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ARCHETYPE, ark'e-t[=i]p, _n._ the original pattern or model, a prototype.--_adj._ ARCHETYP'AL. [Gr. _archetypon_, _archi-_, and _typos_, a model.]

ARCHIEPISCOPAL, ark-i-ep-is'kop-al, _adj._ belonging to an archbishop.--_ns._ ARCHIEPIS'COPACY, ARCHIEPIS'COPATE, dignity or province of an archbishop. [See EPISCOPAL.]

ARCHIL, ar'kil, _n._ a colouring substance obtained from various species of lichens. [Corrupt form of ORCHIL--O. Fr. _orchel_, _orseil_ (Fr.

_orseille_)--It. _orcello_, origin undetermined.]

ARCHILOCHIAN, ar-ki-l[=o]'ki-an, _adj._ pertaining to the Greek lyric poet _Archilochus_ of Paros (714-676 B.C.), the supposed originator of iambic metre, noted for the bitterness of his satire--hence the proverbial phrases, 'Archilochian bitterness' and 'Parian verse:' a _lesser Archilochian verse_ = a dactylic hexameter alternating with a penthemim; a _greater Archilochian_, a verse consisting of four dactyls and three trochees.

ARCHIMAGE, ar'ki-m[=a]j, _n._ a chief magician or enchanter. [Gr. _archi-_, chief, and L. _magus_, a magician.]

ARCHIMANDRITE, ar-ki-man'dr[=i]t, _n._ in the Greek Church, the superior of a monastery, an abbot: sometimes the superintendent of several monasteries.

[Late Gr. _archimandrit[=e]s_--pfx. _archi_, first, and _mandra_, an enclosure, a monastery.]


ARCHIMEDEAN, ark-i-me-d[=e]'an, _adj._ pertaining to _Archimedes_, a celebrated Greek mathematician of Syracuse (287-212 B.C.).--ARCHIMEDEAN SCREW, a machine for raising water, in its simplest form consisting of a flexible tube bent spirally round a solid cylinder, the ends of which are furnished with pivots, so as to admit of the whole turning round its axis.--PRINCIPLE OF ARCHIMEDES, a fundamental law in Hydrostatics, that a body when immersed in a fluid weighs less than it does _in vacuo_ by the weight of the fluid it displaces.

ARCHIPELAGO, ark-i-pel'a-g[=o], _n._ the chief sea of the Greeks, or the aegean Sea: a sea abounding in small islands, also a group of such islands:--_pl._ ARCHIPEL'AGOES.--_adj._ ARCHIPELAGIC (-aj'ik). [An Italian compound from Gr. _archi-_, chief, _pelagos_, sea.]

ARCHITECT, ark'i-tekt, _n._ a master-builder: one who designs buildings and superintends their erection: a maker: any contriver, as the Creator.--_adjs._ ARCHITECTON'IC, pertaining to architecture: constructive: controlling, having direction: (_metaph._) pertaining to the arrangement of knowledge.--_n._ the science of architecture: the systematic arrangement of knowledge.--_adj._ ARCHITECT'URAL.--_n._ ARCHITECT'URE, the art or science of building: structure: in specific sense, one of the fine arts, the art of architecture--also used of any distinct style, e.g. Gothic, Byzantine architecture. [Gr. _architekt[=o]n_--_archi-_, chief, and _tekt[=o]n_, a builder.]

ARCHITRAVE, ark'i-tr[=a]v, _n._ (_archit._) the lowest division of the entablature resting immediately on the abacus of the column: collective name for the various parts, jambs, lintels, &c. which surround a door or window.--_p.adj._ ARCH'ITRAVED. [It. from Gr. _archi-_, chief, and L.

_trab-em_, _trabs_, a beam.]

ARCHIVES, ark'[=i]vz, _n._ the place in which government records are kept: (_pl._) public records--also figuratively in both senses.--_adj._ ARCH'IVAL, pertaining to, or contained in, archives or records.--_n._ ARCH'IVIST, a keeper of archives or records. [Fr.--Gr. _archeion_, magisterial residence--_arch[=e]_, government.]

ARCHIVOLT, ar'ki-volt, _n._ the band or moulding which runs round the lower part of the archstones of an arch. [Fr. _archivolte_, It. _archivolto_--L.

_arcus_, an arch, _volta_, a vault.]

ARCHOLOGY, ark-ol'oj-i, _n._ (_rare_) doctrine of the origin of things: the science of government. [Gr. _arch[=e]_, beginning, _logos_, discourse.]

ARCHON, ark'on, _n._ one of nine chief magistrates of ancient Athens.--_ns._ ARCH'ONSHIP, the office of an archon; ARCH'ONTATE, the archon's tenure of office. [Gr. _arch-ein_, to be first, to rule.]

ARCHWISE, arch'w[=i]z, _adv._ in the form of an arch. [ARCH, and WISE, way.]

ARCTIC, ark'tik, _adj._ relating to the constellation the Great Bear, or to the north, used figuratively to express extreme cold.--ARCTIC CIRCLE, a circle drawn round the North Pole, at a distance of 23 degrees. [O. Fr.

_artique_--L. _arcticus_--Gr. _arktikos_--_arktos_, a bear.]

ARCTURUS, ark-t[=u]'rus, _n._ the Bear-ward, a yellow star in the northern hemisphere, fourth in order of brightness in the entire heavens. [Gr.

_arktouros_--_arktos_, a bear, and _ouros_, ward, guard (from its situation at the tail of the bear).]

ARCUATE, ar'k[=u]-[=a]t, ARCUATED, ar'k[=u]-[=a]t-ed, _adj._ bent in the form of a bow.--_n._ ARCU[=A]'TION. [L. _arcuatus_, pa.p. of _arcu-[=a]re_, to bend like a bow--_arcus_, a bow.]


ARDEB, ar'deb, _n._ an Egyptian dry measure of 5 bushels. [Ar. _irdab_.]

ARDENT, ard'ent, _adj._ burning: fiery: passionate: zealous: fervid.--_adv._ ARD'ENTLY.--_n._ ARD'OUR, warmth of passion or feeling: eagerness: enthusiasm (with _for_)--also ARD'ENCY.--ARDENT SPIRITS, distilled alcoholic liquors, whisky, brandy, &c. The use of the word as = 'inflammable, combustible,' is obsolete, except in this phrase. [L.

_ardent-em_, _ard[=e]-re_, to burn.]

ARDUOUS, ard'[=u]-us, _adj._ deep, difficult to climb: difficult to accomplish: laborious.--_adv._ ARD'UOUSLY.--_n._ ARD'UOUSNESS. [L.

_arduus_, high; cog. with Celt. _ard_, high.]

ARE, ar, _n._ the unit of the French land measure, containing 100 sq.

metres = 119.6 English sq. yards. [Fr.--L. _area_.]

ARE, ar, the plural of the present indicative of the verb _To be_. [Old Northumbrian _aron_, of Scand. origin. This form ousted the older A.S.

_sind_, _sindon_. Both are cog. with Sans. _s-anti_, Gr. _eis-in_, L.

_sunt_, Ger. _s-ind_.]

AREA, [=a]'r[=e]-a, _n._ any plane surface or enclosed space: the sunken space around the basement of a building: (_fig._) extent conceived by the mind: (_geom._) the superficial contents of any figure. [L. _area_.]

AREAD, AREDE, a-r[=e]d', _v.t._ (_obs._) to make known, utter: guess: interpret, explain: to counsel, advise. [A.S. _aredan_. See READ.]

AREAR, a-r[=e]r', _adv._ in the rear. [A.S. pfx. _a-_, on, to, and REAR.]

ARECA, ar'[=e]-ka, _n._ a genus of palm, one species of which, the Betel-nut Palm, or Penang Palm (_Areca catechu_), bears nuts with austere and astringent properties, which are chewed by the Malays with a little lime in a leaf of the betel-pepper, making the lips and spittle red.

AREFACTION, ar-e-fak'shun, _n._ (_obs._) the action of drying.--_v.t._ and _v.i._ AR'EFY, to dry up, wither. [L. _arefac[)e]re_, to make dry--_ar[=e]re_, to be dry, and _fac[)e]re_, to make.]

ARENA, a-r[=e]'na, _n._ part of the ancient amphitheatre strewed with sand for the combats of gladiators and wild beasts: any place of public contest: a battlefield: place of action of any kind.--_adj._ AREN[=A]'CEOUS, sandy: dry: (_geol._) applied to rocks composed entirely or largely of grains of quartz.--_ns._ AREN[=A]'RIA, the sandwort, a genus of low herbs allied to the chickweeds; AREN[=A]'TION, the application of hot sand to the body as a remedy. [L. _ar[=e]na_, sand.]

AREOGRAPHY, [=a]-re-[=o]'gra-fi, _n._ description of the physical features of the planet Mars. [Gr. _Ar[=e]s_, Mars, and _graphein_, to write.]

AREOLA, a-r[=e]'o-la, _n._ a small area: (_bot._) any slightly sunk spot, on the surface: (_physiol._) the interstice in the tissue of an organised substance: any circular spot such as that around the human nipple:--_pl._ AR[=E]'OLae.--_adj._ AR[=E]'OLATE, divided into small areas.--_n._ AREOL[=A]'TION, division into areolae. [L. _areola_, a dim. of AREA.]

AREOMETER, ARaeOMETER, [=a]-re-om'e-t[.e]r, _n._ an instrument for determining specific gravity, called also _Hydrometer_.--_n._ AREOM'ETRY, the measuring the specific gravity of bodies. [Gr. _araios_, thin, and METER.]

AREOPAGUS, ar-e-op'ag-us, _n._ Mars' Hill, on which the supreme court of ancient Athens was held: the court itself: also used of any important tribunal.--_n._ AREOP'AGITE, a member of the Areopagus.--_adj._ AREOPAGIT'IC, pertaining to the Areopagus.--_n._ a speech on the model of Isocrates's oration of that name addressed to the Areopagus. [Gr. _Areios pagos_, hill of Ares, or Mars.]

ARET, ARETTE, a-ret', _v.t._ (_Spens._) to entrust, commit a charge to. [O.

Fr. _arete-r_, _a_-, to, _reter_--L. _reput[=a]re_, to reckon.]

AReTE, ar-[=a]t', _n._ a sharp ridge: esp. in French Switzerland, a rocky edge on a mountain. [Fr.--L. _arista_, an ear of corn, fish-bone, spine.]

AREW, a-r[=oo]', _adv._ (_Spens._) arow, in a row.

ARGAL, ar'gal, _adv._ (_Shak._) corruption of L. _ergo_, therefore: hence as a noun = a clumsy piece of reasoning.

ARGALI, ar'ga-li, _n._ the great wild sheep of Siberia and Central Asia.


ARGAND, ar'gand, _n._ applied to a lamp and gas-burner invented by Aime _Argand_ (1755-1803).

ARGENT, arj'ent, _adj._ and _n._ silver, or like silver, silvery-white: (_her._) the silver or white colour in armorial bearings: (_poet._) esp. in compounds like _argent_-clear, _argent_-lidded.--_adjs._ ARGENT'AL; ARGENTIF'EROUS, bearing or containing silver; AR'GENTINE, relating to or like silver: sounding like silver.--_n._ (_nat. hist._) white metal coated with silver: a genus of small bony fishes with silvery sides, fished for the nacre which they contain. [Fr.--L. _argentum_, silver.]

ARGIL, ar'jil, _n._ potter's clay: pure clay or alumina.--_adjs._ ARGILL[=A]'CEOUS, of the nature of clay; ARGILLIF'EROUS, bearing or abounding in clay. [L. _argilla_, Gr. _argilos_, white clay--_arg[=e]s_, white.]

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