HOP, hop, _n._ a plant with a long twining stalk, the bitter cones of which are much used in brewing and in medicine.--_v.t._ to mix with hops.--_v.i._ to gather hops:--_pr.p._ hop'ping; _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ hopped.--_ns._ HOP'BIND (corrupted into _Hopbine_), the stalk of the hop; HOP'-FLEA, a small coleopterous insect, very destructive to hop plantations in spring; HOP'-FLY, a species of Aphis, or plant-louse, injurious to hop plantations; HOP'-OAST, a kiln for drying hops.--_adj._ HOPPED, impregnated with hops.--_ns._ HOP'PER, HOP'-PICK'ER, one who picks hops; a mechanical contrivance for stripping hops from the vines; HOP'PING, the act of gathering hops: the time of the hop harvest; HOP'-POCK'ET, a coarse sack for hops--as a measure, about 1 cwt. of hops; HOP'-POLE, a slender pole supporting a hop-vine.--_adj._ HOP'PY, tasting of hops.--_ns._ HOP'-TREE, an American shrub, with bitter fruit, a poor substitute for hops; HOP'-VINE, the stock or stem of the hop; HOP'-YARD, a field where hops are grown. [Dut. _hop_; Ger. _hopfen_.]
HOPE, h[=o]p, _v.i._ to cherish a desire of good with expectation of obtaining it: to have confidence.--_v.t._ to desire with expectation or with belief in the prospect of obtaining.--_n._ a desire of some good, with expectation of obtaining it: confidence: anticipation: he who, or that which, furnishes ground of expectation: that which is hoped for.--_adj._ HOPE'FUL, full of hope: having qualities which excite hope: promising good or success.--_adv._ HOPE'FULLY.--_n._ HOPE'FULNESS.--_adj._ HOPE'LESS, without hope: giving no ground to expect good or success: desperate.--_adv._ HOPE'LESSLY.--_n._ HOPE'LESSNESS.--_adv._ H[=O]P'INGLY.--HOPE AGAINST HOPE, to continue to hope when there is no sufficient reason. [A.S. _hopian_--_hopa_, hope; Dut. _hopen_, Ger.
HOPE, h[=o]p, _n._ a hollow, a mound: the upper end of a narrow mountain-valley: a comb--common in north country place-names.
HOPLITE, hop'l[=i]t, _n._ a heavy-armed Greek foot-soldier. [Gr.
HOPPLE, hop'l, _v.t._ to tie the feet close together to prevent hopping or running.--_n._ (chiefly in _pl._) a fetter for horses, &c., when left to graze. [A parallel form to _hobble_, a freq. of _hop_.]
HORAL, h[=o]r'al, _adj._ relating to an hour.--_adj._ HOR'ARY, pertaining to an hour: noting the hours: hourly: continuing an hour. [L. _hora_, an hour.]
HORATIAN, h[=o]-r[=a]'shan, _adj._ pertaining to _Horace_, the Latin poet (65-8 B.C.), or to his style.
HORDE, h[=o]rd, _n._ a migratory or wandering tribe or clan.--_v.i._ to live together as a horde.--GOLDEN HORDE (see GOLDEN). [Fr.,--Turk.
_ord[=u]_, camp--Pers. _[=o]rd[=u]_, court, camp, horde of Tatars.]
HORDEUM, hor'd[=e]-um, _n._ a genus of plants of order _Gramineae_, with twelve species.--_adj._ HORDE[=A]'CEOUS, barley-like.--_n._ HORD[=E]'OLUM, a sty on the edge of the eyelid. [L., barley.]
HOREHOUND. See HOARHOUND.
HORIZON, ho-r[=i]'zun, _n._ the circular line formed by the apparent meeting of the earth and sky--in astronomical phrase, the _sensible_, _apparent_, or _visible horizon_, as opposed to the _astronomical_, _true_, or _rational_ horizon, the circle formed by a plane passing through the centre of the earth, parallel to the sensible horizon, and produced to meet the heavens: (_geol._) a stratum marked by the presence of a particular fossil not found in the overlying or underlying beds: any level line or surface: the limit of one's experience or apprehension.--_adj._ HORIZON'TAL, pertaining to the horizon: parallel to the horizon: level: near the horizon: measured in a plane of the horizon.--_n._ HORIZONTAL'ITY.--_adv._ HORIZON'TALLY.--ARTIFICIAL HORIZON, a small trough containing quicksilver, the surface of which affords a reflection of the celestial bodies. [Fr.,--L.,--Gr. _horiz[=o]n_ (_kyklos_), bounding (circle), _horizein_, to bound--_horos_, a limit.]
HORN, horn, _n._ the hard substance projecting from the heads of certain animals, as oxen, &c.: something made of or like a horn, as a powder-horn, a drinking-horn: a symbol of strength: (_mus._) a hunting-horn: an orchestral wind-instrument of the trumpet class, with a slender twisted brass tube and bell mouth--also distinctively _French horn_.--_v.t._ to furnish with horns.--_adj._ HORNED.--_ns._ HORN'BEAK, the garfish; HORN'BEAM, a tree of Europe and America, the hard white wood of which is used by joiners, &c.; HORN'BILL, a bird about the size of the turkey, having a horny excrescence on its bill; HORN'BOOK, a first book for children, which formerly consisted of a single leaf set in a frame, with a thin plate of transparent horn in front to preserve it; HORN'-BUG, a common North American beetle; HORNED'-HORSE, the gnu; HORNED'-OWL, HORN'OWL, a species of owl, so called from two tufts of feathers on its head, like horns; HORN'ER, one who works or deals in horns: a trumpeter.--_adj._ HORN'-FOOT'ED, having a hoof or horn on the foot.--_ns._ HORN'-GATE, one of the two gates of Dreams, through which pass those visions that come true, while out of the ivory-gate pass the unreal; HORN'IE, the devil, usually represented with horns; HORN'ING, appearance of the moon when in its crescent form: (_U.S._) a mock serenade with tin horns and any discordant instruments by way of showing public disapproval.--_adjs._ HORN'ISH, like horn: hard; HORN'LESS, without horns.--_n._ HORN'LET, a little horn.--_adj._ HORN'-MAD, mad with rage, as the cuckold at the moment of discovery.--_ns._ HORNMAD'NESS (_Browning_); HORN'-MAK'ER (_Shak._), a cuckold-maker; HORN'-MER'CURY, mercurous chloride or calomel; HORN'-SIL'VER, silver chloride; HORN'STONE, a stone much like flint, but more brittle [_horn_ and _stone_]; HORN'WORK (_fort._), an outwork having angular points or horns, and composed of two demi-bastions joined by a curtain; HORN'WRACK, the sea-mat or lemon-weed.--_adjs._ HORN'Y, like horn: hard: callous; HORN'Y-HAND'ED, with hands hardened by toil.--HORN OF PLENTY, the symbol of plenty, carried by Ceres in her left arm, filled to overflowing with fruits and flowers (see CORNUCOPIA); HORNS OF A DILEMMA (see DILEMMA); HORNS OF THE ALTAR, the projections at the four corners of the Hebrew altar, to which the victim was bound when about to be sacrificed.--LETTERS OF HORNING (_Scots law_), letters running in the sovereign's name, and passing the signet, instructing messengers-at-arms to charge the debtor to pay, on his failure a caption or warrant for his apprehension being granted; PULL, or DRAW, IN ONE'S HORNS, to restrain one's ardour or one's pretensions; PUT TO THE HORN (_old Scots law_), to outlaw by three blasts of the horn at the Cross of Edinburgh; WEAR HORNS, to be a cuckold. [A.S. _horn_; Scand. and Ger. _horn_, Gael. and W. _corn_, L. _cornu_, Gr. _keras_.]
HORNBLENDE, horn'blend, _n._ a mineral of various colours, found in granite and other igneous rocks that contain quartz. [Ger. _horn_, horn, and _-blende_--_blenden_, to dazzle.]
HORNET, horn'et, _n._ a species of wasp, so called from its antennae or horns: a person who pesters with petty but ceaseless attacks.--BRING A HORNET'S NEST ABOUT ONE'S EARS, to stir up enemies and enmities against one's self. [A.S. _hyrnet_, dim. of _horn_.]
HORNITO, hor-n[=e]'t[=o], _n._ a low oven-shaped fumarole, common in South American volcanic regions. [Sp., dim. of _horno_, an oven.]
HORNPIPE, horn'p[=i]p, _n._ an old Welsh musical instrument resembling the clarinet: a lively air: a lively English dance, usually by one person, popular amongst sailors.
HOROGRAPHY, hor-og'ra-fi, _n._ the art of constructing dials or instruments for indicating the hours.--_n._ HOROG'RAPHER. [Gr. _h[=o]ra_, an hour, _graphein_, to describe.]
HOROLOGE, hor'o-l[=o]j, _n._ any instrument for telling the hours.--_ns._ HOROL'OGER, HOROLOGIOG'RAPHER, HOROL'OGIST, a maker of clocks, &c.--_adjs._ HOROLOG'IC, -AL.--_ns._ HOROLOGIOG'RAPHY, the art of constructing timepieces; HOROL'OGY, the science which treats of the construction of machines for telling the hours: the office-book of the Greek Church for the canonical hours. [O. Fr. _horologe_ (Fr. _horloge_)--L. _horologium_--Gr.
_h[=o]rologion_--_h[=o]ra_, an hour, _legein_, to tell.]
HOROMETRY, hor-om'et-ri, _n._ the art or practice of measuring time.--_adj._ HOROMET'RICAL. [Gr. _h[=o]ra_, an hour, _metron_, a measure.]
HOROSCOPE, hor'o-sk[=o]p, _n._ an observation of the heavens at the hour of a person's birth, by which the astrologer predicted the events of his life: a representation of the heavens for this purpose.--_adj._ HOROSCOP'IC.--_ns._ HOROS'COPIST, an astrologer; HOROS'COPY, the art of predicting the events of a person's life from his horoscope: aspect of the stars at the time of birth. [Fr.,--L.,--Gr. _h[=o]roskopos_--_h[=o]ra_, an hour, _skopein_, to observe.]
HORRENT, hor'ent, _adj._ standing on end, as bristles. [L. _horrens_, _-entis_, pr.p. of _horr[=e]re_, to bristle.]
HORRIBLE, hor'i-bl, _adj._ causing or tending to cause horror: dreadful: awful: terrific.--_n._ HORR'IBLENESS.--_adv._ HORR'IBLY. [L.
HORRID, hor'id, _adj._ fitted to produce horror: shocking: offensive.--_adv._ HORR'IDLY.--_n._ HORR'IDNESS. [L.
_horridus_--_horr[=e]re_, to bristle.]
HORRIFY, hor'-i-f[=i], _v.t._ to strike with horror:--_pa.p._ horr'ified.--_adj._ HORRIF'IC, exciting horror: frightful. [L.
_horrificus_--_horror_, horror, _fac[)e]re_, to make.]
HORRIPILATION, hor-i-pi-l[=a]'shun, _n._ a contraction of the cutaneous muscles causing the erection of the hairs and the condition known as goose-flesh.--_v.t._ HORRIP'ILATE.
HORRISONOUS, hor-is'[=o]-nus, _adj._ sounding dreadfully.--Also HORRIS'ONANT.
HORROR, hor'ur, _n._ a shuddering: excessive fear: that which excites horror.--_adjs._ HORR'OR-STRICK'EN, -STRUCK, struck with horror.--THE HORRORS, extreme depression: delirium tremens. [L.--_horr[=e]re_, to bristle.]
HORS-D'OEUVRE, or-duvr', a preliminary snack that does not form part of the regular _menu_.
HORSE, hors, _n._ a well-known quadruped: (_collectively_) cavalry: that by which something is supported, as 'clothes-horse,' &c.: a wooden frame on which soldiers were formerly made to ride as a punishment--also _Timber-mare_: a boy's crib, a translation.--_v.t._ to mount on a horse: to provide with a horse: to sit astride: to carry on the back: to urge at work tyrannically: to construe by means of a crib.--_v.i._ to get on horseback: to charge for work before it is done.--_ns._ HORSE'-ARTILL'ERY, field artillery with comparatively light guns and the gunners mounted; HORSE'BACK, the back of a horse; HORSE'-BEAN, a large bean given to horses; HORSE'-BLOCK, a block or stage by which to mount or dismount from a horse; HORSE'-BOAT, a boat for carrying horses, or one towed by a horse; HORSE'-BOX, a railway car for transporting horses in, or a stall on shipboard; HORSE'-BOY, a stable-boy; HORSE'-BREAK'ER, HORSE'-TAM'ER, one whose business is to break or tame horses, or to teach them to draw or carry (PRETTY HORSE-BREAKER, a woman with little virtue to lose); HORSE'-CAR, a car drawn by horses; HORSE'-CHEST'NUT, a large variety of chestnut, prob. so called from its coarseness contrasted with the edible chestnut: the tree that produces it (see CHESTNUT); HORSE'-CLOTH, a cloth for covering a horse; HORSE'-COUP'ER (_Scot._), a horse-dealer; HORSE'-DEAL'ER, one who deals in horses; HORSE'-DOC'TOR, a veterinary surgeon; HORSE'-DRENCH, a dose of physic for a horse.--_adj._ HORSE'-FACED, having a long face.--_ns._ HORSE'-FLESH, the flesh of a horse: horses collectively: a Bahama mahogany.--_adj._ of reddish-bronze colour.--_ns._ HORSE'-FLY, a large fly that stings horses; HORSE'-FOOT, the colt's foot; HORSE'-GOD'MOTHER, a fat clumsy woman.--_n.pl._ HORSE'-GUARDS, horse-soldiers employed as guards: the 3d heavy cavalry regiment of the British army, forming part of the household troops: the War Office, or public office in Whitehall, London, appropriated to the departments of the commander-in-chief of the British army.--_ns._ HORSE'-HAIR, the hair of horses: haircloth; HORSE'-HOE, a hoe drawn by horses; HORSE'-KNACK'ER, one who buys worn-out horses for slaughtering; HORSE'-LAT'ITUDES, a part of the North Atlantic Ocean noted for long calms, so called from the frequent necessity of throwing part of a cargo of horses overboard from want of water when becalmed; HORSE'-LAUGH, a harsh, boisterous laugh; HORSE'-LEECH, a large species of leech, so named from its fastening on horses when wading in the water: a bloodsucker (Prov. xxx. 15); HORSE'-LITT'ER, a litter or bed borne between two horses; HORSE'-MACK'EREL, one of various fishes--the scad (q.v.), &c.; HORSE'MAN, a rider on horseback: a mounted soldier; HORSE'MANSHIP, the art of riding, and of training and managing horses; HORSE'-MA'RINE, a person quite out of his element: an imaginary being for whom wild flights of imagination had best be reserved ('Tell it to the horse-marines'); HORSE-MILL, a mill turned by horses; HORSE'-MILL'INER, one who provides the trappings for horses; HORSE'-MINT, a common European wild-mint: the American _Monarda punctata_--SWEET HORSE-MINT, the common dittany; HORSE'-NAIL, a nail for fastening a horse-shoe to the hoof; HORSE'-PIS'TOL, a large pistol carried in a holster; HORSE'-PLAY, rough, boisterous play; HORSE'-POND, a pond for watering horses at; HORSE'-POW'ER, the power a horse can exert, or its equivalent=that required to raise 33,000 lb. avoirdupois one foot per minute: a standard for estimating the power of steam-engines; HORSE'-RACE, a race by horses; HORSE'-RAC'ING, the practice of racing or running horses in matches; HORSE'-RAD'ISH, a plant with a pungent root, used in medicine and as a condiment; HORSE'-RAKE, a rake drawn by horses; HORSE'-RID'ING, a circus; HORSE'-SENSE, plain robust sense; HORSE'-SHOE, a shoe for horses, consisting of a curved piece of iron.--_adj._ shaped like a horse-shoe.--_ns._ HORSE'-SOL'DIER, a cavalry soldier; HORSE'-TAIL, a genus of leafless plants with hollow rush-like stems, so called from their likeness to a horse's tail; HORSE'-TRAIN'ER, one who trains horses for racing, &c.; HORSE'-WAY, a road by which a horse may pass; HORSE'-WHIP, a whip for driving horses.--_v.t._ to strike with a horse-whip: to lash.--_ns._ HORSE'WOMAN, a woman who rides on horseback; HORS'INESS; HORS'ING, birching a schoolboy mounted on another's back.--_adj._ HORS'Y, of or pertaining to horses: devoted to horse racing or breeding.--A DARK HORSE (see DARK); FLOG A DEAD HORSE, to try to work up excitement about a threadbare subject; GET ON, MOUNT, THE HIGH HORSE, to assume consequential airs; PUT THE CART BEFORE THE HORSE (see CART); RIDE THE WOODEN HORSE (see above); TAKE HORSE, to mount on horseback. [A.S.
_hors_; Ice. _horss_, Old High Ger. _hros_ (Ger. _ross_).]
HORTATIVE, hort'a-tiv, _adj._ inciting: encouraging: giving advice--also HORT'ATORY.--_n._ HORT[=A]'TION. [L. _hort[=a]ri_, _-[=a]tus_, to incite.]
HORTICULTURE, hor'ti-kul-t[=u]r, _n._ the art of cultivating gardens.--_adj._ HORTICUL'TURAL, pertaining to the culture of gardens.--_n._ HORTICUL'TURIST, one versed in the art of cultivating gardens.--HORTUS SICCUS, a collection of dried plants arranged in a book.
[L. _hortus_, a garden, _cultura_--_col[)e]re_, to cultivate.]
HOSANNNA, h[=o]-zan'a, _n._ an exclamation of praise to God, or a prayer for blessings. [Gr. _h[=o]sanna_--Heb. _h[=o]sh[=i]'[=a]h nn[=a]_, _h[=o]sh[=i][=a]'_, save, _n[=a]_, I pray.]
HOSE, h[=o]z, _n._ a covering for the legs or feet: stockings: socks: a flexible pipe for conveying water, so called from its shape:--_pl._ HOSE; (_B._) HOS'EN.--_ns._ HOSE'MAN, one who directs the stream of water from the hose of a fire-engine; HOSE'PIPE; HOSE'-REEL, a large revolving drum or reel for carrying hose for fire-engines, &c.; H[=O]'SIER, one who deals in hose, or stockings and socks, &c.; H[=O]'SIERY, hose in general. [A.S.
_hosa_, pl. _hosan_; Dut. _hoos_, Ger. _hose_.]
HOSPICE, hos'p[=e]s, _n._ a house of entertainment for strangers, esp. such kept by monks on some Alpine passes for travelers.--Also HOSPIT'IUM.
[Fr.,--L. _hospitium_--_hospes_, a stranger treated as a guest.]
HOSPITABLE, hos'pit-a-bl, _adj._ entertaining strangers and guests kindly and without reward: showing kindness: generous: bountiful.--_n._ HOS'PITABLENESS.--_adv._ HOS'PITABLY.--_n._ HOSPITAL'ITY, the practice of one who is hospitable; friendly welcome and entertainment of guests--(_Spens._) HOS'PIT[=A]GE.
HOSPITAL, hos-'pit-al, _n._ a building for the reception and treatment of the old, the sick, and hurt, &c., or for the support and education of the young.--_n._ HOS'PITALLER, one of a charitable brotherhood for the care of the sick in hospitals: one of an order of knights, commonly called Knights of St John (otherwise called Knights of Rhodes, and afterwards of Malta), who about 1048 built a hospital for the care and cure of pilgrims at Jerusalem.--HOSPITAL SATURDAY, or SUNDAY, days set apart for the collection of funds on behalf of hospitals.--CONVALESCENT HOSPITAL, one intermediate between the ordinary hospital and the patient's own home; COTTAGE HOSPITAL, a small establishment where hospital treatment is carried on at little expense and with simple arrangements; LOCK HOSPITAL, one for the treatment of venereal diseases; MAGDALEN HOSPITAL, an institution for the reclamation of fallen women; MARINE, or NAVAL, HOSPITAL, a special hospital for sick sailors, or for men in the naval service; MATERNITY HOSPITAL, one for women in labour. [O. Fr. _hospital_--Low L. _hospitale_--_hospes_, a guest.]
HOSPODAR, hos'po-dar, _n._ formerly the title of the princes of Moldavia and Wallachia. [Slav.]
HOSS, a vulgarism for _horse_.
HOST, h[=o]st, _n._ one who entertains a stranger or guest at his house without reward: an innkeeper: an organism on which another lives as a parasite:--_fem._ HOST'ESS.--_n._ HOST'ESS-SHIP (_Shak._), the character or office of a hostess.--_adj._ HOST'LESS (_Spens._), destitute of a host, inhospitable.--RECKON, or COUNT, WITHOUT ONE'S HOST, to misjudge, the original idea being that of totting up one's bill without reference to the landlord. [O. Fr. _hoste_--L. _hospes_, _hospitis_.]
HOST, h[=o]st, _n._ an army, a large multitude.--_n._ HOST'ING, (_Milt._) an encounter of hosts, a battle: (_Spens._) an assemblage of hosts, a muster.--A HOST IN HIMSELF, one of great strength, skill, or resources, within himself; HEAVENLY HOST, the angels and archangels; LORD OF HOSTS, a favourite Hebrew term for Jehovah, considered as head of the hosts of angels, the hosts of stars, &c. [O. Fr. _host_--L. _hostis_, an enemy.]
HOST, h[=o]st, _n._ in the R.C. Church, the consecrated bread of the Eucharist--a thin circular wafer of unleavened bread. [L. _hostia_, a victim.]
HOSTAGE, hos't[=a]j, _n._ one remaining with the enemy as a pledge for the fulfilment of the conditions of a treaty.--HOSTAGES TO FORTUNE, a man's wife, children, &c. [O. Fr. _hostage_ (Fr. _otage_)--Low L.
_obsidaticus_--L. _obses_, _obsidis_, a hostage.]
HOSTEL, hos'tel, HOSTELRY, hos'tel-ri, _n._ an inn: in some universities an extra-collegiate hall for students.--_ns._ HOS'TELER, HOS'TELLER, one living in a hostel. [O. Fr. _hostel_, _hostellerie_.]