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LEY, l[=e], _n._ Same as LEA.

LEYDEN JAR, l[=i]'den jar, _n._ a form of condenser for statical electricity, a glass jar coated inside and outside with tinfoil for two-thirds of its height, the inner coating connected with a metallic knob at the top of the jar, usually by means of a loose chain.

LHERZOLITE, ler'z[=o]-l[=i]t, _n._ an igneous rock, consisting of a granular aggregate of olivine, pyroxene, enstatite, and picotite. [From Lake _Lherz_.]

LI, l[=e], _n._ a Chinese weight, equal to the one-thousandth of a liang or ounce, and nominally to the Japanese _rin_: a Chinese mile, equal to rather more than one-third of an English mile. [Chinese.]

LIABLE, l[=i]'a-bl, _adj._ able to be bound or obliged: responsible: tending to: subject: (_Shak._) exposed: suitable.--_ns._ LIABIL'ITY, state of being liable: that for which one is liable, an obligation, debt, &c.; L[=I]'ABLENESS, state of being liable.--EMPLOYERS' LIABILITY ACT, an enactment (1880) making employers answerable to their servants for the negligence of those to whom they have delegated their authority; LIMITED LIABILITY, a principle of modern statute law which attempts to limit the responsibilities of shareholders in a partnership, joint-stock company, &c., by the extent of their personal interest therein. [Fr. _lier_--L.

_lig[=a]re_, to bind.]

LIAISON, l[=e]-[=a]-zong', _n._ union, or bond of union: connection, esp.

if illicit between the sexes: in French, the linking in pronunciation of a final consonant to the succeeding word, when that begins with a vowel.

[Fr.--L. _ligation-em_--_lig[=a]re_, to bind.]

LIANA, li-an'a, _n._ a general name for the woody, climbing, and twining plants in tropical forests. [Fr. _liane_--_lier_, to bind--L. _lig[=a]re_, to bind.]

LIANG, lyang, _n._ a Chinese ounce or tael, reckoned as one-third heavier than the ounce avoirdupois.

LIAR, l[=i]'ar, _n._ one who lies. [_Lie_.]

LIARD, l[=i]'ard, _adj._ gray, dapple-gray--(_Scot._) L[=I]'ART, LY'ART.

[M. E. _liard_--O. Fr. _liard_, _liart_.]

LIARD, liar, _n._ an old French coin, worth 3 deniers.

LIAS, l[=i]'as, _n._ (_geol._) a formation of argillaceous limestone, &c., underlying the oolitic system.--_adj._ LIAS'SIC, pertaining to the lias formation. [Fr., perh. Bret. _liach_, a stone, Gael. _leac_, a stone.]

LIB, lib, _v.t._ (_prov._) to geld, castrate.

LIBATION, l[=i]-b[=a]'shun, _n._ the pouring forth wine or other liquid in honour of a deity: the liquid poured.--_adj._ L[=I]'BANT, sipping.--_v.t._ L[=I]'BATE (_rare_), to make a libation to.--_adj._ L[=I]'BATORY, pertaining to libation. [L. _libation-em_--_lib[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_; Gr.

_leibein_, to pour.]

LIBBARD, lib'bard, _n._ (_Spens._) a leopard.

LIBECCIO, li-bech'[=o], _n._ the south-west wind. [It.]

LIBEL, l[=i]'bel, _n._ a written accusation: any malicious defamatory publication or statement: (_law_) the statement of a plaintiff's grounds of complaint against a defendant.--_v.t._ to defame by a libel: to satirise unfairly: (_law_) to proceed against by producing a written complaint:--_pr.p._ l[=i]'belling; _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ l[=i]'belled.--_ns._ L[=I]'BELLANT, one who brings a libel; L[=I]'BELLER; L[=I]'BELLING, defaming.--_adj._ L[=I]'BELLOUS, containing a libel: defamatory.--_adv._ L[=I]'BELLOUSLY. [L. _libellus_, dim. of _liber_, a book.]

LIBER, l[=i]'ber, _n._ the bast or inner bark of exogenous plants: a book.


LIBERAL, lib'[.e]r-al, _adj._ becoming a gentleman: generous: noble-minded: candid: free: free from restraint: general, extensive.--_n._ one who advocates greater freedom in political institutions.--_n._ LIBERALIS[=A]'TION, the process of making liberal.--_v.t._ LIB'ERALISE, to make liberal, or enlightened: to enlarge.--_ns._ LIB'ERALISM, the principles of a Liberal in politics or religion; LIBERAL'ITY, the quality of being liberal: generosity: largeness or nobleness of mind: candour: impartiality.--_adv._ LIB'ERALLY.--_v.t._ LIB'ER[=A]TE, to set free: to release from restraint, confinement, or bondage.--_ns._ LIBER[=A]'TION; LIBER[=A]'TIONIST, one who is in favour of church disestablishment; LIB'ER[=A]TOR, one who liberates or frees.--_adj._ LIB'ER[=A]TORY, tending to liberate.--LIBERAL PARTY, the name adopted by the Whigs (1830) to denote the body formed by their union with the Radicals; LIBERAL UNIONIST, one of that section of the Liberal Party which joined the Conservatives from inability to accede to Mr Gladstone's policy of giving Home Rule to Ireland (1886); GERMAN LIBERALS, a party in German politics, formed by the amalgamation of the Progressist party and the Liberal union, and advocating moderate liberalism in opposition to the policy of Prince Bismarck; NATIONAL LIBERALS, a party in German politics which before 1871 advocated the completion of governmental unity in Germany, as well as supported progressive measures of reform. [Fr.,--L. _liberalis_, befitting a freeman--_liber_, free, akin to _libet_, _lubet_, it pleases.]

LIBERTY, lib'[.e]r-ti, _n._ freedom to do as one pleases: the unrestrained enjoyment of natural rights: power of free choice: privilege: exemption: relaxation of restraint: the bounds within which certain privileges are enjoyed: freedom of speech or action beyond ordinary civility.--_ns._ LIBERT[=A]'RIAN, one who believes in free-will as opposed to necessity; LIBERT[=A]'RIANISM, the doctrine of the freedom of the will, as opposed to necessitarianism; LIBER'TICIDE, a destroyer of liberty; LIBER'TINAGE, debauchery; LIB'ERTINE, formerly one who professed free opinions, esp. in religion: one who leads a licentious life, a rake or debauchee.--_adj._ belonging to a freedman: unrestrained: licentious.--_n._ LIB'ERTINISM, licentiousness of opinion or practice: lewdness or debauchery.--LIBERTY OF INDIFFERENCE, freedom of the will--because before action the will is undetermined as to acting or not acting; LIBERTY OF THE PRESS, liberty to print and publish without previous permission from government.--CAP OF LIBERTY (see BONNET ROUGE, under BONNET); RELIGIOUS LIBERTY, the right of thinking about religion or of worshipping as one likes. [Fr.,--L.


LIBIDINOUS, li-bid'in-us, _adj._ lustful, lascivious, lewd.--_ns._ LIBID'INIST, a lewd person; LIBIDINOS'ITY, LIBID'INOUSNESS.--_adv._ LIBID'INOUSLY. [Fr.,--L. _libidinosus_--_libido_, desire--_libet_, _lubet_, it pleases.]

LIBKEN, lib'ken, _n._ (_slang_) a place of abode.

LIBRA, l[=i]'bra, _n._ the balance, the seventh sign of the zodiac. [L.]

LIBRARY, l[=i]'brar-i, _n._ a building or room containing a collection of books: a collection of books.--_ns._ LIBR[=A]'RIAN, the keeper of a library; LIBR[=A]'RIANSHIP. [L. _librarium_--_liber_, a book.]

LIBRATE, l[=i]'br[=a]t, _v.t._ to poise: to balance.--_v.i._ to move slightly: to be poised.--_n._ LIBR[=A]'TION, balancing: a state of equipoise: a slight swinging motion.--_adj._ L[=I]'BRATORY.--LIBRATION OF THE MOON, an apparent irregularity in the moon's motion, whereby its globe seems to turn slightly round to each side alternately. [L. _libr[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_--_libra_, balance.]

LIBRETTO, li-bret'[=o], _n._ a book of the words of an opera or other musical composition: the text itself.--_n._ LIBRETT'IST, a writer of librettos. [It., dim. of _libro_--L. _liber_, a book.]

LIBYAN, lib'yan, _adj._ of _Libya_, northern Africa from Egypt to the Atlantic.--_n._ a native thereof.

LICE, l[=i]s, _pl._ of _louse_.

LICENSE, LICENCE, l[=i]'sens, _n._ a being allowed: leave: grant of permission, as for manufacturing a patented article or for the sale of intoxicants: the document by which authority is conferred: excess or abuse of freedom: a departure from rules or standards in art or literature.--_v.t._ L[=I]'CENSE, to grant license to: to authorise or permit.--_adj._ L[=I]'CENSABLE.--_ns._ LICENSEE', one to whom license is granted; L[=I]'CENSER, one who grants license or permission: one authorised to license; L[=I]'CENSURE, act of licensing; LICEN'TIATE, among Presbyterians, a person authorised by a Presbytery to preach: on the Continent, an academical dignity, forming the step from the baccalaureate to the doctorate.--_adj._ LICEN'TIOUS, indulging in excessive freedom: given to the indulgence of the animal passions: dissolute.--_adv._ LICEN'TIOUSLY.--_n._ LICEN'TIOUSNESS.--HIGH LICENSE, a mode of regulating the traffic in alcoholic drinks by exacting a comparatively large sum for the privilege of selling such; SPECIAL LICENSE, license given by the Archbishop of Canterbury permitting the marriage of two specified persons without banns, and at a place and time other than those prescribed by law.

[Fr.,--L. _licentia_--_licet_.]

LICHEN, l[=i]'ken, lich'en, _n._ one of an order of cellular flowerless plants: an eruption on the skin.--_adjs._ L[=I]'CHENED, covered with lichens; LICHEN'IC, pertaining to lichens; L[=I]'CHENIFORM.--_ns._ L[=I]'CHENINE, a starch-like substance, found in Iceland moss and other lichens; L[=I]'CHENIST, LICHENOG'RAPHER, one versed in LICHENOG'RAPHY, the description of lichens.--_adjs._ LICHENOGRAPH'IC, -AL.--_n._ LICHENOL'OGY, the department of botany relating to lichens.--_adj._ L[=I]'CHENOUS, abounding in, or pertaining to, lichens. [L.,--Gr.

_leich[=e]n_--_leichein_, to lick.]


LICHGATE, lich'g[=a]t, _n._ a churchyard gate with a porch to rest the bier under.--_ns._ LICH'WAKE, the wake or watch held over a dead body--also _Likewake_, _Lykewake_, and even _Latewake_; LICH'WAY, the path by which the dead are carried to the grave. [M. E. _lich_--A.S. _lic_ (Ger.

_leiche_), _geat_, a gate.]

LICIT, lis'it, _adj._ lawful, allowable.--_adv._ LIC'ITLY. [L.]

LICK, lik, _v.t._ to pass the tongue over: to take in by the tongue: to lap: to beat by repeated blows: (_coll._) to triumph over, overcome.--_n._ a passing the tongue over: a slight smear: (_Scot._) a tiny amount: a blow: (_coll._) an attempt, trial: (_pl._, _Scot._) a thrashing.--_ns._ LICK'ER; LICK'ING, a thrashing; LICK'PENNY (_Scot._), a miserly person; LICK'-PLAT'TER, LICK'-TRENCH'ER, LICK'SPITTLE, a mean, servile dependent.--LICK INTO SHAPE, to give form and method to--from the notion that the she-bear gives form to her shapeless young by licking them; LICK THE DUST, to be slain: to be abjectly servile. [A.S. _liccian_; Ger.

_lecken_, L. _ling[)e]re_, Gr. _leichein_.]

LICKERISH, lik'[.e]r-ish, _adj._ dainty: eager to taste or enjoy: tempting.--_adv._ LICK'ERISHLY.--_n._ LICK'ERISHNESS. [Formerly also _liquorish_; a corr. of obsolete _lickerous_, lecherous.]


LICTOR, lik'tor, _n._ an officer who attended the Roman magistrates, bearing an axe and bundle of rods. [L.]

LID, lid, _n._ a cover: that which shuts a vessel: the cover of the eye.--_adjs._ LID'DED, having a lid or lids; LID'LESS, without lid or lids.

[A.S. _hlid_ (Dut. _lid_)--_hlidan_, to cover.]

LIE, l[=i], _n._ anything meant to deceive: an intentional violation of truth: anything that misleads.--_v.i._ to utter falsehood with an intention to deceive: to make a false representation:--_pr.p._ ly'ing; _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ lied.--LIE IN ONE'S THROAT, to lie shamelessly; LIE OUT OF WHOLE CLOTH, to lie without any foundation whatever; GIVE THE LIE TO, to charge with falsehood; WHITE LIE, a conventional phrase not strictly true: a well-meant falsehood. [A.S. _leogan_ (_lyge_, a falsehood), prov. Eng.

_lig_; Dut. _liegen_, Goth. _liugan_, Ger. _lugen_, to lie.]

LIE, l[=i], _v.i._ to rest in a reclining posture: to lean: to press upon: to be situated: to abide: to consist: (_law_) to be sustainable: (_Shak._) to be imprisoned: to lodge, pass the night:--_pr.p._ ly'ing; _pa.t._ lay; _pa.p._ lain, (_B._) l[=i]'en.--_n._ manner of lying: relative position: an animal's lair: (_golf_) position of the ball for striking.--_ns._ L[=I]'ER, LIE'-ABED', one who lies late--also _adj._--LIE ALONG, to be extended at full length; LIE AT ONE'S DOOR, to be directly imputable to one; LIE AT ONE'S HEART, to be an object of interest or affection to one; LIE BY, to take rest from labour: (_Shak._) to be under the charge of; LIE HARD OR HEAVY ON, UPON, (_Shak._) to, to oppress, burden; LIE IN, to be in childbed; LIE IN ONE, to be in one's power; LIE IN THE WAY, to be ready, at hand: to be an obstacle; LIE IN WAIT, to lie in ambush; LIE LOW, to conceal one's actions or intentions; LIE ON, UPON, to be incumbent on; LIE ON THE HANDS, to remain unused or unoccupied; LIE OVER, to be deferred to a future occasion; LIE TO, to be checked in sailing; LIE UNDER, to be subject to or oppressed by; LIE UP, to abstain from work; LIE WITH, to lodge or sleep with: to have carnal knowledge of; LYING-IN HOSPITAL, a hospital for those about to become mothers. [A.S. _licgan_; Ger. _liegen_; Goth. _ligan_.]

LIEBIG, l[=e]'big, _n._ a nutritious extract of beef first prepared by the great German chemist, Baron von _Liebig_ (1803-1873).

LIED, l[=e]t, _n._ a German ballad, secular or sacred, fitted for singing and often set to music. [Ger.; cf. A.S. _leoth_, a song.]

LIEF, l[=e]f, _adj._ (_arch._) loved, dear.--_adv._ willingly--now chiefly used in the phrases, 'I had as lief,' 'to have liefer.' [A.S. _leof_; Ger.

_lieb_, loved.]

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