earth ground small;' cog. with Ger. _grund_, Ice. _grunnr_.]

GROUNDSEL, grownd'sel, _n._ an annual plant, about a foot high, with small yellow flowers. [A.S. _grundeswelge_--_grund_, ground, _swelgan_, to swallow.]

GROUP, gr[=oo]p, _n._ a number of persons or things together: a number of individual things related, in some definite way differentiating them from others: (_art_) a combination of figures forming a harmonious whole.--_v.t._ to form into a group or groups.--_v.i._ to fall into harmonious combination.--_n._ GROUP'ING (_art_), the act of disposing and arranging figures or objects in a group. [Fr. _groupe_--It. _groppo_, a bunch, knot--Teut.; cf. Ger. _kropf_, protuberance.]

GROUSE, grows, _n._ the heathcock or moorfowl, a plump bird with a short curved bill, short legs, and feathered feet, which frequents Scotch moors and hills--the _Scotch ptarmigan_, _red-grouse_: any bird of the family _Tetraonidae_, and sub-family _Tetraoninae_. [Prob. from the older _grice_ (on the analogy of _mouse_, _mice_)--O. Fr. _griesche_, gray.]

GROUT, growt, _n._ coarse meal: the sediment of liquor: lees: a thin coarse mortar: a fine plaster for finishing ceilings.--_n._ GROUT'ING, the filling up or finishing with grout: the stuff so used.--_adj._ GROUT'Y, thick, muddy: sulky. [A.S. _grut_, coarse meal; cog. with Dut. _grut_, Ice.

_grautr_, porridge, Ger. _grutze_, groats.]

GROVE, gr[=o]v, _n._ a wood of small size, generally of a pleasant or ornamental character: an avenue of trees: (_B._) an erroneous translation of _Asherah_, the wooden upright image of the lewdly worshipped goddess Ashtoreth; also of Heb. _eshel_ in Gen. xxi. 33.--GROVES OF ACADEME, the shady walks of the Academy at Athens, any place of learned pursuits. [A.S.

_graf_, a grove--_grafan_, pa.t. _grof_, to dig.]

GROVEL, grov'el, _v.i._ to crawl on the earth, esp. in abject fear, &c.: to be base or mean:--_pr.p._ grov'elling; _pa.p._ grov'elled.--_n._ GROV'ELLER.--_adj._ GROV'ELLING, mean. [Explained by Skeat as due to M. E.

_groveling_, flat on the ground, properly an _adv._, also _grofling_--Ice.


GROW, gr[=o], _v.i._ to become enlarged by a natural process: to advance towards maturity: to increase in size: to develop: to become greater in any way: to extend: to improve: to pass from one state to another: to become.--_v.t._ to cause to grow: to cultivate:--_pa.t._ grew (gr[=oo]); _pa.p._ grown.--_ns._ GROW'ER; GROW'ING; GROWTH, a growing: gradual increase: progress: development: that which has grown: product.--GROW ON, to gain in the estimation of; GROW OUT OF, to issue from, result from: to pass beyond in development, to give up; GROW TO, to advance to; GROW TOGETHER, to become united by growth; GROW UP, to advance in growth, become full-grown; to take root, spring up. [A.S. _growan_; Ice. _groa_; conn.

with _green_.]

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