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IRISCOPE, [=i]'ri-sk[=o]p, _n._ an instrument for exhibiting the prismatic colours. [Gr. _iris_, the rainbow, _skopein_, to see.]

IRISH, [=i]'rish, _adj._ relating to or produced in Ireland.--_n._ language of the Irish, a form of Celtic: (_pl._) the natives or inhabitants of Ireland.--_ns._ I'RICISM, I'RISHISM, a phrase or idiom peculiar to the I'RISHRY, the people of Ireland.--IRISH MOSS, carrageen; IRISH STEW, a palatable dish of mutton, onions, and potatoes, seasoned, and stewed in water mixed with flour.

IRK, [.e]rk, _v.t._ to weary: to trouble: to distress (now used only impersonally).--_adj._ IRK'SOME, causing uneasiness: tedious: unpleasant.--_adv._ IRK'SOMELY.--_n._ IRK'SOMENESS. [M. E. _irken_--Scand., Sw. _yrka_, to urge; prob. cog. with L. _urg[=e]re_.]

IRON, [=i]'urn, _n._ the most common and useful of the metals: an instrument or utensil made of iron, as a hand-harpoon, &c.: a golf-club with an iron head, more set back than the cleek: strength: (_pl._) fetters: chains.--_adj._ formed of iron: resembling iron: rude: stern: fast-binding: not to be broken: robust: dull of understanding.--_v.t._ to smooth with a smoothing-iron: to arm with iron: to fetter.--_adjs._ I'RON-BOUND, bound with iron: rugged, as a coast; I'RON-CASED; I'RONCLAD, clad in iron: covered or protected with iron.--_n._ a vessel defended by iron plates.--_ns._ I'RON-CLAY, a yellowish clay containing a large quantity of iron ore; I'RONER, one who irons; I'RON-FLINT, ferruginous quartz; I'RON-FOUND'ER, one who founds or makes castings in iron; I'RON-FOUND'RY, a place where iron is founded or cast.--_adj._ I'RON-GRAY, of a gray colour, like that of iron freshly cut or broken.--_n._ this colour.--_adjs._ I'RON-HAND'ED, having hands hard as iron; I'RON-HEART'ED, having a heart hard as iron: cruel.--_ns._ I'RON-HEAT'ER, the piece of metal heated in the fire for a laundress's box-iron; I'RONING, the act of smoothing with hot irons; I'RONING-BOARD, a smooth board covered with cloth, on which clothes are laid for ironing; I'RONING-MACHINE', a machine for hotpressing cloth, hats, &c.; I'RON-LIQ'UOR, iron acetate, a dyers' mordant; I'RONMASTER, a master or proprietor of ironworks; I'RONMONGER, a dealer in articles made of iron; I'RONMONGERY, a general name for articles made of iron: hardware; I'RON-MOULD, the spot left on wet cloth after touching rusty iron; I'RON-SAND, sand containing particles of iron ore: steel filings used in fireworks.--_adj._ I'RON-SICK (_naut._), having the iron bolts and spikes much corroded.--_n._ I'RONSIDE, a man of iron resolution: (_pl._) a name given to Cromwell's irresistible horse.--_adj._ I'RON-SID'ED, having a side of, or as hard as, iron: rough: hardy.--_ns._ I'RONSMITH, a worker in iron; I'RON-STONE, a term usually applied to any ore yielding iron; I'RONWARE, wares or goods of iron.--_adj._ I'RON-WIT'TED (_Shak._), unfeeling, insensible.--_n._ I'RONWOOD, applied to the timber of various trees on account of their hardness.--_adj._ I'RON-WORD'ED (_Tenn._), in words as strong as iron.--_n._ I'RONWORK, the parts of a building, &c., made of iron: anything of iron: a furnace where iron is smelted, or a foundry, &c., where it is made into heavy work.--_adj._ I'RONY, made, consisting, or partaking of iron: like iron: hard.--_ns._ CAST'-[=I]'RON, a compound of iron and carbon, obtained directly from iron ore by smelting; ITAL'IAN-[=I]'RON, an instrument for fluting linen or lace.--IRON AGE, an archaeological term indicating the condition as to civilisation and culture of a people using iron as the material for their cutting tools and weapons: a period of cruel tyranny; IRON BARK TREE, a name given in Australia to certain species of Eucalyptus (q.v.); IRON CROWN, the ancient crown of Lombardy, so named from a thin band of iron said to be made from one of the nails of the Cross; IRON ENTERED INTO HIS SOUL, the bitterest pang of grief has touched his heart.--BESSEMER IRON, pig-iron suitable for making Bessemer steel.--HAVE TOO MANY IRONS IN THE FIRE, to be trying to do too many things at once; IN IRONS, having fetters on; RULE WITH A ROD OF IRON, to rule with stern severity. [A.S. _iren_; Ger. _eisen_.]

IRONY, [=i]'run-i, _n._ a mode of speech which enables the speaker to convey his meaning with greater force by means of a contrast between the thought which he evidently designs to express and that which his words properly signify: satire.--_adj._ IRON'ICAL, meaning the opposite of what is expressed: satirical.--_adv._ IRON'ICALLY.--THE IRONY OF FATE, the perverse malignity of fate. [Fr.,--L. _ironia_, Gr. _eir[=o]neia_, dissimulation--_eir[=o]n_, a dissembler--_eirein_, to talk.]

IRRADIATE, ir-r[=a]'di-[=a]t, _v.t._ to dart rays of light upon or into: to adorn with lustre: to decorate with shining ornaments: to animate with light or heat: to illuminate the understanding.--_v.i._ to emit rays: to shine.--_adj._ adorned with rays of light or with lustre.--_ns._ IRR[=A]'DIANCE, IRR[=A]'DIANCY, the throwing of rays of light on (any object): that which irradiates or is irradiated: beams of light emitted: splendour.--_adj._ IRR[=A]'DIANT, irradiating or shedding beams of light.--_n._ IRRADI[=A]'TION, act of irradiating or emitting beams of light: that which is irradiated: brightness: intellectual light.--_adj._ IRR[=A]'DI[=A]TIVE.

IRRADICATE, i-rad'i-k[=a]t, _v.t._ to fix firmly.

IRRATIONAL, ir-rash'un-al, _adj._ void of reason or understanding: absurd.--_n._ IRRATIONAL'ITY.--_adv._ IRRA'TIONALLY.--IRRATIONAL NUMBERS, a term applied to those roots of numbers which cannot be accurately expressed by a finite number of figures--e.g. [sqrt]2 is an irrational number.

IRREALISABLE, ir-r[=e]'a-l[=i]-za-bl, _adj._ not realisable.

IRREBUTTABLE, ir-re-but'a-bl, _adj._ not to be rebutted.

IRRECEPTIVE, ir-re-sep'tiv, _adj._ not receptive.

IRRECIPROCAL, ir-re-sip'ro-kal, _adj._ not reciprocal.

IRRECLAIMABLE, ir-re-kl[=a]m'a-bl, _adj._ that cannot be reclaimed or reformed: incorrigible.--_n._ IRRECLAIM'ABLENESS.--_adv._ IRRECLAIM'ABLY.

IRRECOGNISABLE, ir-rek'og-n[=i]z-a-bl, _adj._ that cannot be recognised.--_n._ IRRECOGNI'TION, lack of recognition.

IRRECONCILABLE, ir-rek-on-s[=i]l'a-bl, _adj._ incapable of being brought back to a state of friendship: inconsistent.--_ns._ IRRECONCIL'ABLENESS, IRRECONCILABIL'ITY, incapability of being reconciled.--_adv._ IRRECONCIL'ABLY.--_adj._ IRREC'ONCILED, not reconciled or brought into harmony.--_n._ IRREC'ONCILEMENT.

IRRECOVERABLE, ir-re-kuv'[.e]r-a-bl, _adj._ irretrievable.--_n._ IRRECOV'ERABLENESS.--_adv._ IRRECOV'ERABLY.

IRREDEEMABLE, ir-re-d[=e]m'a-bl, _adj._ not redeemable: not subject to be paid at the nominal value.--_ns._ IRREDEEM'ABLENESS, IRREDEEMABIL'ITY.--_adv._ IRREDEEM'ABLY.

IRREDENTIST, ir-e-den'tist, _n._ one of an Italian party formed in 1878, its aim to incorporate into Italy all Italian people politically belonging to other countries, as in the Tyrol, Nice, &c.--_n._ IRREDEN'TISM, the programme of the Irredentist party. [It. _irredentista_--_irredenta_ (_Italia_), 'unredeemed'--L. _in_, not, _redemptus_, _redim[)e]re_, to redeem.]

IRREDUCIBLE, ir-re-d[=u]s'i-bl, _adj._ that cannot be reduced or brought from one degree, form, or state to another: not to be reduced by manipulation, as a hernia, &c.--_n._ IRREDUC'IBLENESS.--_adv._ IRREDUC'IBLY.--_ns._ IRREDUCTIBIL'ITY, IRREDUC'TION.

IRREFLECTIVE, ir-re-flekt'iv, _adj._ not reflective.--_n._ IRREFLEC'TION.

IRREFORMABLE, ir-re-for'ma-bl, _adj._ not reformable, not subject to revision or improvement.

IRREFRAGABLE, ir-ref'ra-ga-bl, _adj._ that cannot be refuted: unanswerable.--_ns._ IRREFRAGABIL'ITY, IRREF'RAGABLENESS.--_adv._ IRREF'RAGABLY.--_n._ IRREFRANGIBIL'ITY.--_adj._ IRREFRANGIBLE (ir-e-fran'-ji-bl), not to be broken.--_adv._ IRREFRAN'GIBLY.--THE IRREFRAGABLE DOCTOR, Alexander Hales (died 1245). [Fr.,--L. _in_, not, _re_, backwards, _frang[)e]re_, to break.]

IRREFUTABLE, ir-re-f[=u]t'a-bl, or ir-ref'[=u]-ta-bl, _adj._ that cannot be refuted.--_adv._ IRREF[=U]T'ABLY (also -ref'-).

IRREGULAR, ir-reg'[=u]-lar, _adj._ not according to rule: unnatural: unsystematic: vicious: (_gram._) departing from the ordinary rules in its inflection: variable: not symmetrical, without regular form--(_Shak._) IRREG'ULOUS.--_n._ a soldier not in regular service.--_n._ IRREGULAR'ITY, state of being irregular: deviation from a straight line, or from rule: departure from method or order: vice.--_adv._ IRREG'ULARLY.

IRRELATIVE, ir-rel'a-tiv, _adj._ not relative.--_adj._ IRREL[=A]T'ED.--_n._ IRREL[=A]'TION.--_adv._ IRREL'ATIVELY.

IRRELEVANT, ir-rel'e-vant, _adj._ not relevant.--_n._ IRREL'EVANCY.--_adv._ IRREL'EVANTLY.

IRRELIGIOUS, ir-re-lij'us, _adj._ destitute of religion: ungodly.--_adv._ IRRELIG'IOUSLY.--_ns._ IRRELIG'IOUSNESS, IRRELIG'ION, want of religion.

IRREMEABLE, ir-r[=e]'me-a-bl, _adj._ (_Pope_) not admitting of return. [L.

_in_, not, _remeabilis_, _reme[=a]re_--_re_, back, _me[=a]re_, to go, come.]

IRREMEDIABLE, ir-re-m[=e]'di-a-bl, _adj._ that cannot be remedied or redressed.--_n._ IRREM[=E]'DIABLENESS.--_adv._ IRREM[=E]'DIABLY.

IRREMISSIBLE, ir-re-mis'i-bl, _adj._ not to be remitted or forgiven.--_ns._ IRREMISS'IBLENESS, IRREMISS'ION.--_adj._ IRREMISS'IVE.

IRREMOVABLE, ir-re-m[=oo]v'a-bl, _adj._ not removable: steadfast.--_ns._ IRREMOVABIL'ITY, IRREMOV'ABLENESS.--_adv._ IRREMOV'ABLY.

IRRENOWNED, ir-re-nownd', _adj._ (_Spens._) not renowned.

IRREPARABLE, ir-rep'ar-a-bl, _adj._ that cannot be repaired or rectified.--_ns._ IRREPARABIL'ITY, IRREP'ARABLENESS.--_adv._ IRREP'ARABLY.

IRREPEALABLE, ir-re-p[=e]l'a-bl, _adj._ that cannot be repealed or annulled.--_adv._ IRREPEAL'ABLY.

IRREPLACEABLE, ir-re-pl[=a]s'a-bl, _adj._ that cannot be replaced.

IRREPREHENSIBLE, ir-rep-re-hens'i-bl, _adj._ that cannot be blamed.--_n._ IRREPREHENS'IBLENESS.--_adv._ IRREPREHENS'IBLY.

IRREPRESSIBLE, ir-re-pres'i-bl, _adj._ not to be restrained.--_adv._ IRREPRESS'IBLY.

IRREPROACHABLE, ir-re-pr[=o]ch'a-bl, _adj._ free from blame: upright: innocent.--_n._ IRREPROACH'ABLENESS, freedom from blame.--_adv._ IRREPROACH'ABLY.

IRREPRODUCIBLE, ir-re-pro-d[=u]s'i-bl, _adj._ that cannot be reproduced.

IRREPROVABLE, ir-re-pr[=oo]v'a-bl, _adj._ blameless.--_n._ IRREPROV'ABLENESS.--_adv._ IRREPROV'ABLY.

IRRESISTANCE, ir-re-zist'ans, _n._ want of resistance: passive submission.--_adj._ IRRESIST'IBLE, not to be opposed with success.--_ns._ IRRESIST'IBLENESS, IRRESISTIBIL'ITY.--_adv._ IRRESIST'IBLY.

IRRESOLUBLE, ir-rez'ol-[=u]-bl, _adj._ that cannot be resolved into parts: indissoluble: that cannot be released.

IRRESOLUTE, ir-rez'o-l[=u]t, _adj._ not firm in purpose.--_adv._ IRRES'OLUTELY.--_ns._ IRRES'OLUTENESS, IRRESOL[=U]'TION, want of resolution.

IRRESOLVABLE, ir-re-zolv'-a-bl, _adj._ that cannot be resolved.--_ns._ IRRESOLVABIL'ITY, IRRESOLV'ABLENESS.

IRRESPECTIVE, ir-re-spek'tiv, _adj._ not having regard to (with _of_).--_adv._ IRRESPEC'TIVELY.

IRRESPONSIBLE, ir-re-spons'i-bl, _adj._ not responsible (with _for_).--_n._ IRRESPONSIBIL'ITY.--_adv._ IRRESPONS'IBLY.--_adj._ IRRESPONS'IVE.--_n._ IRRESPONS'IVENESS.

IRRESTRAINABLE, ir-re-str[=a]n'a-bl, _adj._ not restrainable.

IRRESUSCITABLE, ir-re-sus'i-ta-bl, _adj._ incapable of being resuscitated or revived.--_adv._ IRRESUS'CITABLY.

IRRETENTION, ir-re-ten'shun, _n._ absence of retention or power to retain.--_adj._ IRRETEN'TIVE.

IRRETRIEVABLE, ir-re-tr[=e]v'a-bl, _adj._ not to be recovered.--_n._ IRRETRIEV'ABLENESS.--_adv._ IRRETRIEV'ABLY.

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