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INVIGORATE, in-vig'or-[=a]t, _v.t._ to give vigour to: to strengthen: to animate.--_ns._ INVIGOR[=A]'TION, the act or state of being invigorated; INVIG'ORATOR, something that invigorates.

INVINCIBLE, in-vin'si-bl, _adj._ that cannot be overcome: insuperable.--_ns._ INVIN'CIBLENESS, INVINCIBIL'ITY.--_adv._ INVIN'CIBLY.--INVINCIBLE IGNORANCE (see IGNORANCE).--THE INVINCIBLE DOCTOR, William of Occam (c. 1280-1349).

INVIOLABLE, in-v[=i]'[=o]l-a-bl, _adj._ that cannot be profaned: that cannot be injured.--_ns._ INVIOLABIL'ITY, INV[=I]'OLABLENESS, the quality of being inviolable.--_adv._ INV[=I]'OLABLY.--_adjs._ INV[=I]'OL[=A]TE, -D, not violated: unprofaned: uninjured.--_adv._ INV[=I]'OL[=A]TELY, without violation.--_n._ INV[=I]'OL[=A]TENESS, the quality of being inviolate.

INVIOUS, in'vi-us, _adj._ (_rare_) impassable. [L.]

INVISIBLE, in-viz'i-bl, _adj._ not visible or capable of being seen--(_Shak._) INVISED'.--_ns._ INVISIBIL'ITY, INVIS'IBLENESS.--_adv._ INVIS'IBLY.--INVISIBLE CHURCH (see VISIBLE); INVISIBLE GREEN, a shade of green so dark as to be almost black; INVISIBLE INK (see INK).

INVITE, in-v[=i]t', _v.t._ to ask: to summon: to allure: to attract.--_v.i._ to ask in invitation.--_n._ INVIT[=A]'TION, the act of inviting: an asking or solicitation, the written or verbal form with which a person is invited: the brief exhortation introducing the confession in the Anglican communion-office.--_adj._ INVIT'[=A]TORY, using or containing invitation.--_n._ a form of invitation in worship, esp. the antiphon to the Venite or 95th Psalm.--_ns._ INVITE'MENT (_Lamb_), allurement, temptation; INVIT'ER.--_p.adj._ INVIT'ING, alluring: attractive.--_n._ (_Shak._) invitation.--_adv._ INVIT'INGLY, in an inviting manner.--_n._ INVIT'INGNESS, attractiveness. [Fr.,--L. _invit[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_.]

INVITRIFIABLE, in-vit'ri-f[=i]-a-bl, _adj._ not vitrifiable.

INVOCATE, in'vo-k[=a]t, _v.t._ to invoke or call on solemnly or with prayer; to implore.--_n._ INVOC[=A]'TION, the act or the form of invocating or addressing in prayer or supplication: a call or summons, especially a judicial order: any formal invoking of the blessing of God, esp. an opening prayer in a public religious service, and the petitions in the Litany addressed to God in each person and in the Trinity.--_adj._ INVOC'ATORY, that invokes: making invocation. [See INVOKE.]

INVOICE, in'vois, _n._ a letter of advice of the despatch of goods, with particulars of their price and quantity.--_v.t._ to make an invoice of.

[Prob. a corr. of _envois_, pl. of Fr. _envoi_.]

INVOKE, in-v[=o]k', _v.t._ to call upon earnestly or solemnly: to implore assistance: to address in prayer. [Fr.,--L. _invoc[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_--_in_, on, _voc[=a]re_, to call.]

INVOLUCRE, in-vol-[=u]'k[.e]r, _n._ (_bot._) a group of bracts in the form of a whorl around an expanded flower or umbel--also INVOL[=U]'CRUM.--_ns._ INVOL'UCEL, INVOLUCEL'LUM, a secondary involucre.--_adjs._ IN'VOLUCRAL, INVOL[=U]'CRATE, having an involucre.--_n._ INVOL[=U]'CRET. [L.

_involucrum_--_involv[)e]re_, to involve.]

INVOLUNTARY, in-vol'un-tar-i, _adj._ not voluntary: not having the power of will or choice: not done willingly: not chosen.--_adv._ INVOL'UNTARILY.--_n._ INVOL'UNTARINESS.

INVOLUTE, in'vo-l[=u]t, _n._ that which is involved or rolled inward: a curve traced by the end of a string unwinding itself from another curve.--_adjs._ IN'VOLUTE, -D (_bot._), rolled spirally inward: turned inward, of shells.--_n._ INVOL[=U]'TION, the action of involving: state of being involved or entangled: complicated grammatical construction: (_arith._) act or process of raising a quantity to any given power. [See INVOLVE.]

INVOLVE, in-volv', _v.t._ to wrap up: to envelop: to implicate: to include: to complicate: to overwhelm: to catch: (_arith._) to multiply a quantity into itself any given number of times.--_n._ INVOLVE'MENT, act of involving: state of being involved or entangled. [Fr.--L.

_involv[)e]re_--_in_, upon, _volv[)e]re_, _vol[=u]tum_, to roll.]

INVULNERABLE, in-vul'n[.e]r-a-bl, _adj._ that cannot be wounded.--_ns._ INVULNERABIL'ITY, INVUL'NERABLENESS.--_adv._ INVUL'NERABLY.

INVULTUATION, in-vul-t[=u]-[=a]'shun, _n._ the act of piercing a wax or clay image of a person that he may suffer torture and die--one of the commonest methods of witchcraft. [Low L. _invultuation-em_--_invultare_, to stab the face of--L. _in_, in, _vultus_, the face.]


INWARD, in'ward, _adj._ placed or being within: internal: seated in the mind or soul, not perceptible to the senses, as the 'inward part' of a sacrament: (_B._) (_B._) the intestines.--_adv._ toward the inside: toward the interior: into the mind or thoughts.--_adv._ IN'WARDLY, in the parts within: in the heart: privately: toward the centre.--_n._ IN'WARDNESS, internal state: inner meaning or significance: (_Shak._) intimacy, familiarity.--_adv._ IN'WARDS, same as INWARD. [A.S.

_inneweard_ (adv.).]

INWEAVE, in-w[=e]v', _v.t._ to weave into: to complicate.

INWICK, in'wik, _n._ in curling, a stroke in which the stone rebounds from the inside edge of another stone, and then slides close to the tee.

INWIT, in'wit, _n._ inward knowledge, conscience.

INWORK, in-wurk', _v.t._ and _v.i._ to work in or into.--_n._ IN'WORKING, energy exerted inwardly.--_p.adj._ IN'WROUGHT, wrought in or among other things: adorned with figures.

INWORN, in-w[=o]rn', _adj._ worn or worked into, inwrought.



IO, [=i]'[=o], _n._ an exclamation of joy or triumph. [L.]

IODAL, [=i]'[=o]-dal, _adj._ _n._ an oily liquid compound with properties like chloral, obtained by treating iodine with alcohol and nitric acid.

IODINE, [=i]'o-din, _n._ one of the four non-metallic elements, so named from the violet colour of its vapour.--_n._ I'OD[=A]TE, a combination of iodic acid with a salifiable base.--_adj._ IOD'IC, containing iodine.--_n._ I'OD[=I]DE, a binary compound of iodine.--_adj._ IODIF'EROUS, yielding iodine.--_n._ I'ODISM, a morbid condition due to iodine.--_v.t._ I'OD[=I]ZE, to treat with iodine: to impregnate with iodine, as collodion.--_n._ IOD'OFORM, a lemon-yellow crystalline substance, having a saffron-like odour and an unpleasant iodine-like taste.--_adj._ IODOMET'RIC (_chem._), measured by iodine.--_ns._ I'ODURE, IOD'[=U]RET, a compound of iodine with a simple base; IOD'YRITE, a yellowish mineral composed of iodine and silver. [Gr. _ioeid[=e]s_, violet-coloured--_ion_, a violet, _eidos_, form.]

IOLITE, [=i]'o-l[=i]t, _n._ a transparent gem which presents a violet-blue colour when looked at in a certain direction. [Gr. _ion_, violet, _lithos_, stone.]

ION, [=i]'on, _n._ one of the components into which an electrolyte is broken up on electrolysis--the _Anion_, the electro-negative component, chemically attacking the anode, and the _Cation_, the electro-positive component, the cathode. [Gr. _i[=o]n_, pr.p. of _ienai_, to go.]

IONIC, [=i]-on'ik, _adj._ relating to _Ionia_ in Greece: denoting an order in architecture distinguished by the ram's-horn volute of its capital--also I[=O]'NIAN.--_vs.t._ ION'ICIZE, I'ONIZE.--_ns._ I'ONISM; I'ONIST.--IONIC DIALECT, the most important of the three main branches of the ancient Greek language (Ionic, Doric, aeolic), marked by greater softness and smoothness, the effect of its rich vowel system. Homer's _Iliad_ is written in _Old_, the history of Herodotus in _New_ Ionic: the Attic of Thucydides and Sophocles is its later form; IONIC MODE (see MODE); IONIC SCHOOL, a name given to the representative philosophers of the Ionian Greeks, such as Thales, Anaximander, Anaximenes, Heraclitus, Anaxagoras, who debated the question what was the primordial constitutive principle of the cosmical universe.

IOTA, [=i]-[=o]'ta, _n._ a jot: a very small quantity or degree.--_ns._ IOT'ACISM, IT'ACISM, the conversion of other vowel sounds into that of iota (Eng. _[=e]_), as in modern Gr. of [Greek: e], [Greek: u], [Greek: ei], [Greek: e], [Greek: oi], [Greek: ui]; IT'ACIST. [Gr., the smallest letter in the alphabet, corresponding to the English _i_.]

I O U, [=i]'[=o]'[=u]', _n._ a memorandum of debt given by a borrower to a lender, requiring no stamp, but to be holograph, dated, and addressed to some person.

IPECACUANHA, ip-e-kak-[=u]-an'a, _n._ the name both of a very valuable medicine and of the plant whose root produces it--used as an emetic.

[Brazilian, 'smaller roadside sick-making plant.']

IPOMaeA, ip-[=o]-m[=e]'a, _n._ a genus of nat. ord. _Convolvulaceae_. [Gr.

_ips_, a worm, _homoios_, like.]

IRACUND, [=i]'ra-kund, _adj._ (_Carlyle_) angry. [L.]

IRADE, i-ra'de, _n._ a written decree of the Sultan of Turkey.

IRANIAN, [=i]-r[=a]n'i-an, _adj._ and _n._ of or pertaining to _Iran_, Persia: a branch of the Indo-European or Aryan tongues, including Persian, Zend, Pehlevi, and Parsi: an inhabitant of Iran.--Also IRAN'IC.

IRASCIBLE, [=i]-ras'i-bl, _adj._ susceptible of ire or anger: easily provoked: irritable.--_n._ IRASCIBIL'ITY.--_adv._ IRAS'CIBLY. [Fr.,--L.

_irascibilis_--_irasci_, to be angry--_ira_, anger.]

IRE, [=i]r, _n._ anger: rage: keen resentment.--_adjs._ IRATE ([=i]-r[=a]t'

or i-r[=a]t'), enraged: angry; IRE'FUL, full of ire or wrath: resentful.--_adv._ IRE'FULLY.--_n._ IRE'FULNESS. [L. _ira_, anger, _irasci_, _ir[=a]tus_, to be angry.]

IRENIC, [=i]-ren'ik, _adj._ tending to create peace: pacific--also IREN'ICAL.--_n._ IREN'ICON, a proposition or scheme for peace: the deacon's litany at the beginning of the Greek liturgy--from its opening petitions for _Iren'ics_, irenical theology:--opp. to _Polemics_.



IRIDEae, [=i]-rid'e-[=e], a natural order of endogenous plants, with fleshy root-stocks and showy flowers.--Also IRID[=A]'CEae. [Gr. _iris_, a rainbow.]

IRIDIUM, [=i]-rid'i-um, _n._ the most infusible, and one of the heaviest, of the metals, found associated with the ore of platinum, so called from the iridescence of some of its solutions.--_n._ IRIDOS'MIUM, a native compound of iridium and osmium, used for pointing gold pens. [Gr. _iris_, _iridos_, the rainbow.]

IRIS, [=i]'ris, _n._ the rainbow: an appearance resembling the rainbow: the contractile curtain perforated by the pupil, and forming the coloured part of the eye (also I'RID): the fleur-de-lis, or flagflower:--_pl._ I'RISES.--_adjs._ I'RIDAL, IRID'IAN, exhibiting the colours of the iris or rainbow: prismatic.--_ns._ IRIDES'CENCE, IRIDIS[=A]'TION.--_adjs._ IRIDES'CENT, coloured like the iris or rainbow; I'RIDINE, iridescent.--_v.t._ IR'IDISE.--_adjs._ I'RIS[=A]TED, rainbow-coloured; IR'ISED, showing colours like the rainbow.--_ns._ IR[=I]'TIS, IRID[=I]'TIS, inflammation of the iris of the eye. [L. _iris_, _iridis_--Gr. _iris_, _iridos_, the rainbow.]

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