CALLUS, kal'us, _n._ a thickening of the skin: a term employed in old surgical works for the exuded material by which fractures of bones are consolidated together. [L.]
CALM, kam, _adj._ still or quiet: serene, tranquil.--_n._ absence of wind--also in _pl._: repose: serenity of feelings or actions.--_v.t._ to make calm: to quiet.--_ns._ CALM'ANT, CALM'ATIVE--in medical language.--_adjs._ CALM'ATIVE, CALM'ANT, CALMED, CALM'Y (_Spens._)--_adv._ CALM'LY.--_n._ CALM'NESS. [Fr. _calme_ (It. _calma_), from Low L.
_cauma_--Gr. _kauma_, noonday heat--_kai-ein_, to burn.]
CALMUCK. See KALMUCK.
CALOMEL, kal'[=o]-mel, _n._ the popular name of one of the compounds of mercury and chlorine, much used in medicine. [Fr. _calomel_, which Littre derives from Gr. _kalos_, fair, _melas_, black.]
CALORIC, ka-lor'ik, _n._ heat: the supposed principle or cause of heat.--_n._ CALORES'CENCE, the transmutation of heat rays into luminous rays.--_adj._ CALORIF'IC, causing heat: heating.--_ns._ CALORIFIC[=A]'TION; CALORIM'ETER, an instrument for measuring the specific heat of a body; CALORIM'ETRY, the art or process of measuring heat; CAL'ORIST, one who held heat to be a subtle fluid called caloric; CAL'ORY, the usually accepted thermal unit, being the quantity of heat necessary to raise the temperature of a kilogram of water from 0 to 1 centigrade. [Fr. _calorique_, formed by Lavoisier from L. _calor_, heat.]
CALOTTE, kal-ot', _n._ a plain skull-cap or coif worn by R.C. clergy. [Fr.]
CALOTYPE, kal'[=o]-t[=i]p, _n._ a kind of photography.--_n._ CAL'OTYPIST, one who makes calotypes. [Gr. _kalos_, beautiful, _typos_, an image. Name given in 1840 by W. H. Fox Talbot (1800-77) to his method of photographing by the action of light on nitrate of silver.]
CALOYER, ka-loi'[.e]r, _n._ a Greek monk, esp. of the order of St Basil.
[Fr.,--It.--Late Gr. _kalog[=e]ros_, _kalos_, beautiful, _g[=e]ros_, aged.]
CALP, kalp, _n._ the name applied in Ireland to beds of shale, sandstone, &c. containing thin seams of coal.
CALPAC, CALPACK, kal'pak, _n._ a triangular felt cap, worn by Turks and Tartars. [Turk.]
CALQUE. See CALK (3).
CALTROP, kal'trop, _n._ an instrument armed with four spikes, so arranged that one always stands upright, used to obstruct the progress of an enemy's cavalry, or of besiegers of a fortification.--Also CAL'TRAP. [A.S.
_coltetraeppe_, _calcatrippe_--L. _calc-em_, heel, _trappa_, a trap.]
CALUMBA, ka-lum'ba, _n._ the root of an East African plant, extensively used in medicine as a stomachic and tonic. [From _Colombo_ in Ceylon.]
CALUMET, kal'[=u]-met, _n._ the 'peace pipe' of the North American Indians, a tobacco-pipe having a stem of reed or painted wood about 2 feet long, decorated with feathers, with a large bowl, usually of soap-stone.
[_Calumet_ is a Norman name for a shepherd's pipe (Fr. _chalumeau_--L.
_calamellus_, _calamus_), given by the early French settlers from its resemblance.]
CALUMNY, kal'um-ni, _n._ false accusation: slander.--_v.t._ CALUM'NI[=A]TE, to accuse falsely: to slander.--_v.i._ to spread evil reports.--_ns._ CALUM'NI[=A]TION; CALUM'NI[=A]TOR.--_adjs._ CALUM'NI[=A]TORY, CALUM'NIOUS, of the nature of calumny: slanderous.--_adv._ CALUM'NIOUSLY.--OATH OF CALUMNY, a method in the law of Scotland for the prevention of calumnious and unnecessary suits, by which both parties at the beginning of a cause swear, either by themselves or their counsel, that the facts set forth by them are true--usual only in actions of divorce, &c. [L. _calumnia_, prob.
for _calvomnia_, from _calvi_, _calv[)e]re_, to deceive.]
CALVARY, kal'va-ri, _n._ the name of the place where Jesus was crucified: (_R.C._) a series of representations of the various scenes of Christ's crucifixion: an eminence crowned with one or three crosses bearing life-size figures of Jesus and the two thieves. [The Anglicised form of the Vulgate _calvaria_, which was the L. rendering of the Gr. _kranion_, as that again of the Aramaic _gogulth[=o]_ or _gogolth[=a]_ (Heb.
_gulg[=o]leth_--Graecised form _golgotha_), all three words meaning skull.]
CALVE, kav, _v.i._ to bring forth a calf. [A.S. _cealfian_. See CALF.]
CALVERED, kal'verd, _p.adj._ from obsolete verb CAL'VER, to prepare salmon or other fish when freshly caught. [Prob. the same as Scot. _Caller_.]
CALVINISM, kal'vin-izm, _n._ the doctrines of the great Genevan religious reformer, John _Calvin_ (1509-1564), as these are given in his _Institutio_, esp. as regards particular election, predestination, the incapacity for true faith and repentance of the natural man, efficacious grace, and final perseverance.--_n._ CAL'VINIST, one who holds the doctrines of Calvin.--_adjs._ CALVINIST'IC, -AL, pertaining to Calvin or Calvinism.
CALVITIES, kal-vish'i-[=e]z, _n._ baldness. [L.,--_calvus_, bald.]
CALX, kalks, _n._ chalk or lime: the substance of a metal or mineral which remains after being subjected to violent heat:--_pl._ CALXES (kalk's[=e]z), or CALCES (kal's[=e]z). [L. _calx_, lime.]
CALYCANTHUS, kal-i-kan'thus, _n._ a small order of square-stemmed aromatic shrubs, natives of North America and Japan. [Made up of CALYX and Gr.
CALYPTRA, ka-lip'tra, _n._ a hood, covering, esp. that of the theca or capsule of mosses.--_adjs._ CALYP'TRATE, furnished with such; CALYP'TRIFORM, CALYPTRIMOR'PHOUS, having the form of a calyptra.--_n._ CALYP'TROGEN, the root-cap. [Gr., a veil.]
CALYX, CALIX, kal'iks, or k[=a]'liks, _n._ the outer covering or cup of a flower, its separate leaves termed sepals:--_pl._ CALYCES, or CALYXES.--_adjs._ CAL'YCATE, having a calyx; CALYC[=I]F'EROUS, bearing the calyx; CALYCIFL[=O]'RAL, CALYCIFL[=O]'RATE, CALYCIFL[=O]'ROUS, having the petals and stamens borne upon the calyx; CALYC'IFORM, having the form of a calyx; CAL'YCINE, CALYC'INAL, pertaining to a calyx.--_n._ CAL'YCLE, an accessory calyx outside the true one.--_adjs._ CAL'YCLED, having a calycle; CAL'YCOID, CALYCOI'DEOUS, like a calyx. [L.,--Gr. _kalyx_--_kalyptein_, to cover.]
CAM, kam, _n._ (_mech._) a device for changing a regular rotary motion into a reciprocating motion, various forms of which are the cam-wheel and shaft, the heart-wheel, the wiper-wheel, and the eccentric. [Dut. _kam_.]
CAMAIEU, kam'[=i]-[=u], _n._ a cameo: a painting in monochrome, or in simple colours not imitating nature: a style of printing pictures producing the effect of a pencil-drawing.--Also CAM'AYEU. [Fr. See CAMEO.]
CAMARADERIE, kam-a-rad-r[=e]', _n._ good-fellowship: the intimacy of comradeship. [Fr.]
CAMARILLA, kam-ar-il'a, _n._ a body of secret intriguers, esp. of a court party against a king's legitimate ministers: a small room. [Sp. dim. of _camara_, a chamber.]
CAMASS, ka-mas', _n._ a small plant growing in the north-western United States, also its nutritious bulb.--_ns._ CAMASS'IA, a genus of liliaceous plants nearly related to the European _Scilla_; CAMASS'-RAT, a small gopher rodent which devours the bulbs of the camass.
CAMBER, kam'b[.e]r, _n._ a convexity upon an upper surface, as of a deck amidships, a bridge, or lintel: the curve of a ship's plank: a small dock in the royal yards where timber is loaded and discharged.--_v.t._ to curve ship-planks, to arch slightly. [Fr.--L. _camer[=a]re_, to vault.]
CAMBIST, kam'bist, _n._ one skilled in the science of exchange.--_ns._ CAM'BISM, CAM'BISTRY. [It--L. _camb[=i]re_, to exchange.]
CAMBERWELL BEAUTY, kam'ber-wel b[=u]'ti, _n._ (_Vanessa antiopa_) a fancy name for one of the largest and most beautiful of British butterflies.
CAMBIUM, kam'bi-um, _n._ a layer of vascular tissue formed between the wood and the bark of exogens, in which the annual growth is formed. [Low L.--_cambium_--L. _camb[=i]re_, to change.]
CAMBOGE, obsolete form of GAMBOGE.
CAMBREL, kam'brel, _n._ a bent piece of wood or iron on which butchers hang the carcasses of animals: the hock of a horse. [Prob. conn. with CAMBER.]
CAMBRIAN, kam'bri-an, _adj._ pertaining to _Cambria_ or Wales: Welsh: the name given by Sedgwick in 1836 to a group or series of sedimentary deposits which come next in order to the Archaean System.--_n._ an inhabitant of Cambria, or Wales. [Formed from _Cymry_, Welshmen, or _Cymru_, Wales.]
CAMBRIC, k[=a]m'brik, _n._ a kind of fine white linen, originally manufactured at _Cambrai_ in the French department of Nord.
CAMBUCA, kam-b[=u]'ka, _n._ a pastoral staff: a curved stick used in the game of pall-mall.--Also CAMBUT'TA. [Low L., of Celt. origin.]
CAME, k[=a]m, did come _pa.t._ of COME.
CAMEL, kam'el, _n._ an animal of Asia and Africa with one or two humps on its back, used as a beast of burden and for riding.--_adj._ CAM'EL-BACKED, hump-backed.--_ns._ CAM'ELEER, one who drives or rides a camel; CAM'ELINE, camlet.--_adj._ CAM'ELISH, like a camel, obstinate.--_n._ CAM'ELRY, troops mounted on camels.--CAMEL'S HAIR, the hair of the camel: the hair of the squirrel's tail used for paint-brushes; CAMEL'S THORN, a shrub of the bean family which camels eat greedily. [L. _camelus_--Gr. _kam[=e]los_--Heb.
CAMELEON. See CHAMELEON.
CAMELLIA, ka-mel'ya, _n._ a species of evergreen shrubs, natives of China and Japan, noted for the singular beauty of their flowers. [Named from Kamel, Latinised _Camellus_, a Moravian Jesuit, who collected plants in the Philippine Islands in 1639.]
CAMELOPARD, kam'el-[=o]-pard, or kam-el'[=o]-pard, _n._ the giraffe.
[L.,--Gr. _cam[=e]lopardalis_; from Gr. _kam[=e]los_, the camel, and _pardalis_, the panther.]
CAMELOT, kam'lot, _n._ Same as CAMLET.
CAMEO, kam'[=e]-[=o], _n._ an engraved gem in which the figure or subject is carved in relief. [It. _cammeo_ (Fr. _camee_)--Low L. _cammaeus_ traced by Littre to Gr. _kamnein_, to work; by the late Mr C. W. King through an Ar. form, 'an amulet,' from Pers. _camahen_, loadstone, the usual material for Babylonian cylinders.]