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_acqua tinta_--L. _aqua_, water, and _ting[)e]re_, _tinctum_, to wet, to colour.]

AQUEDUCT, ak'we-dukt, _n._ an artificial channel for conveying water, most commonly understood to mean a bridge of stone, iron, or wood for conveying water across a valley: also a bridge carrying a canal for the purposes of navigation. [L. _aqua_, water--_duc[)e]re_, _ductum_, to lead.]

AQUEOUS, [=a]'kwe-us, _adj._ watery: deposited by water.--_adv._ A'QUEOUSLY.--AQUEOUS HUMOUR, the watery fluid which fills the space between the cornea and the crystalline lens in the eye; AQUEOUS ROCKS, in geology, rocks composed of matter deposited by water.

AQUIFEROUS, ak-wif'[.e]r-us, _adj._ bearing water. [L. _aqua_, water, _fero_, I bear.]

AQUIFORM, [=a]'kwi-form, _adj._ having the form of water. [L. _aqua_, water, and FORM.]

AQUILINE, ak'wil-in, or -[=i]n, _adj._ relating to or like the eagle: curved or hooked, like an eagle's beak. [L. _aquila_.]

AQUILON, ak'wi-lon, _n._ (_Shak._) the north wind. [L. _aquilo_, _-onis_.]

ARAB, ar'ab, _n._ a native of Arabia: an Arab horse, noted for its gracefulness and speed: a neglected or homeless boy or girl--usually STREET or CITY ARAB.--_adj._ of or belonging to Arabia.--_adj._ AR[=A]B'IAN, relating to Arabia.--_n._ a native of Arabia.--_adj._ AR'ABIC, relating to Arabia, or to its language.--_n._ the language of Arabia.--_ns._ AR'ABISM, an Arabic idiom; AR'ABIST, one skilled in the Arabic language or literature; AR'ABY, a poetical form of _Arabia_. [L. _Arabs_, _Arab-em_--Gr. _Araps_.]

ARABA, ar-a'ba, _n._ a heavy screened wagon used by the Tartars.--Also AR'BA and AR[=O]'BA. [Ar. and Pers. _ar[=a]bah_.]


ARABESQUE, ar'ab-esk, _adj._ after the manner of Arabian designs.--_n._ a fantastic painted or sculptured ornament among the Spanish Moors, consisting of foliage and other parts of plants curiously intertwined.--_adj._ AR'ABESQUED, so ornamented. [Fr.--It. _arabesco_; _-esco_ corresponding to Eng. _-ish_.]

ARABINE, ar'ab-in, _n._ the essential principle of gum-arabic.

ARABLE, ar'a-bl, _adj._ fit for ploughing or tillage. [L.

_arabilis_--_ara-re_, cog. with Gr. _aro-ein_, to plough, A.S. _erian_, Eng. EAR (v.t.), Ir. _araim_.]

ARACHNIDA, a-rak'ni-da, a sub-class of Tracheate Arthropoda, embracing spiders, scorpions, mites, &c., first separated by Lamarck from the Insecta of Linnaeus.--_adj._ ARACH'NIDAN.--_n._ and _adj._ ARACH'NOID, like a cobweb.--_adjs._ ARACHNOI'DAL, ARACHNOLOG'ICAL.--_n._ ARACHNO'LOGIST, one who devotes himself to the study of arachnida.--ARACHNOID MEMBRANE, one of the three coverings of the brain and spinal cord, situated between the dura-mater and the pia-mater, non-vascular, transparent, thin. [Gr. _arachn[=e]_, spider.]

ARAGONITE, ar'a-gon-[=i]t, _n._ a variety of calcium carbonate. [_Aragon_, in Spain.]

ARAISE, a-r[=a]z', _v.t._ (_Shak._) to raise from the dead. [Pfx. _a-_, and RAISE.]

ARAMAIC, ar-a-m[=a]'ik, _adj._ relating to _Aramaea_, the whole of the country to the north-east of Palestine, or to its language--also ARAM[=E]'AN, AR'AMITE.--_n._ ARAM[=A]'ISM, an Aramaic idiom.

ARANEIFORM, ar-a-n[=e]'i-form, _adj._ in the form of a spider.--_adj._ ARAN[=E]'IDAN.--_n._ ARANEOL'OGIST = ARACHNOL'OGIST.--_adj._ ARAN'EOUS, like a spider's web. [L. _ar[=a]nea_, spider, and FORM.]

ARAPHOROSTIC, ar-af-or-os'tik, _adj._ (_Lytton_) seamless.--Also AROPHOS'TIC. [Formed from Gr. _arraphos_, unsewed--_a_, neg., and _hropt-ein_, to sew.]

ARAUCARIA, ar-aw-k[=a]'ri-a, _n._ a genus of lofty evergreen trees of the natural order Coniferae or Pines, natives of S. America and Australasia.

[_Arauco_, name of a province, whence _Araucania_, a district in S. Chili.]

ARBALEST, ar'bal-est, _n._ a crossbow of steel or horn used in war and the chase--also AR'BALIST, AR'BLAST, ARC[=U]'BALIST.--_ns._ AR'BALISTER, AR'BALESTER, one armed with an arbalest. [O. Fr. _arbaleste_--L.

_arcuballista_--_arcus_, bow, and _ballista_, engine for throwing missiles.]

ARBITER, ar'bit-[.e]r, _n._ one chosen by parties in controversy to decide between them: a judge having absolute power of decision: an arbitrator: umpire:--_fem._ AR'BITRESS.--_ns._ AR'BITRAGE, exercise of the functions of the arbiter; ARBIT'RAMENT, ARBIT'REMENT, the decision of an arbiter: determination: choice.--_v.i._ AR'BITRATE, to act as an arbiter: to determine.--_ns._ ARBITR[=A]'TION; AR'BITR[=A]TOR (same as ARBITER):--_fem._ AR'BITR[=A]TRIX.--ARBITRATION OF EXCHANGE, the determination of the rate of exchange between two currencies when there are one or more intermediate places through which the operations must pass.--TO SUBMIT TO ARBITRATION, to defer a matter of private, public, or international controversy to the judgment of certain persons selected.

[L.--_ar_ = _ad_, to, and _bit-[)e]re_ (cog. with Gr. _bai-nein_), to go or come; sig. one who comes to look on, a witness, a judge.]

ARBITRARY, ar'bi-trar-i, _adj._ not bound by rules: despotic, absolute, arising from accident rather than from rule, varying, uncertain.--_adv._ AR'BITRARILY.--_n._ AR'BITRARINESS. [L. _arbitrarius_, arbiter.]


ARBOR, ar'bur, _n._ the Latin word for tree.--_adjs._ ARBOR[=A]'CEOUS, ARB[=O]R'EAL, of tree-like character.--_n._ ARBOR-DAY, in many of the United States, a day yearly set apart for the general planting of trees by school children--in Canada, the first Friday in May.--_adj._ ARB[=O]R'EOUS, of or belonging to trees.--_ns._ ARBORES'CENCE, ARBORIS[=A]'TION, tree-like growth.--_adj._ ARBORES'CENT, growing or formed like a tree: (_archit._) branching like a tree.--_ns._ AR'BORET (_obs._), shrubbery: (_Spens._) a little tree, shrub; ARBOR[=E]'TUM, a place in which specimens of trees and shrubs are cultivated:--_pl._ ARBOR[=E]'TA.--_adj._ ARBORICUL'TURAL.--_ns._ AR'BORICULTURE, forestry, the culture of trees, esp. timber-trees; ARBORICUL'TURIST; AR'BORIST, one who studies trees.--_adj._ AR'BOROUS, formed by trees.--ARBOR VITae, a popular name of several evergreen shrubs of the genus Thuja. When the human cerebellum is cut vertically, a tree-like appearance seen receives this name.

ARBOR, ar'bur, _n._ the main support of a machine: an axis or spindle on which a wheel revolves. [L.]

ARBOUR, ar'bur, _n._ an enclosed seat in a garden, covered with branches of trees, plants, &c.: a bower: a shaded walk.--_adj._ AR'BOURED. [See HARBOUR.]

ARBUTE, ar'b[=u]t, _n._ the strawberry-tree: an evergreen shrub, which bears a scarlet fruit somewhat resembling the strawberry.--Also AR'BUTUS.

[L. _arbutus_, akin to _arbor_, tree.]

ARC, ark, _n._ a segment of a circle or other curve. [O. Fr.--L. _arcus_, a bow.]

ARCADE, ark-[=a]d', _n._ a row of arches supported by columns--the Gothic counterpart to the classical colonnade: the row of piers, or columns and arches, by which the aisles are divided from the nave of a church, or by which cloisters are enclosed: a walk arched over: a long arched gallery lined with shops on both sides. [Fr.--L. _arcata_, arched. See ARCH.]

ARCADIAN, ark-[=a]d'i-an, _adj._ pertaining to _Arcadia_ (_poet._ AR'CADY), a district in Greece whose people were primitive in manners and given to music and dancing: pastoral: simple, innocent.--_n._ ARCAD'IANISM.--_adv._ ARCAD'IANLY.

ARCANUM, ark-[=a]n'um, _n._ a secret: a mystery: a secret remedy or elixir:--_pl._ ARCAN'A.--_adj._ ARCANE' (_rare_). [L.--_arcanus_--_arca_, a chest.]

ARCATURE, ar-ka-t[=u]r, _n._ French for arcade, a small arcade: a blind arcade for decorating wall spaces.

ARCH, arch, _n._ a concave construction of stones or other materials, built or turned on a centering over an open space, so as by mutual pressure to support each other and sustain a superincumbent weight.--_v.t._ to cover with an arch: to bend into the form of an arch.--_p.adj._ ARCHED, made with an arch, or like an arch.--_ns._ ARCH'LET, a little arch; ARCH'WAY, an arched or vaulted passage, esp. that leading into a castle.--ARCHES, or COURT OF ARCHES, the ecclesiastical court of appeal for the province of Canterbury, formerly held at the church of St-Mary-le-Bow (or 'of the Arches'), from the arches that support its steeple. [O. Fr.,--L. _arca_, chest.]

ARCH, arch, _adj._ cunning: waggish: roguish: shrewd, now mostly of women and children.--_adv._ ARCH'LY.--_n._ ARCH'NESS. [Derived from the prefix _arch-_, in its use in words like _arch_-rogue, &c.]

ARCH, arch (ark in _archangel_), _adj._ used as a prefix, now chiefly as an intensive in an odious sense: the first or chief.--_ns._ ARCH'-EN'EMY, a chief enemy: Satan--also ARCH'-FOE; ARCH'-FIEND, the supreme fiend: Satan; ARCH'-FL[=A]'MEN, a chief flamen or priest; ARCH-HE'RESY; ARCH'-HE'RETIC, a leader of heresy; ARCH'-MOCK' (_Shak._), the height of mockery; ARCH'-P[=I]'RATE, a chief pirate; ARCH'-P[=O]'ET, a chief poet: (_obs._) a poet-laureate; ARCH'-PREL'ATE, a chief prelate; ARCH'-PRIEST', a chief priest: in early times, a kind of vicar to the bishop--later, a rural dean: the title given to the superiors appointed by the Pope to govern the secular priests sent into England from the foreign seminaries during the period 1598-1621; ARCH'-TRAIT'OR, a chief traitor, sometimes applied esp.

to the devil, or to Judas. [A.S. _arce_, _aerce_, through L. from Gr.

_archi_, cog. with _arch-ein_, to begin.]

ARCHaeOLOGY, ark-e-ol'oj-i, _n._ a knowledge of ancient art, customs, &c.: the science which deduces a knowledge of past times from the study of their existing remains.--_adj._ ARCHaeOLOG'ICAL.--_adv._ ARCHaeOLOG'ICALLY.--_n._ ARCHaeOL'OGIST. [Gr. _archaios_, ancient--_arch[=e]_, beginning, and _logos_, discourse.]

ARCHaeOPTERYX, [=a]r-k[=e]-op't[.e]r-iks, _n._ the oldest known fossil bird, found in the Jurassic limestone of Bavaria, having a long bony tail of twenty vertebrae. [Gr. _archaios_, ancient, _pteryx_, wing.]

ARCHAIC, -AL, ark-[=a]'ik, -al, _adj._ ancient: obsolete, esp. of language.--_adj._ ARCHaeAN (ark-[=e]'an), of or belonging to the earliest zoological period.--_n._ ARCHaeOG'RAPHY.--_adj._ ARCHaeOZ[=O]'IC. (Gr.

_z[=o][=e]_, life), pertaining to the era of the earliest living beings on the earth.--_adv._ ARCH[=A]'ICALLY.--_n._ ARCH[=A]'ICISM.--_v.t._ AR'CH[=A]ISE, to imitate the archaic.--_ns._ ARCH[=A]'ISM, an archaic or obsolete word or phrase; ARCH[=A]'IST (_Mrs Browning_).--_adj._ ARCH[=A]IS'TIC, affectedly or imitatively archaic. [Gr.

_archaikos_--_archaios_, ancient--_arch[=e]_, beginning.]

ARCHANGEL, ark-[=a]n'jel, _n._ an angel of the highest order.--_adj._ ARCHANGEL'IC. [ARCH, chief, and ANGEL.]

ARCHBISHOP, arch-bish'up, _n._ a chief bishop: a metropolitan bishop who superintends the conduct of the suffragan bishops in his province, and also exercises episcopal authority in his own diocese.--_n._ ARCHBISH'OPRIC.

[ARCH, chief, and BISHOP.]

ARCHDEACON, arch-d[=e]'kn, _n._ a chief deacon: the ecclesiastical dignitary having the chief supervision of a diocese or part of it, next under the bishop--the 'bishop's eye.'--_ns._ ARCHDEAC'ONRY, the office, jurisdiction, or residence of an archdeacon; ARCHDEAC'ONSHIP, the office of an archdeacon.--_adj._ ARCHID[=I]AC'ONAL.--_n._ ARCHID[=I]AC'ONATE. [ARCH, chief, and DEACON.]

ARCHDIOCESE, arch-d[=i]'o-s[=e]z, _n._ the diocese of an archbishop. [ARCH, chief, and DIOCESE.]

ARCHDUKE, arch-d[=u]k', _n._ a duke of specially exalted rank: a prince of Austria:--_fem._ ARCHDUCH'ESS.--_adj._ ARCHD[=U]'CAL.--_ns._ ARCHDUCH'Y, ARCHDUKE'DOM, the territory of an archduke or archduchess. [ARCH, chief, and DUKE.]

ARCHER, arch'[.e]r, _n._ one who shoots with a bow and arrows:--_fem._ ARCH'ERESS.--_ns._ ARCH'ER-FISH, an acanthopterygious fish of India which catches insects by shooting water at them from its mouth; ARCH'ERY, the art of shooting with the bow: a company of archers. [O. Fr. _archier_--L.

_arcari-um_, _arcus_, a bow.]

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