GALOSH, ga-losh', _n._ a shoe or slipper worn over another in wet weather--also GALOCHE', GOLOSH'. [Fr. _galoche_--Gr. _kalopodion_, dim. of _kalopous_, a shoemaker's last--_k[=a]lon_, wood, _pous_, the foot.]
GALRAVAGE. See GILRAVAGE.
GALT. See GAULT.
GALUMPH, gal-umf', _v.i._ to march along boundingly and exultingly. [A coinage of Lewis Carroll.]
GALVANISM, gal'van-izm, _n._ a branch of the science of electricity which treats of electric currents produced by chemical agents.--_adj._ GALVAN'IC, belonging to or exhibiting galvanism.--_n._ GALVANIS[=A]'TION.--_v.t._ GAL'VAN[=I]SE, to subject to the action of a galvanic current: to confer a false vitality upon.--_ns._ GAL'VANIST, GAL'VAN[=I]SER; GALVAN'OGRAPH, a printing-surface resembling an engraved copper-plate, produced by an electrotype process from a drawing made with viscid ink on a silvered plate: an impression taken from such a plate; GALVANOG'RAPHY; GALVANOL'OGIST, a student of galvanology; GALVANOL'OGY, the science of galvanic phenomena; GALVANOM'ETER, an instrument for measuring the strength of galvanic currents; GALVANOM'ETRY.--_adj._ GALVANOPLAS'TIC.--_ns._ GALVANOPLAS'TY, electrotypy; GALVAN'OSCOPE, an instrument for detecting the existence and direction of an electric current.--GALVANIC BATTERY, a series of zinc or copper plates susceptible of galvanic action; GALVANISED IRON, the name given to iron coated with zinc to prevent rusting. [From Luigi _Galvani_, of Bologna, the discoverer (1737-98).]
GALWEGIAN, gal-w[=e]'ji-an, _adj._ belonging to Galloway.--_n._ a native thereof.--Also GALLOW[=E]'GIAN.
GAM, gam, _v.t._ and _v.i._ to make a call on, to exchange courtesies with: to gather in a flock, as whales.--_n._ a school or herd of whales. [Prob. a corr. of _jam_.]
GAM, gam, _n._ (_Scot._) the mouth:--_pl._ tusks.
GAM, gam, _n._ (_slang_) a leg.
GAMA-GRASS, ga'ma-gras, _n._ a grass with very large culms, 4 to 7 feet high, grown in Mexico.
GAMASH, gam-ash', _n._ a kind of leggings or gaiters.
GAMB, gamb, _n._ a leg or shank: (_her._) a beast's whole foreleg=GAMB'A (_anat._), the metacarpus or metatarsus of ruminants, &c.: short for _viol da gamba_. [Low L. _gamba_, a leg. See GAMBOL.]
GAMBADO, gam-b[=a]'do, _n._ a leather covering for the legs to defend them from mud in riding: boots affixed to the saddle in place of stirrups. [It.
_gamba_, the leg.]
GAMBADO, gam-b[=a]'do, _n._ a bound or spring of a horse: a fantastic movement, a caper. [Sp. _gambada_; cf. GAMBOL.]
GAMBESON, gam'be-son, _n._ an ancient coat for defence, worn under the habergeon, of leather, or of cloth stuffed and quilted.--Also GAM'BISON.
[O. Fr.--Low L. _gambes[=o]n-em_; prob. Teut., as in _wamba_, the belly.]
GAMBET, gam'bet, _n._ the redshank.
GAMBIER, gam'b[=e]r, _n._ an astringent substance prepared from the leaves of a shrub of the East Indies, and largely used in tanning and dyeing.--Also GAM'BIR. [Malayan.]
GAMBIST, gam'bist, _n._ a player on the gamba or _viol da gamba_.
GAMBIT, gam'bit, _n._ a mode of opening a game of chess by sacrificing a pawn early in the game for the purpose of making a powerful attack. [It.
_gambetto_, a tripping up--_gamba_, leg.]
GAMBLE, gam'bl, _v.i._ to play for money in games of chance or skill: to engage in wild financial speculations.--_v.t._ to squander away.--_n._ a gambling transaction.--_ns._ GAM'BLER, one who gambles, esp. who makes it his business; GAM'BLING-HOUSE, a house kept for the accommodation of people who play at games of hazard for money. [For _gamm-le_ or _gam-le_, a freq.
which has ousted M. E. _gamenen_--A.S. _gamenian_, to play at games--_gamen_, a game.]
GAMBOGE, gam-b[=o]j', or gam-b[=oo]j', _n._ a yellow gum-resin used as a pigment and in medicine.--_adjs._ GAMBOG'IAN, GAMBOG'IC. [From _Cambodia_, in Asia, whence brought about 1600.]
GAMBOL, gam'bol, _v.i._ to leap, skip: to frisk in sport:--_pr.p._ gam'bolling; _pa.p._ gam'bolled.--_n._ a skipping: playfulness. [Formerly _gambold_--O. Fr. _gambade_--It. _gambata_, a kick--Low L. _gamba_, leg.]
GAMBREL, gam'brel, _n._ the hock of a horse: a crooked stick used by butchers for suspending a carcass while dressing it.--GAMBREL ROOF, a curved or hipped roof. [O. Fr. _gamberel_; cf. Fr. _gambier_, a hooked stick; prob. Celt. _cam_, crooked.]
GAMBROON, gam-br[=oo]n', _n._ a twilled cloth of worsted and cotton, or linen. [Prob. _Gambroon_ in Persia.]
GAME, g[=a]m, _n._ sport of any kind: an exercise or contest for recreation or amusement, esp. athletic contests: the stake in a game: the manner of playing a game: the requisite number of points to be gained to win a game: jest, sport, trick, artifice: any object of pursuit or desire: (_Shak._) gallantry: the spoil of the chase: wild animals protected by law and hunted by sportsmen, the flesh of such--hares, pheasants, partridges, grouse, blackcock.--_adj._ of or belonging to such animals as are hunted as game: plucky, courageous: (_slang_) having the spirit to do something.--_v.i._ to gamble.--_ns._ GAME'-BAG, a bag for holding a sportsman's game, also the whole amount of game taken at one time; GAME'COCK, a cock trained to fight; GAME'KEEPER, one who has the care of game.--_n.pl._ GAME'-LAWS, laws relating to the protection of certain animals called game.--_adv._ GAMELY.--_ns._ GAME'NESS; GAME'-PRESERV'ER, one who preserves game on his property for his own sport or profit.--_adj._ GAME'SOME, playful.--_ns._ GAME'SOMENESS, sportiveness: merriment; GAME'STER, one viciously addicted to gambling: a gambler; GAME'-TEN'ANT, one who rents the privilege of shooting or fishing over a particular estate or district; GAM'ING, gambling; GAM'ING-HOUSE, a gambling-house, a hell; GAM'ING-T[=A]'BLE, a table used for gambling.--_adj._ GAM'Y, having the flavour of dead game kept till tainted: (_coll._) spirited, plucky.--BIG GAME, the larger animals hunted; DIE GAME, to keep up courage to the last; MAKE A GAME OF, to play with real energy or skill; MAKE GAME OF, to make sport of, to ridicule; RED GAME, the Scotch ptarmigan; ROUND GAME, a game, as at cards, in which the number of players is not fixed; THE GAME IS NOT WORTH THE CANDLE (see CANDLE); THE GAME IS UP, the game is started: the scheme has failed. [A.S. _gamen_, play; Ice. _gaman_, Dan. _gammen_.]
GAME, g[=a]m, _adj._ (_slang_) crooked, lame. [Most prob. not the Celt.
GAMIC, gam'ik, _adj._ having a sexual character, of an ovum--opp. to _Agamic_.--_ns._ GAMETE (gam-[=e]t'), a sexual protoplasmic body; GAMOGEN'ESIS, sexual reproduction.--_adjs._ GAMOPET'ALOUS (_bot._), having the petals united at the base; GAMOPHYL'LOUS, having cohering perianth leaves; GAMOSEP'ALOUS, having the sepals united. [Gr. _gamos_, marriage.]
GAMIN, gam'in, _n._ a street Arab, a precocious and mischievous imp of the pavement. [Fr.]
GAMMA, gam'a, _n._ the third letter of the Greek alphabet.--_ns._ GAMM[=A]D'ION, GAMM[=A]'TION (see FYLFOT).
GAMMER, gam'[.e]r, _n._ an old woman--the correlative of _gaffer_ (q.v.).
GAMMERSTANG, gam'er-stang, _n._ (_prov._) a tall, awkward person, esp. a woman: a wanton girl.
GAMMOCK, gam'ok, _n._ (_prov._) a frolic, fun.--_v.i._ to frolic, to lark.
GAMMON, gam'un, _n._ (mostly _coll._) a hoax: nonsense, humbug.--_v.t._ to hoax, impose upon.--_ns._ GAMM'ONER; GAMM'ONING. [A.S. _gamen_, a game.]
GAMMON, gam'un, _n._ the preserved thigh of a hog. [O. Fr.
_gambon_--_gambe_, a leg.]
GAMMON, gam'un, _n._ (_naut._) the lashing of the bowsprit.--_v.t._ to lash the bowsprit with ropes.
GAMP, gamp, _n._ (_slang_) a large, clumsy, or untidily tied up umbrella.--_adj._ GAMP'ISH, bulging. [So called from Mrs Sarah _Gamp_, a tippling monthly nurse in Dickens's _Martin Chuzzlewit_.]
GAMUT, gam'ut, _n._ the musical scale: the whole extent of a thing. [So called from the Gr. _gamma_, which marked the last of the series of notes in the musical notation of Guido Aretinus, and L. _ut_, the beginning of an old hymn to St John ('Ut queant laxis') used in singing the scale.]
GANCH, ganch, _v.t._ to impale.--Also GAUNCH. [O. Fr. _gancher_--It.
_gancio_, a hook.]
GANDER, gan'd[.e]r, _n._ the male of the goose: a simpleton: (_U.S._) a man living apart from his wife.--_ns._ GAN'DERCLEUGH, the place of abode of the hypothetical Jedediah Cleishbotham, editor of the _Tales of my Landlord_; GAN'DERISM; GAN'DER-PAR'TY, a social gathering of men only. [A.S. _gandra_, from ganra, with inserted _d_; Dut. and Low Ger. _gander_.]
GANESA, ga-n[=e]'sa, _n._ the elephant-headed Hindu god of foresight and prudence.
GANG, gang, _n._ a number of persons or animals associated for a certain purpose, usually in a bad sense: a number of labourers working together during the same hours: the range of pasture allowed to cattle: a set of tools, &c., used together for any kind of work.--_ns._ GANG'ER, GANGS'MAN, the foreman of a squad, as of plate-layers. [A.S. _gang_ (Dan. _gang_, Ger.
_gang_, a going), _gangan_, to go.]
GANG, gang, _v.i._ (_Scot._) to go.--_n.pl._ GANG'-DAYS, the three days preceding Ascension Day or Holy Thursday.--_n._ GANG'ER, a walker: a fast-going horse. [A.S. _gangan_, to go.]
GANGLION, gang'gli-on, _n._ a tumour in the sheath of a tendon: an enlargement in the course of a nerve: any special centre of nervous action:--_pl._ GANG'LIA, GANG'LIONS.--_adjs._ GANG'LIAC, GANG'LIAL, GANGLION'IC, pertaining to a ganglion; GANG'LIATE, -D, provided with a ganglion or ganglia; GANG'LIFORM, GANG'LIOFORM, having the form of a ganglion; GANG'LIONARY, composed of ganglia.--_n._ GANG'LION-CELL (_anat._), a nerve-cell with nucleus and nucleones.--BASAL GANGLIA, ganglia situated at the bottom of the cerebrum. [Gr.]
GANGREL, gang'rel, _n._ and _adj._ a vagrant. [From _gang_--A.S. _gangan_, to go, walk.]
GANGRENE, gang'gr[=e]n, _n._ loss of vitality in some part of the body: the first stage in mortification.--_v.t._ to mortify.--_v.i._ to become putrid.--_v.i._ GANG'RENATE, to become mortified.--_adjs._ GANGRENES'CENT, becoming mortified; GANG'RENOUS, mortified. [L. _gangraena_--Gr.
_gangraina_, _grainein_, to gnaw.]
GANG-SAW, gang-saw, _n._ an arrangement of saws set in one frame.