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BROME-GRASS, br[=o]m'-gras, _n._ a kind of grass bearing a strong resemblance to oats. [Gr. _br[=o]mos_, and _bromos_, grass.]

BROMINE, br[=o]m'in, _n._ one of the elements, closely allied to chlorine, so called from its disagreeable smell.--_adj._ BROM'IC, pertaining to bromine.--_ns._ BROM'ATE, a combination of bromic acid with a salifiable base; BROM'IDE, a combination of bromine with a base.--BROMIC ACID, an acid composed of bromine and oxygen. [Gr. _br[=o]mos_, a disagreeable odour.]

BRONCHIae, brongk'i-[=e], a name given to the ramifications of the windpipe which carry air into the lungs.--_adjs._ BRONCH'IC, BRONCH'IAL.--_n._ BRONCH[=I]'TIS, inflammation of the bronchiae. [L.--Gr.

_bronchia_, the bronchial tubes.]

BRONCHO, BRONCO, brong'ko, _n._ (_U.S._) a half-tamed horse. [Sp. _bronco_, rough, sturdy.]


BRONZE, bronz, _n._ an alloy of copper and tin used in various ways since the most ancient times: anything cast in bronze: the colour of bronze: (_fig._) impudence.--_adj._ made of bronze: coloured like bronze.--_v.t._ to give the appearance of bronze to: (_fig._) to harden.--_adj._ BRONZED, coated with bronze: hardened.--_ns._ BRONZE'-STEEL, or _Steel-bronze_, a specially hardened bronze; BRONZE'-WING, BRONZE'-PI'GEON, a species of Australian pigeon having wings marked with a lustrous bronze colour.--_v.t._ BRONZ'IFY, to make into bronze.--_ns._ BRONZ'ING, the process of giving the appearance of bronze; BRONZ'ITE, a lustrous kind of diallage.--_adj._ BRONZ'Y, having the appearance of bronze.--BRONZE AGE or PERIOD, a term in prehistoric archaeology denoting the condition or stage of culture of a people using bronze as the material for cutting implements and weapons--as a stage of culture coming between the use of stone and the use of iron for those purposes--not an absolute division of time, but a relative condition of culture. [Fr.--It. _bronzo_--L. _Brundusium_, the modern _Brindisi_.]

BROO, br[=oo] (mod. Scot.--vowel sounded like Ger. _u_), _n._ (_Scot._) broth. [Ety. dub.: prob. O. Fr. _bro_, _breu_, broth; prob conn. with BREE.]

BROOCH, br[=o]ch, _n._ an ornamental pin or instrument for fastening any article of dress, consisting for the most part either of a ring or disc, or of a semicircle, there being a pin in either case passing across it, fastened at one end with a joint or loop, and at the other with a hook.--_v.t._ (_Shak._) to adorn as with a brooch. [Fr. _broche_, a spit.


BROOD, br[=oo]d, _v.t._ to sit upon or cover in order to breed or hatch: to hatch: to cover, as with wings: to mature or foster with care: to meditate moodily upon.--_v.i._ to sit as a hen on eggs: to hover over: to think anxiously for some time: to meditate silently (with _on_, _over_): to be bred.--_n._ something bred: offspring, children, or family: a race, kind: parentage: the number hatched at once.--_adj._ for breeding, as in _brood_-mare, &c.--_adv._ BROOD'INGLY.--_adj._ BROOD'Y, inclined to sit or incubate. [A.S. _brod_; Dut. _broed_; what is hatched.]

BROOK, br[=oo]k, _n._ a small stream.--_ns._ BROOK'LET, a little brook; BROOK'LIME, a species of speedwell found in ditches. [A.S. _broc_, water breaking forth; Dut. _broek_, Ger. _bruch_.]

BROOK, br[=oo]k, _v.t._ to enjoy: to bear or endure. [A.S. _burcan_, to use, enjoy; Ger. _brauchen_, L. _frui_, _fructus_.]

BROOL, br[=oo]l, _n._ a deep murmur. [Ger. _brull_, a roar.]

BROOM, br[=oo]m, _n._ a name given to a number of species of shrubs of the closely allied genera Cytisus, Genista, and Spartium: a besom made of its twigs.--_v.t._ to sweep with a broom.--_ns._ BROOM'-CORN, a species of plant resembling maize, cultivated for its seed and its spikes, of which brooms are made; BROOM'-RAPE, a parasitic plant found adhering to the root of broom, clover, &c.; BROOM'STAFF, BROOM'STICK, the staff or handle of a broom.--_adj._ BROOM'Y, abounding in or consisting of broom.--TO MARRY OVER THE BROOMSTICK, or TO JUMP THE BESOM, to go through an irregular form of marriage, in which both jump over a broomstick. [A.S. _brom_; Ger. _bram_.]

BROOSE, bruz, _n._ (_Scot._) a race at weddings in Scotland. [Derivation unknown.]

BROSE, br[=o]z, _n._ a simple and nutritious food, made by pouring boiling water or milk on oatmeal, seasoned with salt and butter.--ATHOLE BROSE, a mixture of whisky and honey. [Scot.; O. Fr. _broez_.]

BROTH, broth, _n._ an infusion or decoction of vegetable and animal substances in water.--A BROTH OF A BOY (_Irish_), a first-rate fellow.

[A.S. _broth_--_breowan_, to brew. See BREW.]

BROTHEL, broth'el, _n._ a house of ill-fame. [M. E. _brothel_--A. S.

_bro-en_, ruined, _breen_, to go to ruin.]

BROTHER, bruth'[.e]r, _n._ a male born of the same parents: any one closely united with or resembling another; associated in common interests, occupation, &c.: a fellow-member of a religious order, a fellow-member of a guild, &c.: a fellow-creature, fellow-citizen, a co-religionist: (_B._) a kinsman: _pl._ BROTH'ERS and BRETH'REN, the latter esp. used in the sense of fellow-membership of guilds, religious communities, &c., and is a name given to certain sections of the Church of Christ, as Christian Brethren, Moravian Brethren, Plymouth Brethren, &c.--_ns._ BROTH'ER-GER'MAN, a brother having the same father and mother, in contradistinction to a _half-brother_, by one parent only; BROTH'ERHOOD, the state of being a brother: an association of men for any purpose; BROTH'ER-IN-LAW, the brother of a husband or wife: a sister's husband.--_adjs._ BROTH'ER-LIKE, BROTH'ERLY, like a brother: kind: affectionate.--_n._ BROTH'ERLINESS, state of being brotherly: kindness. [A.S. _broor_; cog. with Ger. _bruder_, Gael. _brathair_, Fr. _frere_, L. _frater_, Sans. _bhratar_.]

BROUGHAM, br[=oo]'am, or br[=oo]m, _n._ a one-horse close carriage, either two or four wheeled, named after Lord _Brougham_ (1778-1868).

BROUGHT, brawt, _pa.t._ and _pa.p._ of BRING.

BROW, brow, _n._ the eyebrow: the ridge over the eyes: the forehead: the edge of a hill: a gallery in a coalmine running across the face of the coal: (_fig._) aspect, appearance.--_v.t._ BROW'BEAT, to bear down with stern looks or speech: to bully.--_adjs._ BROW'-BOUND, having the brow bound as with a crown: crowned; BROW'LESS, without shame. [A.S. _bru_; Ice.


BROWN, brown, _adj._ of a dark or dusky colour, inclining to red or yellow: dark-complexioned: sunburnt.--_n._ a dark-reddish colour: (_slang_) a copper.--_v.t._ to make brown, or give a brown colour to: to roast brown.--_ns._ BROWN'-BESS, the old British flint-lock musket--from the brown walnut stock; BROWN'-BILL, a foot-soldier's or watchman's halbert, painted brown; BROWN'-BREAD, bread of a brown colour, made of unbolted flour; BROWN'-COAL, commonly called _Lignite_, an imperfect kind of coal which exhibits more of its woody structure than ordinary coal; BROWN'-GEORGE, a hard biscuit: a brown earthen vessel; BROWN'ING, the process of imparting a brown colour to iron articles: a preparation for giving a brown colour to gravy, &c., or for dressing brown leather.--_adj._ BROWN'ISH.--_ns._ BROWN'NESS; BROWN'-P[=A]'PER, coarse and strong paper used chiefly for wrapping; BROWN'-SPAR, a name given to certain varieties of dolomite or magnesian limestone, distinguished by their brownish colour; BROWN'-STOUT, a kind of porter; BROWN'-STUD'Y, gloomy reverie: absent-mindedness.--_adj._ BROWN'Y (_Shak._), of a brown colour.--TO DO BROWN (_slang_), to do thoroughly, to deceive or take in completely. [A.S.

_brun_; Dut. _bruin_, Ger. _braun_.]

BROWNIE, brown'i, _n._ a kind of domestic spirit in the folklore of Scotland, represented as a good-humoured, drudging goblin, who attached himself to farmhouses, and occupied himself overnight in churning, thrashing corn, and the like. [_Brown._]

BROWNIST, brown'ist, _n._ one holding the Church principles of Robert _Browne_ (1550-1633), which may be said to have given birth to the Independents or Congregationalists of England.

BROWSE, browz, _v.t._ and _v.i._ to feed on the shoots or leaves of plants.--_ns._ BROWSE, BROWS'ING, the shoots and leaves of plants: fodder: the action of the verb browse. [O. Fr. _brouster_ (Fr.

_brouter_)--_broust_, a sprout.]

BROWST, browst, _n._ (_Scot._) a brewing. [BREW.]

BRUCKLE, bruk'l, _adj._ (_Scot._) liable to break, brittle. [A.S.

_brucol_--_brekan_, to BREAK.]

BRUIN, br[=oo]'in, _n._ a bear, so called from the name of the bear in the famous beast-epic _Reynard the Fox_, just as _reynard_ and _chanticleer_ have also passed from proper names into common names, often written without capitals. [_Bruin_ = _brown_.]

BRUISE, br[=oo]z, _v.t._ to crush by beating or pounding: to oppress: to box or fight with the fists: to ride recklessly in hunting, careless alike of horse and crops: to reduce to small fragments.--_n._ a wound made by anything heavy and blunt.--_p.adj._ BRUISED, hurt by a heavy blow, with skin crushed and discoloured.--_n._ BRUIS'ER, one that bruises: a boxer.--_p.adj._ BRUIS'ING, boxing. [A.S. _brsan_, to crush, with which, says Dr Murray, afterwards coalesced Fr. _brisie-r_; _bruisier_, _bruser_, to break.]

BRUIT, br[=oo]t, _n._ noise: something noised abroad: a rumour or report.--_v.t._ to noise abroad: to report: to celebrate. [Fr. _bruit_--Fr.

_bruire_; cf. Low L. _brug[=i]tus_; prob. imit.]

BRULZIE, BRUILZIE, brul'yi, _n._ Scotch and northern form of BROIL.

BRUMAIRE, br[=oo]m[=a]r', _n._ the second month in the French revolutionary calendar, extending from Oct. 22 to Nov. 20. [Fr. _brume_, fog--L. _bruma_, winter.]

BRUME, br[=oo]m, _n._ fog.--_adjs._ BRUM'AL, relating to winter; BRUM'OUS, foggy, wintry. [L. _bruma_, winter, contr. from _brevima_, the shortest day.]

BRUMMAGEM, brum'a-jem, _adj._ showy but worthless, sham, counterfeit. [From a popular pronunciation of _Birmingham_.]

BRUNETTE, br[=oo]n-et', _n._ a girl with a brown or dark complexion. [Fr.

dim. of _brun_, brown.]

BRUNONIAN, br[=oo]-no'ni-an, _adj._ relating to the system of medicine founded by Dr John _Brown_ of Edinburgh (1736-88)--all diseases _sthenic_, those depending on an excess of excitement, or _asthenic_, those resulting from a deficiency of it.

BRUNT, brunt, _n._ the shock of an onset or contest: the force of a blow: the chief stress or crisis of anything.--_v.t._ to bear the brunt of. [Ice.

_bruna_, to advance like fire, is usually given; Dr Murray suggests that it may be an onomatopoeia of Eng. itself (cf. DUNT), or connected with _burnt_--Scot. _brunt_.]

BRUSH, brush, _n._ an instrument for removing dust, usually made of bristles, twigs, feathers, or stiff grass stems: a kind of hair-pencil used by painters: a painter, one who uses the brush: brushwood: a skirmish or encounter: the tail of a fox: (_elect._) a brush-like discharge of sparks: one of the bundles of copper wires or flexible strips in contact with the commutator of the armature on opposite sides, and which carry off the positive and negative currents of electricity generated.--_v.t._ to remove dust, &c., from by sweeping: to touch lightly in passing: remove (with _off_): to thrash.--_v.i._ to move over lightly: to make off with a rush.--_n._ BRUSH'ING, the act of rubbing or sweeping.--_adj._ in a lively manner: brisk.--_ns._ BRUSH'-WHEEL, a wheel used in light machinery to turn another by having the rubbing surface covered with stiff hairs or bristles; BRUSH'WOOD, rough close bushes: a thicket.--_adj._ BRUSH'Y, rough, rugged.--TO BRUSH UP, to brighten, revive. [O. Fr. _brosse_, a brush, brushwood--Low L. _bruscia_; Diez connects the Fr. with Old High Ger.

_burst_, _bursta_, bristle.]

BRUSQUE, br[=oo]sk, _adj._ blunt, abrupt in manner, rude.--_adv._ BRUSQUE'LY.--_ns._ BRUSQUE'NESS; BRUSQUE'RIE. [Fr. _brusque_; rude. See BRISK.]

BRUSSELS, brus'elz, _n._ contracted from BRUSSELS-CARPET, a kind of carpet in which the worsted threads are arranged in the warp, and are interwoven into a network of linen. Still, the bulk of the carpet consists of BRUSS'ELS-SPROUTS, a variety of the common cabbage with sprouts like miniature cabbages. [Named from _Brussels_ in Belgium.]

BRUST, brust, _pa.p._ (_Spens._). Same as BURST.

BRUTE, br[=oo]t, _adj._ belonging to the lower animals: irrational: stupid: rude.--_n._ one of the lower animals.--_adj._ BRUT'AL, like a brute: unfeeling: inhuman.--_v.t._ BRUT'ALISE, to make like a brute, to degrade.--_v.i._ to live like a brute.--_n._ BRUTAL'ITY.--_adv._ BRUT'ALLY.--_n._ BRUTE'NESS, brute-like state: brutality: (_Spens._) stupidity.--_v.t._ BRUT'IFY, to make brutal, stupid, or uncivilised:--_pr.p._ brutify'ing; _pa.p._ brutif[=i]ed'.--_adj._ BRUT'ISH, brutal: (_B._) unwise.--_adv._ BRUT'ISHLY.--_n._ BRUT'ISHNESS.--THE BRUTE CREATION, the lower animals. [Fr. _brut_--L. _brutus_, dull, irrational.]

BRUTUS, br[=oo]'tus, _n._ a kind of wig: a way of wearing the hair brushed back from the forehead, popular at the time of the French Revolution, when it was an affectation to admire the old Romans, as _Brutus_.

BRYOLOGY, br[=i]-ol'o-ji, _n._ the study of mosses. [Gr. _bryon_, moss, and _logia_--_legein_, to speak.]

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