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CAMERA, kam'[.e]r-a, _n._ the variety of camera-obscura used by photographers.--_ns._ CAM'ERA-L[=U]'CIDA, an instrument by which the rays of light from an object are reflected by a specially shaped prism, forming an image on the paper underneath; CAM'ERA-OBSC[=U]'RA, an instrument for throwing the images of external objects on a white surface placed within a dark chamber or box. [L.]

CAMERA, kam'[.e]r-a, _n._ a vaulted room: the judge's private chamber (IN CAMERA, of a case heard there rather than in public court).--_adj._ CAM'ER[=A]TED, divided into chambers: arched or vaulted.

CAMERONIAN, kam-er-[=o]n'i-an, _n._ a follower of the Covenanter Richard _Cameron_, killed at Airds Moss in 1680, a member of the Reformed Presbyterian Church.--_adj._ pertaining to this party, or to the famous Cameronian regiment (26th Foot, now the First Battalion of Scottish Rifles) in the British army, which had its origin in a body of Cameronians (1689).

CAMIS, kam'is, _n._ (_Spens._) a loose robe made of some light material, as silk, &c.: a chemise. [See CHEMISE.]

CAMISADE, kam-i-s[=a]d', _n._ a night attack, probably because shirts were often put on over the armour.--Also CAMISAD'O. [Sp., from _camisa_, a shirt.]

CAMISARDS, kam'is-ar, the insurgent Huguenots of the Cevennes, so called from the _camise_ or blouse worn by the peasants.

CAMISE, kam'[=e]s, _n._ the usual Arab shirt.--Also CAM'ISO, CAM'ESE.

CAMISOLE, kam'is-[=o]l, _n._ a sleeved jacket, a woman's loose morning gown or jacket.

CAMLET, kam'let, _n._ a cloth originally made of camel's hair, but now chiefly of wool and goat's hair. [Fr.--Low L. _camelotum_--L. _camelus_.]

CAMOMILE, CHAMOMILE, kam'o-m[=i]l, _n._ a plant, or its dried flowers, used in medicine, affording a bitter stomachic and tonic. [Fr.--L.--Gr.

_chamaim[=e]lon_, the earth-apple, from the apple-like smell of its blossoms--_chamai_, on the ground, _m[=e]lon_, an apple.]

CAMORRA, kam-or'a, _n._ the name of a secret society in the former kingdom of Naples, whose members, the _Camorristi_, for many years terrorised the country.--_ns._ CAMORR'ISM; CAMORR'IST. [It.]

CAMP, kamp, _n._ the ground on which an army pitch their tents: the tents of an army, quarters generally, a permanent military station, as at Aldershot: any fortified site in which a force once defended itself, as a Roman or British camp: any temporary quarters for travellers, &c.--_v.i._ to encamp or pitch tents.--_ns._ CAMP'-FOLL'OWER, any one who follows in the train of an army, but takes no part in battle; CAMP'MEET'ING, a religious gathering held in the open air or in a temporary encampment in the fields; CAMP'-SHED'DING, -SHEET'ING, -SHOT, an erection of piles, &c., along the bank of a river or an embankment, for strengthening; CAMP'-STOOL, or -BED'STEAD, a portable folding-stool, a trestle-bed. [Fr. _camp_, a camp--L. _campus_, a plain.]

CAMP, kamp, _n._ (_obs._) conflict: an old form of the game of football.--_v.i._ to fight, struggle.--_v.i._ CAM'PLE, to wrangle. [A.S.

_camp_, battle; cf. Ger. _kampf_.]

CAMPAGNOL, kam-pa-nyol', _n._ a French name for several species of field-mice or voles.

CAMPAIGN, kam-p[=a]n', _n._ a large open field or plain: the time during which an army keeps the field: an excursion into the country: an organised series of operations in the advocacy of a political or social cause.--_v.i._ to serve in a campaign.--_ns._ CAMPAGN'A, once equivalent to _champaign_, now used only of the Campagna, an undulating, mostly uncultivated and unhealthy plain around Rome; CAMPAIGN'ER, one who has served in several campaigns. [Fr. _campagne_--L. _campania_--_campus_, a field.]

CAMPANERO, kam-pa-n[=e]'ro, _n._ one of the South American bell-birds, the arapunga, &c. [Sp., a bellman.]

CAMPANILE, kam-pan-[=e]'l[=a] (sometimes also kam-pan-[=e]l', and even kam'pan-il and kam'pan-[=i]l), _n._ a name adopted from the Italian to signify a bell-tower of the larger kind, and usually applied only to such as are detached from the church: (_pl._ usually CAMPANILES, but sometimes the It. CAMPANILI). [It., from _campana_, a bell.]

CAMPANOLOGY, kam-pan-ol'o-ji, _n._ the subject or science of bells or bell-ringing.--_ns._ CAM'PANIST, CAMPANOL'OGIST, one skilled in the same.--_adj._ CAMPANOLOG'ICAL. [It. _campana_, a bell, and Gr. _logos_, a discourse.]

CAMPANULA, kam-pan'[=u]-la, _n._ a genus of flowers, commonly known as bell-flowers or bells, usually blue or white, the best-known species the harebell and Scotch bluebell.--The _Canterbury Bells_ is a biennial species--seen in many florists' varieties.--_adjs._ CAMPAN'IFORM, CAMPAN'ULATE, CAMPAN'ULAR.--_n._ CAMPANUL[=A]'RIA, a common genus of Hydroids, with stems simple or branched, the nutritive polyps surrounded by transparent bell-shaped sheaths. [It. _campana_, a bell.]

CAMPBELLITE, kam'bel-[=i]t, _n._ a follower of Alexander _Campbell_ (1788-1866), founder of the sect known as the 'Disciples of Christ.'

CAMPEACHY, kam'p[=e]ch-i, _adj._ pertaining to the red dye-wood better known as Logwood, first exported from _Campeachy_ in Yucatan.

CAMPEADOR, kam-pe-a-d[=o]r', _n._ a warrior. [Sp.]

CAMPESTRAL, kam-pes'tral, _adj._ growing in or pertaining to fields.--Also CAMPES'TRIAN. [L. _campestris_, from _campus_.]

CAMPHINE, kam'f[=i]n, _n._ rectified oil of turpentine.--Also CAM'PHENE.

CAMPHOR, kam'for, _n._ a solid essential oil, mostly obtained from the camphor laurel of India, China, and Japan, having a peculiar hot aromatic taste and a pleasant smell.--_adj._ CAMPHOR[=A]'CEOUS, like camphor.--_v.t._ CAM'PHORATE, to impregnate with camphor.--_adjs._ CAM'PHORATE, CAMPHOR'IC, pertaining to camphor. [Fr. _camphre_--Low L.

_camphora_--Malay _kapur_, chalk.]

CAMPION, kam'pi-un, _n._ the common name of plants belonging to the genera Lychnis and Silene. [Perh. from L. _campus_, a field.]

CAMPO SANTO, kam'po sant'o, _n._ the Italian name for a cemetery or burying-ground, esp. for one enclosed by an arcade. [Lit. 'holy ground,'

the earth of that at Pisa having been brought from Palestine.]

CAMPYLOSPERMOUS, kam-pi-l[=o]-sper'mus, _adj._ (_bot._) having the albumen of the seed curved at the margin so as to form a longitudinal furrow on the ventral face. [Gr. _kampylos_, curved, _sperma_, a seed.]

CAMPYLOTROPAL, kam-pi-lot'r[=o]-pal, _adj._ (_bot._) curved so as to bring the true apex close to the base--of an ovule or seed.--Also CAMPYLOT'ROPOUS. [Gr. _kampylos_, curved, _trepein_, to turn.]

CAMSTAIRY, kam-st[=a]r'i, _adj._ perverse, unruly. [Ety. dub.; first part at any rate _cam_, crooked.]

CAMSTONE, kam'st[=o]n, _n._ a kind of clay used to whiten doorsteps, &c.

CAM-WOOD, kam'-wood, _n._ a dye-wood obtained from _Baphia nitida_, a leguminous tree, a native of Angola. It is at first white, but turns red on exposure to air. [Perh. from African name _kambi_.]

CAN, kan, _v.i._ to be able: to have sufficient power:--_pa.t._ COULD.--CAN is used for _gan_ in M. E. and even in Spenser. [A.S. _cunnan_, to know (how to do a thing), to be able, pres. indic. _can_; Goth. _kunnan_, Ger.

_konnen_, to be able. See KNOW.]

CAN, kan, _n._ a vessel for holding or carrying liquids, generally of tinned iron, with a handle over the top: a chimney-pot: a vessel of tin-plate in which meat, fruit, &c. are hermetically sealed for exporting--in England usually called a _tin_: a drinking-mug.--_v.t._ to put up for preservation in CANNED'-GOODS, meat, fruit, &c.

so prepared for preservation.--_n._ CAN'NERY, a place where meat, fish, fruit, &c. are canned. [A.S. _canne_; cf. L. _canna_, a reed, Gr.

_kann[=e]_, a reed.]

CANAANITE, k[=a]'nan-[=i]t, _n._ a descendant of _Canaan_, the son of Ham: a native of the land of Canaan.--_adj._ C[=A]'NAANITISH.

CAnADA, kan'ya-da, _n._ a narrow canon. [Sp.]

CANADIAN, ka-n[=a]'di-an, _adj._ and _n._ pertaining to _Canada_: a native of Canada.--CANADA BALSAM (see BALSAM).

CANAIGRE, ka-n[=a]'ger, _n._ a Texan dock whose root is used in tanning,

CANAILLE, ka-n[=a]l', _n._ the mob, the vulgar rabble. [Fr., a dog--L.



CANAL, kan-al', _n._ an artificial watercourse for navigation: a duct in the body for any of its fluids.--_n._ CANAL'-BOAT, a boat for canal traffic.--_adjs._ CANALIC'ULAR, canal-shaped; CANALIC'ULATE, -D, channelled, grooved.--_ns._ CANALIC'ULUS (_anat._), a small furrow or channel; CANALIS[=A]'TION, the construction of canals.--_v.t._ CANAL'ISE, to make a canal through: to convert into a canal. [L. _canalis_, a water-pipe.]

CANARD, ka-nar', or ka-nard', _n._ an extravagant or lying story. [Fr., lit. 'duck.']

CANARY, ka-n[=a]'ri, _n._ a light sweet wine from the _Canary_ Islands: a bird originally from the Canary Islands: a lively dance.--_adj._ canary-coloured, bright yellow.--_ns._ CAN[=A]'RY-BIRD, a canary: (_slang_) a jail-bird: a mistress; CAN[=A]'RY-GRASS, a grass of which the seed is much used as food for canary-birds; CAN[=A]'RY-WOOD, the dark-coloured timber of two lauraceous trees of the Azores and Madeira.

CANARESE, kan-a-r[=e]z', _adj._ pertaining to _Canara_ in western India.--_n._ a native thereof: the language of the Dravidian group, allied to Telegu.--Also KANARESE'.

CANASTER, ka-nas't[.e]r, _n._ a kind of tobacco, so called from the rush basket in which it was originally brought from Spanish America. [Sp.

_canastra_--L.--Gr. _kanastron_.]

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