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LIEGE, l[=e]j, _adj._ free, except as within the relations of vassal and feudal lord: under a feudal tenure.--_n._ one under a feudal tenure: a vassal: a lord or superior, or one who has lieges.--_n._ LIEGE'DOM, allegiance.--_adj._ LIEGE'LESS, not subject to a superior.--_n._ LIEGE'MAN, a vassal: a subject. [O. Fr. _lige_, prob. from Old High Ger. _ledic_, free (Ger. _ledig_, free, unfettered), _l[=i]dan_, to depart.]

LIEN, l[=i]'en, or l[=e]'en, _n._ (_law_) a right in one to retain the property of another to pay a claim. [Fr., tie, band--L.

_ligamen_--_lig[=a]re_, to bind.]

LIEN, l[=i]'en (_B._), _pa.p._ of _lie_, to lie down.

LIENTERY, l[=i]'en-ter-i, _n._ a form of diarrhoea, with frequent liquid evacuations in which the food is discharged undigested.--_adj._ LIENTER'IC.

[Gr. _leios_, smooth, _enteron_, an intestine.]

LIERNE, li-ern', _n._ (_archit._) a cross-rib or branch-rib in vaulting.


LIEU, l[=u], _n._ place, stead, chiefly in the phrase 'in lieu of.'

[Fr.,--L. _locus_, place.]

LIEUTENANT, lef-ten'ant, _n._ one representing or performing the work of another: an officer holding the place of another in his absence: a commissioned officer in the army next below a captain, or in the navy next below a commander and ranking with captain in the army: one holding a place next in rank to a superior, as in the compounds LIEUTEN'ANT-COL'ONEL, LIEUTEN'ANT-GEN'ERAL.--_ns._ LIEUTEN'ANCY, LIEUTEN'ANTSHIP, office or commission of a lieutenant: the body of lieutenants; LIEUTEN'ANT-GOV'ERNOR, in India, the name of the chief official in the provinces of Bengal, Behar, and Orissa, the North-western Provinces, and Oudh, Punjab, and Delhi; LIEUTEN'ANT-GOV'ERNORSHIP; LIEUTEN'ANTRY (_Shak._), lieutenancy; LORD'-LIEUTEN'ANT, the title of the viceroy of Ireland: in the British Isles, a permanent governor of a county appointed by the sovereign, usually a peer or other large land-owner, at the head of the magistracy and the chief executive authority; SUB'-LIEUTEN'ANT, formerly mate or passed midshipman, now the intermediate rank in the navy between midshipman and lieutenant.--FIELD-MARSHAL LIEUTENANT (see FIELD-MARSHAL). [Fr.; cf. _Lieu_ and _Tenant_.]


LIFE, l[=i]f, _n._ state of living: animate existence: union of soul and body: the period between birth and death: present state of existence: manner of living: moral conduct: animation: a living being: system of animal nature: social state: human affairs: narrative of a life: eternal happiness, also He who bestows it: a quickening principle in a moral sense: the living form and expression, living semblance: (_cricket_) an escape, as by a missed or dropped catch:--_pl._ LIVES (l[=i]vz).--_interj._ used as an oath, abbreviated from God's life.--_adj._ LIFE'-AND-DEATH', critical: desperate.--_ns._ LIFE'-ANN[=U]'ITY, a sum paid to a person yearly during life; LIFE'-ASSUR'ANCE, LIFE'-INSUR'ANCE (see INSURANCE); LIFE'-BELT, a belt either inflated with air, or with cork attached, for sustaining a person in the water; LIFE'-BLOOD, the blood of an animal in the body: that which gives strength or life; LIFE'BOAT, a boat for saving shipwrecked persons, having air-chambers or the like, by which it is rendered specially buoyant and sometimes self-righting; LIFE'-BUOY, a buoy intended to support a person in the water till he can be rescued; LIFE'-ESTATE', an estate held during the life of the possessor.--_adjs._ LIFE'FUL (_Spens._), full of vital energy; LIFE'-GIV'ING, imparting life: invigorating.--_ns._ LIFE'-GUARD, a guard of the life or person: a guard of a prince or other dignitary; LIFE'-HIS'TORY, LIFE'-CY'CLE, the series of vital phenomena exhibited by an organism in its passage from the ovum to full development; LIFE'HOLD, land held by lease for life; LIFE'-IN'TEREST, an interest lasting during one's life.--_adj._ LIFE'LESS, dead: without vigour: insipid: sluggish.--_adv._ LIFE'LESSLY.--_n._ LIFE'LESSNESS.--_adj._ LIFE'-LIKE, like a living person.--_n._ LIFE'-LINE, a rope stretched anywhere on board a vessel for support of the sailors in difficult operations or during wild weather: a line attached to a life-buoy or lifeboat for an immersed person to seize hold of.--_adj._ LIFE'LONG, during the length of a life.--_ns._ LIFE'-MOR'TAR, a mortar for throwing a shot of some kind to carry a rope from the shore to a ship in distress; LIFE'-PEER, a peer whose title is not hereditary; LIFE'-PEER'AGE; LIFE'-PRESERV'ER, an invention, as a buoyant belt or jacket, for the preservation of life in cases of shipwreck: a cane with a loaded head; LIFE'-RAFT, a raft-like structure for use in case of shipwreck; LIFE'-RATE, rate of payment on a policy of life-insurance.--_adj._ LIFE'-REN'DERING (_Shak._), yielding up life.--_ns._ LIFE'RENT, a rent that continues for life; LIFE'RENTER, one who enjoys a liferent:--_fem._ LIFE'RENTRIX; LIFE'-ROCK'ET, a rocket for carrying a line from the shore to a ship in distress.--_adjs._ LIFE'-SAV'ING, designed to save life, esp. from drowning.--_n._ LIFE'-SCHOOL, a school where artists work from living models.--_adjs._ LIFE'-SIZE, similar in size to the object represented; LIFE'SOME, full of life: gay, lively.--_ns._ LIFE'-T[=A]'BLE, a table of statistics as to the probability of life at different ages; LIFE'-TEN'ANT, the owner of a life-estate: one who holds lands, &c., for the term of his own or another's life; LIFE'-TIME, continuation or duration of life.--_adj._ LIFE'-WEA'RY (_Shak._), weary of life: wretched.--_n._ LIFE'-WORK, the work to which one's life is or is to be devoted.--LIFE-SAVING APPARATUS, all materials, appliances, &c. available for preserving life in cases of shipwreck or fire.--BRING TO LIFE, to restore to life one apparently dead; COME TO LIFE, to be reanimated; FOR LIFE, for the whole period of one's existence: so as to save life: very fast or strenuously; HIGH LIFE, the manner of living of those in high or fashionable society: the upper classes of society; LINE OF LIFE (see LINE); TO THE LIFE, very closely resembling the original: exactly drawn. [A.S. _lif_; Ice. _lif_, Sw. _lif_, Dut. _lijf_, body, life; Ger.

_leben_, to live.]

LIFT, lift, _n._ (_Scot._) the air, heavens, sky. [A.S. _lyft_; Ger.

_luft_, Ice. _lopt_, Goth. _luftus_, the air.]

LIFT, lift, _v.t._ to bring to a higher position: to elevate or keep elevated: to elate: to take and carry away: (_obs._) to bear, support: (_slang_) to arrest: to steal.--_v.i._ to rise: to try to rise.--_n._ act of lifting: that which is to be raised: that which assists to lift: a hoisting-machine: advancement.--_adj._ LIFT'ABLE.--_ns._ LIFT'ER, one who, or that which, lifts: (_Shak._) a thief; LIFT'ING-BRIDGE, a drawbridge raised so as to allow ships to pass; LIFT'-PUMP, any pump which is not a force-pump.--LIFT THE HAND, to raise it in hostility; LIFT UP THE EYES, to look, direct one's eyes, or thoughts, to; LIFT UP THE FACE, to look upward, as in supplication; LIFT UP THE HAND, to make oath, swear: to pray; LIFT UP THE HEAD, to rejoice, exult; LIFT UP THE VOICE, to cry loudly.--DEAD LIFT (see DEAD). [Ice. _lypta_--_lopt_, the air.]

LIG, lig, _v.i._ (_Spens._) to lie. [See LIE.]

LIGAMENT, lig'a-ment, _n._ anything that binds: (_anat._) the membrane connecting the movable bones: a bond of union.--_adjs._ LIGAMENT'AL, LIGAMENT'OUS, composing or resembling a ligament.--_ns._ LIG[=A]'TION, act of binding: state of being bound; LIG'ATURE, anything that binds: a bandage: (_mus._) a line connecting notes: (_print._) a type of two letters: (_med._) a cord for tying the blood-vessels, &c.: impotence produced by magic.--_adj._ LIG'ATURED, bound by a ligature. [Fr.,--L.

_ligamentum_--_lig[=a]re_, to bind.]

LIGAN, l[=i]'gan, _n._ goods sunk at sea, with a float attached for recovery. [L. _ligamen_, a band.]

LIGGER, lig'[.e]r, _n._ the horizontal timber of a scaffolding: a nether millstone: a board-pathway over a ditch: a coverlet for a bed: a kelt or spent salmon: a night-line with float and bait for pike-fishing.

LIGHT, l[=i]t, _n._ that which shines or is brilliant: the agent by which objects are rendered visible: the power of vision: day: dawn of day: that which gives light, as the sun, a candle: the illuminated part of a picture: means of communicating fire or light: a lighthouse: (_fig._) mental or spiritual illumination: enlightenment: knowledge: public view: point of view: a conspicuous person: an aperture for admitting light: (_B._) prosperity, favour.--_adj._ not dark: bright: whitish.--_v.t._ to give light to: to set fire to: to attend with a light.--_v.i._ to become light or bright:--_pr.p._ light'ing; _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ light'ed or lit.--_adj._ LIGHT'ABLE.--_n._ LIGHT'-BALL, a composition of saltpetre, sulphur, resin, and linseed-oil formed into a ball, and used by soldiers to give light during military LIGHT'-DUES, tolls taken from ships in certain waters, for the maintenance of lighthouses.--_ns._ LIGHT'ER; LIGHT'HOUSE, a tower-like construction exhibiting a light for indicating to vessels, when nearing a port or coasting along shore, the proximity of rocks, shoals, and other dangers; LIGHT'HOUSE-MAN, LIGHT'-KEEP'ER, the keeper of a lighthouse.--_adj._ LIGHT'LESS.--_ns._ LIGHT'NESS; LIGHT'-ROOM, in a man-of-war, a small room separated from the magazine by thick glass windows, and used to illuminate it: the room in a lighthouse containing the lighting apparatus; LIGHT'-SHIP, a stationary ship carrying a light and serving the purpose of a lighthouse in very deep waters.--_adj._ LIGHT'SOME, full of light.--_n._ LIGHT'WAVE, a wave of the luminous ether.--LIGHT OF NATURE, intellectual perception or intuition: (_theol._) man's capacity of discovering truth unaided by revelation.--BETWEEN THE LIGHTS, in the twilight; BETWEEN TWO LIGHTS, under cover of darkness; BRING TO LIGHT, to reveal; CHILDREN OF LIGHT, Christians as under the illumination of the Divine light, that illumination which comes directly from God; COME TO LIGHT, to be revealed; FIXED LIGHT, in lighthouses, a light which is maintained steadily without change, as opposed to a revolving light; FLOATING LIGHT, a light displayed at the mast-head of a lightship to show dangers to navigation; FOOT, GROUND, LIGHTS, a row of lights used on a stage to light up the base of a scene; INNER LIGHT, spiritual illumination, light divinely imparted; NORTHERN LIGHTS, aurora borealis; SEE THE LIGHT, to come into view; STAND IN ONE'S OWN LIGHT, to hinder one's own advantage. [A.S. _leoht_; Ger. _licht_.]

LIGHT, l[=i]t, _adj._ not heavy: of short weight: easily suffered or performed: easily digested: not heavily armed: active: not heavily burdened: unimportant: not dense or copious or intense: gentle: gay, lively: amusing: unchaste: loose, sandy: giddy, delirious: idle, worthless.--_vs.t._ LIGHT, LIGHT'EN, to make less heavy: to alleviate, cheer.--_advs._ LIGHT, LIGHT'LY (_Shak._), commonly, usually.--_adj._ LIGHT'-ARMED, armed in a manner suitable for active service.--_ns._ LIGHT'ER, a large open boat used in unloading and loading ships; LIGHT'ERAGE, price paid for unloading ships by lighters: the act of thus unloading; LIGHT'ERMAN.--_adjs._ LIGHT'-FING'ERED, light or active with one's fingers: thievish; LIGHT'-FOOT, -ED, nimble, active; LIGHT'FUL (_rare_), cheery, happy; LIGHT'-HAND'ED, with light or dexterous touch: having little in the hand: empty-handed: insufficiently manned; LIGHT'-HEAD'ED, giddy in the head: delirious: thoughtless: unsteady.--_n._ LIGHT'-HEAD'EDNESS.--_adj._ LIGHT'-HEART'ED, light or merry of heart: free from anxiety: cheerful.--_adv._ LIGHT'-HEART'EDLY.--_n._ LIGHT'-HEART'EDNESS.--_adj._ LIGHT'-HEELED, swift of foot.--_ns._ LIGHT'-HORSE, light-armed cavalry; LIGHT'-HORSE'MAN; LIGHT'-IN'FANTRY, infantry lightly or not heavily armed.--_adjs._ LIGHT'-LEGGED, swift of foot; LIGHT'-MIND'ED, having a light or unsteady mind: not considerate.--_ns._ Light'-MIND'EDNESS; LIGHT'NESS (_Shak._), light-headedness; LIGHT'NING (_Shak._), an exhilaration of the spirits; LIGHT'-O'-LOVE, a capricious and wanton woman: an old dance LIGHTS, the lungs.--_adj._ LIGHT'SOME, light, gay, lively, cheering.--_n._ LIGHT'SOMENESS.--_adj._ LIGHT'-SPIR'ITED, having a cheerful spirit.--_n._ LIGHT'-WEIGHT, in sporting and especially boxing, a man or animal of a certain weight prescribed by the rules, intermediate between the middle-weight and the feather-weight: a person of little importance.--_adj._ LIGHT'-WINGED, having light wings: volatile.--MAKE LIGHT OF, to treat as of little consequence. [A.S. _leoht_; Ger. _leicht_, Ice. _lettr_; L. _l[)e]vis_.]

LIGHT, l[=i]t, _v.i._ (with _on_, _upon_) to stoop from flight: to settle: to rest: to come by chance: (with _down_, _from_) to descend, to alight:--_pr.p._ light'ing; _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ light'ed or lit.--_v.i._ LIGHT'EN UPON' (_Pr. Bk._), to alight or descend upon. [A.S. _lihtan_, to dismount, lit. 'make light,' relieve of a burden.]

LIGHTEN, l[=i]t'n, _v.t._ to make light or clear: (_fig._) to illuminate with knowledge.--_v.i._ to shine like lightning: to flash: to become less dark.--_ns._ LIGHT'NING, the electric flash usually followed by thunder: (_Shak._) a becoming bright; LIGHT'NING-ARREST'ER, an apparatus used for protecting telegraph or telephone lines, &c., from lightning-discharges; LIGHT'NING-BUG, a sort of phosphorescent beetle or firefly; LIGHT'NING-CONDUC'TOR, LIGHT'NING-ROD, a metallic rod for protecting buildings from lightning.

LIGNAGE, l[=i]n'[=a]j, _n._ (_Spens._) lineage.

LIGN-ALOES, l[=i]n-al'[=o]z, LIGNALOES, lig-nal'[=o]z, _n._ (_B._) aloes-wood. [L. _lignum_, wood, and _aloes_, aloes.]

LIGNUM, lig'num, _n._ wood as contrasted with soft tissues or with bark.--_adjs._ LIG'NEOUS, wooden: woody: made of wood; LIGNIF'EROUS.

producing wood.--_n._ LIGNIFIC[=A]'TION.--_adj._ LIG'NIFORM, resembling wood.--_v.t._ LIG'NIFY, to turn into wood.--_v.i._ to become wood or woody:--_pr.p._ lig'nifying; _pa.p._ lig'nif[=i]ed.--_n._ LIG'N[=I]NE, pure woody fibre.--_adj._ LIGNIPER'DOUS, destructive of wood.--_n._ LIG'N[=I]TE, brown coal, coal retaining the texture of wood.--_adj._ LIGNIT'IC.--_ns._ LIG'NUM-CRU'CIS, wood of the cross: a relic asserted to be a piece of the true cross; LIG'NUM-V[=I]'Tae, popular name of a South American tree with very hard wood. [L. _lignum_, wood.]

LIGULE, lig'[=u]l, _n._ (_bot._) the flat part of the leaf of a grass: a strap-shaped petal in certain flowers.--_n._ LIG'ULA, a tongue-like part or organ: in entomology, a fleshy membranaceous or horny anterior part of the labium.--_adjs._ LIG'ULAR, pertaining to a ligula; LIG'ULATE (_bot._), like a bandage or strap: composed of ligules. [L. _ligula_, dim. of _lingua_, a tongue.]

LIGURE, l[=i]'g[=u]r, or lig'[=u]r, _n._ (_B._) a precious stone.--_n._ LIG'URITE, a variety of sphene or titanite. [Gr.]

LIKE, l[=i]k, _adj._ equal in quantity, quality, or degree: similar: likely, probable.--_n._ the like thing or person: an exact resemblance: a liking.--_adv._ in the same manner: probably.--_conj._ as, as if.--_v.t._ (_Shak._) to compare, liken.--_ns._ LIKE'LINESS, LIKE'LIHOOD.--_adj._ LIKE'LY, like the thing required: credible: probable: having reason to expect.--_adv._ probably.--_adj._ LIKE'-MIND'ED, having a similar disposition or purpose.--_v.t._ LIK'EN, to represent as like or similar: to compare.--_n._ LIKE'NESS, resemblance: one who resembles another: that which resembles: a portrait or picture: effigy.--_adv._ LIKE'WISE, in like wise or manner: also: moreover: too.--FEEL LIKE, to be disposed to do anything; HAD LIKE, was likely, came near to do something; LOOK LIKE, to show a likelihood of: to appear similar to; SUCH LIKE, of that kind. [A.S.

_lic_, seen in _ge-lic_; Ice. _likr_, Dut. _ge-lijk_, Ger. _gleich_ (=_ge-leich_).]

LIKE, l[=i]k, _v.t._ to be pleased with: to approve: to enjoy: (_obs._) to please.--_n._ a liking, chiefly in phrase 'likes and dislikes.'--_adjs._ LIKE'ABLE, lovable: amiable; LIKE'LY, that may be liked: pleasing.--_n._ LIK'ING, state of being pleased with: inclination: satisfaction in: (_B._) condition, plight.--_adj._ (_B._) as in GOOD'-LIK'ING, WELL'-LIK'ING, in good condition.--ON LIKING, on approval. [Orig. the verb meant 'to be pleasing,' and was used impersonally, as it 'likes me'--i.e. it pleases me, A.S. _lician_--_lic_, like.]

LILAC, l[=i]'lak, _n._ a pretty flowering shrub, with a flower of a light-purple colour.--_adj._ having the colour of the lilac flower.

[Sp.,--the Pers. _lilaj_.]

LILL, lil, _v.t._ (_Spens._) to loll.

LILLIBULLERO, lil-i-bu-l[=e]'r[=o], _n._ the famous ballad in mockery of the Irish Catholics, which 'sung James II. out of three kingdoms.'--Also LILLIBURL[=E]'RO. [From the refrain.]

LILLIPUTIAN, lil-i-p[=u]'shi-an, _n._ an inhabitant of the island of _Lilliput_, described by Swift in his _Gulliver's Travels_: a person of small size, a dwarf.--_adj._ of small size: dwarfish.

LILT, lilt, _v.i._ to do anything cleverly or quickly, as to hop about: to sing, dance, or play merrily.--_v.t._ to sing a song easily or gaily.--_n._ a cheerful song or air. [M. E. _lilten_, _lulten_; ety. dub.]

LILY, lil'i, _n._ a bulbous plant, with showy and fragrant flowers.--_adj._ resembling a lily: pure.--_adjs._ LILI[=A]'CEOUS, pertaining to lilies; LIL'IED, adorned with lilies: resembling lilies.--_n._ LIL'Y-EN'CRINITE, same as _Stone-lily_ (see ENCRINITE).--_adj._ LIL'Y-HAND'ED, having hands white as the lily.--_n._ LIL'Y-HY'ACINTH, a bulbous perennial plant with blue flowers.--_adjs._ LIL'Y-LIV'ERED, white-livered: cowardly; LIL'Y-WHITE, white as the lily.--LILY OF THE VALLEY, a very beautiful flower of the lily genus. [A.S. _lilie_--L. _lilium_--Gr. _leirion_, lily.]

LIMACEOUS, l[=i]-m[=a]'shi-us, _adj._ like a slug.--_adjs._ LIM'ACOID (also _n._); LIMAC'IFORM.--_n._ L[=i]'max, a slug.

LIMATION, l[=i]-m[=a]'shun, _n._ the act of filing or polishing.--_n._ L[=I]'MATURE, act of filing: filings.

LIMB, lim, _n._ a jointed part in animals, the leg: a projecting part: a branch of a tree: a part of something else, as 'a limb of the law:' an imp, scapegrace, as 'a limb of Satan.'--_v.t._ to supply with limbs: to tear off the limbs of.--_adjs._ LIMBED, having limbs: formed in regard to limbs; LIMB'MEAL (_Shak._), limb from limb. [A.S. _lim_; Ice. _limr_, Sw. _lem_.]

LIMB, lim, _n._ an edge or border, as of the sun, &c.: the edge of a sextant, &c.--_adj._ LIM'BATE (_bot._), bordered. [Fr. _limbe_--L.


LIMBEC, lim'bek, _n._ (_Spens._) an alembic.


LIMBER, lim'b[.e]r, _n._ the part of a gun-carriage consisting of two wheels and a shaft to which the horses are attached.--_v.t._ to attach to the limber, as a gun. [Prov. Eng. _limbers_, shafts--Ice. _limar_, boughs; cf. _limb_, a branch.]

LIMBER, lim'b[.e]r, _adj._ pliant, flexible.--_n._ LIM'BERNESS, flexibleness, pliancy. [See _limp_ (adj.).]

LIMBO, lim'b[=o], _n._ an indefinite region in the intermediate state, the abode of those who have had no opportunity to accept Christ, of the souls of the pious who died before the time of Christ, and of the souls of unbaptised infants: a place of confinement, or where things are thrown aside.--Also LIM'BUS. [L. _limbus_, border.]

LIME, l[=i]m, _n._ any slimy or gluey material: bird-lime: the white caustic earth from limestone, and used for cement.--_v.t._ to cover with lime: to cement: to manure with lime: to ensnare.--_ns._ LIME'-BURN'ER, one who burns limestone to form lime; LIME'KILN, a kiln or furnace in which limestone is burned to lime; LIME'-LIGHT, or _Calcium-light_, light produced by a blowpipe-flame directed against a block of pure, compressed quicklime; LIME'STONE, stone from which lime is procured by burning; LIME'TWIG, a twig smeared with bird-lime: a snare; LIME'WASH, a coating given with a solution of lime; LIME'WA'TER, a saturated aqueous solution of lime.--_adjs._ LIM'OUS, gluey: slimy: muddy; LIM'Y, glutinous: sticky: containing, resembling, or having the qualities of lime. [A.S. _lim_; Ger.

_leim_, glue, L. _limus_, slime.]

LIME, l[=i]m, _n._ a kind of citron or lemon tree and its fruit.--_n._ LIME'-JUICE, the acid juice of the lime, used at sea as a specific against scurvy. [Fr.]

LIME-HOUND, l[=i]m'-hownd, _n._ (_Spens._) a boar-hound.

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