ESPALIER, es-pal'y[.e]r, _n._ a lattice-work of wood on which to train fruit-trees: a fruit-tree trained on stakes: (_obs._) a row of trees so trained.--_v.t._ to train as an espalier. [Fr.,--It. _spalliera_, a support for the shoulders--_spalla_, a shoulder. Cf. EPAULET.]
ESPARTO, es-par't[=o], _n._ a strong kind of grass found in the south of Europe, esp. in Spain, used for making baskets, cordage, paper, &c.
[Sp.,--L. _spartum_--Gr. _sparton_, a kind of rope.]
ESPECIAL, es-pesh'al, _adj._ special: particular: principal: distinguished.--_adv._ ESPEC'IALLY.--IN ESPECIAL, in particular. [O.
ESPERANCE, es'p[.e]r-ans, _n._ (_Shak._) hope. [Fr.,--L. _sperans_, pr.p.
of _sper[=a]re_, to hope.]
ESPIeGLE, es-pi-[=a]'gl, _adj._ roguish, frolicsome.--_n._ ESPIeG'LERIE, raillery: frolicsomeness. [Fr.]
ESPIONAGE, es'pi-on-[=a]j, _n._ practice or employment of spies.
[Fr.,--_espionner_--_espion_, a spy.]
ESPLANADE, es-pla-n[=a]d', _n._ a level space between a citadel and the first houses of the town: any level space for walking or driving in.
[Fr.,--Sp. _esplanada_--L. _explan[=a]re_--_ex_, out, _planus_, flat.]
ESPOUSE, es-powz', _v.t._ to give in marriage: to take as spouse: to wed: to take with a view to maintain: to embrace, as a cause.--_ns._ ESPOUS'AL, the act of espousing or betrothing: the taking upon one's self, as a cause: (_pl._) a contract or mutual promise of marriage; ESPOUS'ER. [O. Fr.
_espouser_ (Fr. _epouser_)--L. _spons[=a]re_--_spond[=e]re_, _sponsum_, to promise.]
ESPRIT, es-pr[=e]', _n._ spirit: liveliness.--ESPRIT DE CORPS (es-pr[=e]'
d' k[=o]r), regard for the character of that body to which one belongs; ESPRIT FORT (es-pr[=e]' f[=o]r), a person of strong character. [Fr.
_esprit_, spirit, _corps_, body, _fort_, strong.]
ESPY, es-p[=i]', _v.t._ to watch: to see at a distance: to catch sight of: to observe: to discover unexpectedly.--_n._ ESP[=I]'AL, the act of espying: observation. [O. Fr. _espier_, from root of _spy_.]
ESQUIMAU, es'ki-m[=o] (_pl._ ESQUIMAUX, es'ki-m[=o]z). Same as ESKIMO.
ESQUIRE, es-kw[=i]r', _n._ (_orig._) a squire or shield-bearer: an attendant on a knight: a landed proprietor: a title of dignity next below a knight: a title given to younger sons of noblemen, &c.: a general title of respect in addressing letters. [O. Fr. _esquier_ (Fr. _ecuyer_)--L.
_scutarius_--_scutum_, a shield.]
ESS, the name of the letter S (q.v.).
ESSAY, es'[=a], _n._ a trial: an experiment: a written composition less elaborate than a treatise.--_v.t._ ESSAY', to try: to attempt: to make experiment of:--_pr.p._ essay'ing; _pa.p._ essayed'.--_ns._ ESSAY'ER, ES'SAYIST, one who essays: a writer of essays; ESSAYETTE', ES'SAYKIN, a little essay.--_adjs._ ES'SAYISH; ESSAYIS'TIC. [O. Fr. _essai_--L.
_exagium_, weighing--_exag[)e]re_, to try, examine.]
ESSE, es'i, _n._ used in phrase IN ESSE, in existence, opposed to _In posse_, in potentiality. [L. _esse_, to be.]
ESSENCE, es'ens, _n._ the inner distinctive nature of anything: the qualities which make any object what it is: a being: the extracted virtues of any drug: the solution in spirits of wine of a volatile or essential oil: a perfume.--_adj._ ESSEN'TIAL, relating to or containing the essence: necessary to the existence of a thing: indispensable or important in the highest degree: highly rectified: pure.--_n._ something necessary: a leading principle.--_n._ ESSENTIAL'ITY, the quality of being essential: an essential part.--_adv._ ESSEN'TIALLY.--_n._ ESSEN'TIALNESS. [Fr.,--L.
_essentia_--_essens_, _-entis_, assumed pr.p. of _esse_, to be.]
ESSENE, es-s[=e]n', _n._ one of a small religious fraternity among the ancient Jews leading retired ascetic lives and holding property in common.--_n._ ESSEN'ISM. [Bishop Lightfoot prefers the der. from Heb.
_ch[=a]sh[=a]_, to be silent, whence _chashsh[=a][=i]m_, 'the silent ones'
who meditate on mysteries.]
ESSOIN, es-soin', _n._ (_law_) excuse for not appearing in court: (_Spens._) excuse.--_n._ ESSOIN'ER. [O. Fr. _essoine_ (Fr. _exoine_), _es_--L. _ex_, out, _soin_, care.]
ESSORANT, es'[=o]-rant, _adj._ (_her._) about to soar.
ESTABLISH, es-tab'lish, _v.t._ to settle or fix: to confirm: to prove a point: to ordain: to found: to set up in business: to institute by law as the recognised state church, and to support officially and financially.--_p.adj._ ESTAB'LISHED, fixed: ratified: instituted by law and supported by the state.--_ns._ ESTAB'LISHER; ESTAB'LISHMENT, act of establishing: fixed state: that which is established: a permanent civil or military force: one's residence and style of living: the church established by law.--_adj._ ESTABLISHMENT[=A]R'IAN, maintaining the principle of the established church.--_n._ one who maintains this principle. [O. Fr.
_establir_, pr.p. _establissant_--L. _stabil[=i]re_--_stabilis_, firm--_st[=a]re_, to stand.]
ESTACADE, es-ta-k[=a]d', _n._ a dike of piles in a morass, river, &c., against an enemy. [Fr.,--Sp.]
ESTAFETTE, es-ta-fet', _n._ a military courier or express. [Fr.,--It.
_staffetta_--Old High Ger. _stapho_, a step.]
ESTAMINET, es-tam-in-[=a]', a restaurant where smoking is allowed. [Fr.]
ESTATE, es-t[=a]t', _n._ condition or rank: position: property, esp. landed property: fortune: an order or class of men in the body-politic: (_pl._) dominions: possessions.--_v.t._ to give an estate to: (_arch._) to bestow upon.--_n._ ESTATES'MAN, statesman.--MAN'S ESTATE, the state of manhood; THE ESTATES OF THE REALM are three--Lords Spiritual, Lords Temporal, and Commons; but often misused for the legislature--king, lords, and commons.--The ancient parliament of Scotland consisted of the king and the THREE ESTATES--viz.: (1) archbishops, bishops, abbots, and mitred priors; (2) the barons and the commissioners of shires and stewartries; (3) the commissioners from the royal burghs;--in France, the nobles, clergy, and THIRD ESTATE (_tiers etat_) remained separate down to 1789; THE FOURTH ESTATE, often used humorously for the press. [O. Fr. _estat_ (Fr.
_etat_)--L. _status_, a state.]
ESTEEM, es-t[=e]m', _v.t._ to set a high estimate or value on: to regard with respect or friendship: to consider or think.--_n._ high estimation or value: favourable regard.--_p.adj._ ESTEEMED', respected.--_adj._ ES'TIMABLE, that can be estimated or valued: worthy of esteem: deserving our good opinion.--_adv._ ES'TIMABLY.--_v.t._ ES'TIM[=A]TE, to judge of the worth of a thing: to calculate.--_n._ reputation: a valuing in the mind: judgment or opinion of the worth or size of anything: a rough calculation: estimation.--_n._ ESTIM[=A]'TION, act of estimating: a reckoning of value: esteem, honour: importance: conjecture.--_adj._ ES'TIM[=A]TIVE.--_n._ ES'TIM[=A]TOR.--HOLD IN ESTIMATION, to esteem highly.--THE ESTIMATES, accounts given before parliament showing the probable expenditure for the year. [Fr. _estimer_--L. _aestim[=a]re_.]
ESTHETIC, ESTHETICS. See aeSTHETIC, aeSTHETICS.
ESTHONIAN, es-th[=o]'ni-an, _adj._ pertaining to _Esthonia_, the most northerly of the Baltic provinces of Russia, or its population, language, or customs.--_ns._ ESTH, an Esthonian of the original Finnish stock; ESTH'LANDER, an Esthonian of the mixed race, in which the German element preponderates.
ESTIVAL, ESTIVATION. See aeSTIVAL, aeSTIVATION.
ESTOP, es-top', _v.t._ to stop or bar: (_law_) to hinder, preclude:--_pr.p._ estop'ping; _pa.p._ estop'ped.--_ns._ ESTOP'P[=A]GE, the state of being estopped; ESTOP'PEL, a conclusive admission, which cannot be denied by the party whom it affects. [O. Fr. _estoper_--_estoupe_--L.
_stuppa_, tow. See STOP.]
ESTOVERS, es-t[=o]'v[.e]rz, _n.pl._ (_law_) necessaries allowed by law, as wood to a tenant for necessary repairs, &c.--COMMON OF ESTOVERS, the right of taking necessary wood from another's estate for household use and the making of implements of industry. [O. Fr. _estovoir_, necessaries.]
ESTRADE, es-trad', _n._ a low platform. [Fr.,--Sp. _estrado_.]
ESTRANGE, es-tr[=a]nj', _v.t._ to treat as an alien: to alienate: to divert from its original use or possessor.--_p.adj._ ESTRANGED', alienated: disaffected.--_ns._ ESTRANG'EDNESS; ESTRANGE'MENT; ESTRANG'ER. [O. Fr.
_estranger_ (Fr. _etranger_)--L. _extrane[=a]re_--_extraneus_. See STRANGE.]
ESTRAY, e-str[=a]', _n._ a beast found within a manor or lordship, and not owned.--_v.i._ to stray. [See ASTRAY.]
ESTREAT, e-str[=e]t', _n._ (_law_) a true extract, copy, or note of some original writing or record, esp. of fines and amercements to be levied by bailiffs or other officers.--_v.t._ to extract from the records of a court, as a forfeited recognisance: to levy fines under an estreat. [O. Fr.
_estraite_--L. _extrah[)e]re_--_ex_, out, and _trah[)e]re_, to draw. See EXTRACT.]
ESTRICH, es'trich, ESTRIDGE, es'trij, _n._ (_obs._) the ostrich.
ESTUARY, es't[=u]-ar-i, _n._ the wide lower part of a river where it becomes tidal.--_adjs._ ESTU[=A]'RIAN, ES'T[=U]ARINE. [L.
ESURIENT, es-[=u]'ri-ent, _adj._ hungry: penurious.--_n._ ES[=U]'RIENCE, hunger: neediness. [L. _esuriens_, _-entis_, pr.p. of _esur[=i]re_, to be hungry--_ed[)e]re_, to eat.]
ET CETERA, et set'er-a, usually written ETC. or &C., a phrase meaning 'and so on.'--_n._ something in addition, which can easily be understood. [L.
_et_ and, _cetera_, the rest.]
ETCH, ech, _v.t._ or _v.i._ to make designs on metal, glass, &c. by eating out the lines with an acid.--_ns._ ETCH'ER, one who etches; ETCH'ING, the act or art of etching or engraving: the impression from an etched plate; ETCH'ING-GROUND, the coating of wax or varnish on a plate prepared for etching; ETCH'ING-NEED'LE, a fine-pointed steel instrument used in etching.
[From Ger. _atzen_, to corrode by acid; from same root as Ger. _essen_. See EAT.]