CALCIUM, kal'si-um, _n._ the metal present in chalk, stucco, and other compounds of lime.--_adjs._ CAL'CIC, containing calcium; CAL'CIFIC, calcifying or calcified.--_v.i._ CAL'CIFIC[=A]'TION, the process of calcifying, a changing into lime.--_adjs._ CAL'CIFORM, like chalk, pebbly; CALCIF'UGOUS, avoiding limestone.--_v.t._ and _v.i._ CAL'CIFY, to make calcic: to turn into bony tissue.--_adjs._ CALCIG'ENOUS, forming lime; CALCIG'EROUS, containing lime.--_n._ CAL'CIMINE, a white or tinted wash for ceilings, walls, &c., consisting of whiting, with glue, &c.--_v.t._ to wash with such.--_adj._ CAL'CINABLE, capable of being calcined.--_n._ CALCIN[=A]'TION.--_v.t._ CAL'CINE, or CALCINE', to reduce to a calx or chalky powder by the action of heat, to burn to ashes.--_v.i._ to become a calx or powder by heat.--_ns._ CAL'CITE, native calcium carbonate, or carbonate of lime--also called CALC[=A]'REOUS SPAR and CALC'SPAR; CALC'-SIN'TER, CALC'-TUFF, TRA'VERTIN, a porous deposit from springs or rivers which in flowing through limestone rocks have become charged with calcium carbonate. [Formed from L. _calx_, chalk.]
CALCOGRAPHY. See CHALCOGRAPHY.
CALCULATE, kal'k[=u]-l[=a]t, _v.t._ to count or reckon: to think out: to adapt, fit (only passive, with _for_): (_U.S._) to think, purpose.--_v.i._ to make a calculation: to estimate.--_adjs._ CAL'CULABLE; CAL'CULATING, given to forethought, deliberately selfish and scheming.--_n._ CALCUL[=A]'TION, the art or process of calculating: estimate: forecast.--_adj._ CAL'CUL[=A]TIVE, relating to calculation.--_n._ CAL'CUL[=A]TOR, one who calculates. [L. _calcul[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_, to reckon by help of little stones--_calculus_, dim. of _calx_, a little stone.]
CALCULUS, kal'k[=u]-lus, _n._ a stone-like concretion which forms in certain parts of the body: one of the higher branches of mathematics:--_pl._ CALCULI (kal'k[=u]-li).--_adj._ CAL'CULOSE, stony or like stone: gritty: affected with stone or with gravel.--CALCULUS OF FINITE DIFFERENCES not merely does not consider differentials, but does not assume continuity.--DIFFERENTIAL CALCULUS, a method of treating the values of ratios of differentials or the increments of quantities continually varying; INTEGRAL CALCULUS, the summation of an infinite series of differentials. [L.--_calx_.]
CALDRON. Same as CAULDRON.
CALEDONIAN, kal-e-d[=o]'ni-an, _adj._ pertaining to _Caledonia_, or Scotland.--_n._ a Scotchman.
CALEFACTION, kal-e-fak'shun, _adj._ act of heating: state of being heated.--_adj._ CALEF[=A]'CIENT, warming.--_n._ anything that warms: a blister or superficial stimulant.--_adj._ CALEFAC'TIVE, communicating heat.--_n._ CALEFAC'TOR, a small stove.--_adj._ CALEFAC'TORY, warming.--_n._ a room in which monks warmed themselves: a warming-pan, a pome.--_v.t._ and _v.i._ CAL'EFY, to grow warm: to make warm.--_n._ CALES'CENCE, increasing warmth. [L.,--_cal[=e]re_, to grow hot, _fac[)e]re_, to make.]
CALENDAR, kal'en-dar, _n._ the mode of adjusting the natural divisions of time with respect to each other for the purposes of civil life: an almanac or table of months, days, and seasons, or of special facts, &c., as in the 'gardener's calendar,' &c.: a list of documents arranged chronologically with summaries of contents, as in 'calendar of state papers:' a list of canonised saints, or of prisoners awaiting trial: any list or record.--_v.t._ to place in a list: to analyse and index.--_ns._ CAL'ENDARER, CAL'ENDARIST. [O. Fr. _calendier_--L. _calendarium_, an account-book, _kalendae_, calends.]
CALENDER, kal'en-d[.e]r, _n._ a press consisting of two rollers for smoothing and dressing cloth, paper, &c.: a person who calenders, properly a calendrer.--_v.t._ to dress in a calender.--_ns._ CAL'ENDERING; CAL'ENDRER, one whose business it is to calender cloth; CAL'ENDRY, a place where calendering is done. [Fr. _calandre_--L. _cylindrus_--L.
CALENDER, kal'en-d[.e]r, _n._ a word somewhat loosely used for dervish in Persia and Central Asia. [Pers.]
CALENDS, kal'endz, _n._ among the Romans, the first day of each month. [L.
_Kalendae_--_cal[)a]re_, Gr. _kalein_, to call, because the beginning of the month was proclaimed.]
CALENTURE, kal'en-t[=u]r, _n._ a kind of fever or delirium occurring on board ship in hot climates. [Fr. and Sp.--L. _calent-em_, _cal[=e]re_, to be hot.]
CALESCENCE. See CALEFACTION.
CALF, kaf, _n._ the young of the cow and of some other animals, as marine mammals: calf-skin leather, bookbinding in such: a stupid or a cowardly person:--_pl._ CALVES (kavz).--_ns._ CALF'-LOVE, an attachment between a boy and girl; CALF'S'-FOOT, CALVES'-FOOT, the foot of the calf, used in making a palatable jelly; CALF'-SKIN, the skin of the calf, making a good leather for bookbinding and shoes.--DIVINITY CALF, a dark-brown calf bookbinding, with blind stamping, and without gilding--common in the binding of theological books; GOLDEN CALF, the idol set up by Aaron during the absence of Moses on Sinai, or those erected by Jeroboam at Bethel and Dan: worship of Mammon or wealth; HALF-CALF, a bookbinding in which the back and corners are in calf-skin; MOTTLED CALF, a light coloured bookbinding, decorated by the sprinkling of acid in drops; SMOOTH CALF, a binding in plain or undecorated calf leather.--THE CALVES OF OUR LIPS (Hosea, xiv. 2), an offering of praise (the Septuagint reads, 'The fruit of our lips').--TREE CALF, a bright brown calf bookbinding, stained by acids with a pattern resembling the trunk and branches of a tree. [A.S. _cealf_; Ger. _kalb_.]
CALF, kaf, _n._ the thick fleshy part of the leg behind.--_adj._ CALF'LESS, with a thin, poor calf. [Ice. _kalfi_; perh. the same word as the preceding.]
CALIBAN, kal'i-ban, _n._ a man of beastly nature, from the monster in Shakespeare's _Tempest_.
CALIBRE, CALIBER, kal'i-b[.e]r, _n._ the size of the bore of a gun: diameter: intellectual capacity.--_adj._ CAL'IBERED.--_v.t._ CAL'IBR[=A]TE, to determine the calibre of.--_n._ CALIBR[=A]'TION. [Fr. _calibre_, the bore of a gun; prob. L. _qu[=a] libr[=a]_, with what weight, or from Ar.
_q[=a]lib_, a form.]
CALICO, kal'i-k[=o], _n._ a cotton cloth, first brought from _Calicut_ in India: plain white unprinted cotton cloth, bleached or unbleached: coarse printed cotton cloth.--_adj._ made of calico: spotted--_n._ CAL'ICO-PRINT'ER, one employed in printing calicoes.
CALID, kal'id, _adj._ warm.--_n._ CALID'ITY. [L. _calidus_, hot.]
CALIF, CALIPH, k[=a]'lif, or kal'if, _n._ the name assumed by the successors of Mohammed.--_ns._ CAL'IFATE, CAL'IPHATE, the office, rank, or government of a calif. [Fr.--Ar. _khal[=i]fah_, a successor.]
CALIGINOUS, kal-ij'en-us, _adj._ dim, obscure, dark.--_n._ CALIGINOS'ITY.
CALIGRAPHY. See under CALLIGRAPHY.
CALIPASH, kal'i-pash, _n._ the part of a turtle close to the upper shell, consisting of a fatty gelatinous substance of a dull greenish colour.--_n._ CAL'IPEE, the white portion from the belly--a fatty gelatinous substance of a light-yellowish colour. [Prob. corr. of West Ind. words.]
CALIPERS, kal'i-p[.e]rz, CALIPER-COMPASSES, kal'i-p[.e]r-kum'pasez, _n.pl._ compasses with legs suitable for measuring the inside or outside diameter of bodies. [Corr. of CALIBER.]
CALIPH, CALIPHATE. See CALIF.
CALIPPIC, kal-ip'ik, _adj._ four Metonic cycles less one day, or seventy-six years. [From the Greek astronomer _Callipus_, a contemporary of Aristotle.]
CALISAYA, kal-i-s[=a]'ya, _n._ a variety of Peruvian bark.
CALIVER, kal'i-v[.e]r, _n._ (_Shak._) a kind of light musket. [Same as CALIBRE.]
CALIX. See CALYX.
CALIXTIN, CALIXTINE, kal-iks'tin, _adj._ of or belonging to the more moderate party among the Hussites, so called from their demanding the cup (L. _calix_) as well as the bread for the laity--also called U'TRAQUISTS (L. _uterque_, both).--_n._ a follower of the Syncretist Lutheran divine, George _Calixtus_ (1586-1656).
CALK. See CAULK.
CALK, kawk, _n._ a pointed piece of iron on a horse-shoe to prevent slipping--also CALK'IN and CALK'ER.--_v.t._ to provide a shoe with a calk.
[L. _calc-em_, _calx_, a heel.]
CALK, CALQUE, kawk, _v.t._ to chalk, as the back of a drawing, &c., in order to transfer it, to copy by tracing.--_n._ CALK'ING, the copying of a picture by means of tracing.
CALL, kawl, _v.i._ to cry aloud (with _out_; _to_, _after_, _at_, _up_, _down_): to make a short visit (with _upon_, _for_, _at_).--_v.t._ to name: to summon: to appoint or proclaim: to designate or reckon: to select for a special office, as in 'called to be an apostle,' 'to be called to the bar:'
(_coll._) to call bad names to some one.--_n._ a summons or invitation: an impulse: a demand: a short visit: a shrill whistle: the cry of a bird: admission to the rank of barrister: an invitation to the pastorate of a congregation, also the written form of such with appended list of names of persons concurring: (_coll._) occasion, cause.--_ns._ CALL'-AT-LARGE, a form of pastoral call sometimes adopted by a presbytery where a congregation is not unanimous, in which the name of the person to be called is not inscribed beforehand, and names cannot be adhibited by mandate; CALL'-BIRD, a bird trained to allure others into snares; CALL'-BOY, a boy who waits upon the prompter in a theatre, and calls the actors when wanted on the stage; CALL'ER, one who pays a short visit; CALL'ING, that station to which a person is called by Providence to fill: one's trade, profession, or occupation; CALL'ING-CRAB, a popular name for the fiddler-crab, which waves its larger claw when disturbed; CALL'-NOTE, the note by which a bird or beast calls its young.--CALL ATTENTION TO, to point out; CALL AWAY, to divert the mind; CALL BACK, to recall; CALL FOR, to ask loudly: claim; CALL FORTH, to bring or summon to action; CALL FOR TRUMPS, to lay down such cards at whist as will induce one's partner to lead a trump; CALL IN, to bring in from outside, as the notes in circulation, &c.; CALL IN QUESTION, to challenge; CALL OFF, to summon away; CALL ON, or UPON, to invoke, appeal to; CALL OUT, to challenge to fight, esp. a duel: to summon to service, bring into operation; CALL OVER, to read aloud a list; CALL TO ACCOUNT, to summon to render an account; CALL UP, to summon from beneath, or to a tribunal. [A.S. _ceallian_; Ice. _kalla_, Dut. _kallen_.]
CALL, kawl, _n._ (_Spens._) a caul or cap.
CALLANT, kal'ant, _n._ a lad. [A modern Scotch word; Dut. _kalant_.]
CALLER, kal'[.e]r, _adj._ fresh: (_Scot._) cool. [Prob. the same as CALVER.]
CALLET, kal'et, _n._ (_Shak._) a scold, a woman of bad character, a trull.
[Prob. Fr. _caillette_, a frivolous gossip; or prob. the Gael. _caille_, girl, may be related.]
CALLID, kal'id, _adj._ shrewd.--_n._ CALLID'ITY, shrewdness. [L.
CALLIGRAPHY, CALIGRAPHY, kal-lig'ra-fi, _n._ fine penmanship; characteristic style of writing.--_adjs._ CALLIGRAPH'IC, -AL.--_ns._ CALLIG'RAPHIST, CALLIG'RAPHER. [Gr., _kalos_, beautiful, _graphein_, to write.]
CALLIOPE, kal-[=i]'o-pe, _n._ the muse of epic poetry: an instrument producing musical notes by means of steam-whistles, played by a keyboard.
CALLIPERS. Same as CALIPERS.
CALLISTHENICS, kal-is-then'iks, _n.pl._ exercises for the purpose of promoting gracefulness as well as strength of body.--_adj._ CALLISTHEN'IC.
[Gr. _kalos_, beautiful, _sthenos_, strength.]
CALLOUS, kal'us, _adj._ hardened: unfeeling or insensible.--_n._ CALLOS'ITY, a hard swelling on the skin.--_adv._ CALL'OUSLY.--_n._ CALL'OUSNESS. [L. _callosus_--_callus_, hard skin.]
CALLOW, kal'[=o], _adj._ not covered with feathers: unfledged, unbearded: inexperienced: low-lying and liable to be submerged.--_n._ an alluvial flat. [A.S. _calu_; Ger. _kahl_, L. _calvus_, bald.]