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IRREVERENT, ir-rev'[.e]r-ent, _adj._ not reverent: proceeding from irreverence.--_n._ IRREV'ERENCE, want of reverence or veneration: want of due regard for the character and authority of the Supreme Being.--_adj._ IRREVEREN'TIAL.--_adv._ IRREV'ERENTLY.

IRREVERSIBLE, ir-re-v[.e]rs'i-bl, _adj._ not reversible: that cannot be recalled or annulled.--_ns._ IRREVERSIBIL'ITY, IRREVERS'IBLENESS.--_adv._ IRREVERS'IBLY.

IRREVOCABLE, ir-rev'o-ka-bl, _adj._ that cannot be recalled.--_n._ IRREV'OCABLENESS.--_adv._ IRREV'OCABLY.

IRRIGATE, ir'i-g[=a]t, _v.t._ to water: to wet or moisten: to cause water to flow upon.--_adj._ IRR'IGABLE, capable of being irrigated.--_ns._ IRRIG[=A]'TION, a method of producing or increasing fertility in soils by an artificial supply of water, or by inundating them at stated periods: act of watering, esp. of watering lands artificially; IRRIGAT'OR, one who, or that which, irrigates: an appliance for washing a wound, &c.--_adj._ IRRIG'UOUS, watered: wet. [L. _irrig[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_--_in_, upon, _rig[=a]re_, to wet; cf. Ger. _regen_, Eng. _rain_.]

IRRISION, ir-rizh'un, _n._ act of laughing at another. [Fr.,--L.

_irrision-em_--_in_, against, _rid[=e]re_, _risum_, to laugh.]

IRRITATE, ir'i-t[=a]t, _v.t._ to make angry: to provoke: to excite heat and redness in: (_Scots law_) to render null and void.--_n._ IRRITABIL'ITY, the quality of being easily irritated: the peculiar susceptibility to stimuli possessed by the living tissues.--_adj._ IRR'ITABLE, that may be irritated: easily provoked: (_med._) susceptible of excitement or irritation.--_n._ IRR'ITABLENESS.--_adv._ IRR'ITABLY.--_n._ IRR'ITANCY, the state of being irritant: a becoming null and void.--_adj._ IRR'ITANT, irritating.--_n._ that which causes irritation.--_n._ IRRIT[=A]'TION, act of irritating or exciting: excitement: (_med._) the term applied to any morbid excitement of the vital actions not amounting to inflammation, often, but not always, leading to that condition.--_adjs._ IRR'IT[=A]TIVE, IRR'IT[=A]TORY, tending to irritate or excite: accompanied with or caused by irritation. [L.

_irrit[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_, prob. freq. of _irr[=i]re_, to snarl, as a dog.]

IRRUPTION, ir-rup'shun, _n._ a breaking or bursting in: a sudden invasion or incursion.--_adjs._ IRRUP'TED, broken through with violence; IRRUP'TIVE, rushing suddenly in or upon.--_adv._ IRRUP'TIVELY. [Fr.,--L.

_irruption-em_--_in_, in, _rump[)e]re_, _ruptum_, to break.]

IRVINGITE, [.e]r'ving-[=i]t, _n._ a popular name for a member of the so-called Catholic Apostolic Church.--_n._ IR'VINGISM, the doctrine and practice of the Irvingites. [From Edward _Irving_ (1792-1834).]

IS, iz, third pers. sing. pres. of _be_. [A.S. _is_; Ger. _ist_, L. _est_, Gr. _esti_, Sans. _asti_--_as_, to be.]

ISABEL, ISABELLE, iz'a-bel, _n._ a yellowish-gray or drab colour. [From _Isabella_, daughter of Philip II., wife of the Archduke Albert, who did not change her linen for three years till Ostend was taken.]

ISAGOGICS, [=i]-sa-goj'iks, _n._ that part of theological science introductory to exegesis or interpretation of the Scriptures.--_adj._ ISAGOG'IC. [Gr. _eisag[=o]g[=e]_, an introduction--_eis_, into, _agein_, to lead.]

ISANDROUS, [=i]-san'drus, _adj._ (_bot._) having the stamens similar and equal in number to the divisions of the corolla.

ISANTHEROUS, [=i]-san'ther-us, _adj._ (_bot._) having the anthers equal.

ISANTHOUS, [=i]-san'thus, _adj._ (_bot._) having regular flowers.

ISAPOSTOLIC, [=i]-sap-os-tol'ik, _adj._ equal to the apostles, as bishops of apostolic creation, the first preachers of Christ in a country, &c. [Gr.

_isos_, equal, _apostolikos_, apostolic.]

ISATINE, [=i]'sa-tin, _n._ a substance capable of being crystallised, obtained by oxidising indigo.--_adj._ ISAT'IC.--_n._ I'S[=A]TIS, a genus of _Cruciferae_.--_Isatis tinctoria_, woad. [Gr. _isatis_, woad.]

ISCHIADIC, is-ki-ad'ik, _adj._ relating to the region of the hip--also ISCHIAT'IC and IS'CHIAL.--_ns._ ISCHIAG'RA, gout in the hip; ISCHIAL'GIA, sciatica; IS'CHIUM, the posterior part of the pelvic arch in vertebrates.

[L.,--Gr., from _is-chion_, the hip-joint.]

ISCHURIA, is-k[=u]'ri-a, _n._ a stoppage of urine.--_adj._ and _n._ ISCHURET'IC. [Gr. _ischein_, to hold, _ouron_, urine.]

ISENERGIC, [=i]-se-n[.e]r'jik, _adj._ in physics, denoting equal energy.

[Gr. ISOS, equal, _energy_.]

ISENGRIM, [=i]'sen-grim, _n._ the name of the wolf in the famous beast-epic of _Reynard the Fox_.

ISENTROPIC, [=i]-sen-trop'ik, _adj._ (_phys._) of equal entropy. [Gr.

_isos_, equal, _entrope_, a turning about--_en_, in, _trepein_, to turn.]

ISH, ish, _n._ (_Scot._) issue, liberty of going out.

ISHMAELITE, ish'm[=a]-el-[=i]t, _n._ a descendant of _Ishmael_: one like Ishmael (Gen. xvi. 12), at war with society.--_adj._ ISHMAEL[=I]'TISH.

ISIAC, [=i]-si-ak. See ISIS.

ISIDIUM, [=i]-sid'i-um, _n._ (_bot._) a wart-like excrescence on the thalli of some lichens:--_pl._ ISID'IA.

ISIDORIAN, is-i-d[=o]'ri-an, _adj._ of or pertaining to St _Isidore_ of Seville (c. 560-636), or the collection of canons and decretals adopted by him; but esp. applying to the interpolated collection, now called the _Pseudo-Isidorian_ or _False Decretals_, possibly fabricated in Western Gaul, but published in Spain about 845 by _Isidore_ Mercator, and naturally fathered upon the great Isidore of Seville.

ISINGLASS, [=i]'zing-glas, _n._ a glutinous substance, chiefly prepared from the air-bladders of the sturgeon. [A corr. of Dut.

_huizenblas_--_huizen_, a kind of sturgeon, _blas_, a bladder; Ger.


ISIS, [=i]'sis, _n._ an Egyptian goddess, wife and sister of Osiris.--_adj._ I'SIAC.

ISLAM, iz'lam, ISLAMISM, iz'lam-izm, _n._ the proper name of the Mohammedan religion: the whole Mohammedan world.--_adjs._ ISLAM'IC, ISLAMIT'IC.--_n._ IS'LAMITE.--_v.t._ ISLAM[=I]ZE', to conform to Mohammedanism. [Ar.

_isl[=a]m_--_salama_, to submit to God.]

ISLAND, [=i]'land, _n._ the smaller masses of land surrounded with water: a large floating mass.--_v.t._ to cause to appear like an island: to dot as with islands.--_n._ ISLANDER ([=i]'land-[.e]r), an inhabitant of an island.

[M. E. _iland_--A.S. _igland_--_ig_, an island, and _land_, land; Dut. and Ger. _eiland_, Ice. _eyland_, Sw. and Dan. _oland_. A.S. _ig_ is from a root which appears in Angles-_ea_, Aldern-_ey_, &c., A.S. _ea_, L. _aqua_, water, so that it originally means water-land. The _s_ in island is due to a confusion with _isle_, from L. _insula_.]

ISLE, [=i]l, _n._ an island.--_ns._ ISLES'MAN, an islander, esp. an inhabitant of the Hebrides; ISLET ([=i]'let), a little isle. [M. E. _ile_, _yle_--O. Fr. _isle_ (Fr. _ile_)--L. _insula_, considered to be so called because lying _in salo_, in the main sea, L. _salum_ being akin to Gr.

_salos_, the main sea.]

ISM, izm, _n._ any distinctive doctrine, theory, or practice--usually in disparagement.--_adjs._ ISMAT'IC, -AL, addicted to isms or faddish theories.--_n._ ISMAT'ICALNESS. [From the suffix _-ism_.]

ISMAILIAN, is-m[=a]-il'i-an, _n._ one of a sect of Shiite Mohammedans, who claim that _Ismail_ (_c._ 770) was the seventh and last of the Imams.--_n._ IS'MAILISM.--_adj._ ISMAILIT'IC.

ISOBAR, [=i]'so-bar, _n._ an imaginary line connecting places on the earth where the mean height of the barometer at sea-level is the same.--_adj._ ISOBAROMET'RIC, applied to lines denoting equal barometric pressure. [Gr.

_isos_, equal, _baros_, weight.]

ISOBATHYTHERM, [=i]-so-bath'i-therm, _n._ a line connecting points of the same temperature in a vertical section of any portion of the ocean.--_adjs._ ISOBATHYTHER'MAL, ISOBATHYTHER'MIC. [Gr. _isos_, equal, _bathys_, deep, _therm[=e]_, heat.]

ISOBILATERAL, [=i]-so-b[=i]-lat'e-ral, _adj._ (_bot._) having the flanks of the organ flattened surfaces. [Gr. _isos_, equal, _bilateral_.]

ISOBRIOUS, [=i]-sob'ri-us, _adj._ growing equally in both lobes, of a dicotyledonous embryo.--Also ISODYN'AMOUS. [Gr. _isos_, equal, _brian_, to be strong.]

ISOBRONT, [=i]'so-bront, _n._ a line on a map connecting points at which a peal of thunder is heard simultaneously. [Gr. _isos_, equal, _bront[=e]_, thunder.]

ISOCHASMIC, [=i]-so-kaz'mik, _adj._ denoting equality as regards frequency of auroral displays. [Gr. _isos_, equal, _chasma_, a gap.]

ISOCHEIMAL, [=i]-so-k[=i]'mal, _adj._ having the same mean winter temperature--also ISOCHEI'MENAL.--_n._ I'SOCHEIM, an imaginary line connecting together those places where the mean winter temperature is the same. [Gr. _isos_, equal, _cheima_, winter.]

ISOCHORIC, [=i]-so-kor'ik, _adj._ pertaining to equal volume or density.

[Gr. _isos_, equal, _ch[=o]ra_, space.]

ISOCHROMATIC, [=i]-so-kr[=o]-mat'ik, _adj._ (_optics_) having the same colour. [Gr. _isos_, equal, _chr[=o]ma_, colour.]

ISOCHRONAL, [=i]-sok'ron-al, _adj._ of equal time: performed in equal times--also ISOCH'RONOUS.--_n._ ISOCH'RONISM, the quality of being isochronous or done in equal times.--_adv._ ISOCH'RONOUSLY. [Gr.

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