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ARGIVE, ar'j[=i]v, _adj._ belonging to _Argos_: Greek.

ARGOL, ar'gol, _n._ a hard crust formed on the sides of wine-vessels, from which cream of tartar and tartaric acid are obtained--generally of a reddish tinge. [Prob. conn. with Gr. _argos_, white.]

ARGON, ar'gon, _n._ a constituent element of our atmosphere, discovered in 1894 by Rayleigh and Ramsay.

ARGONAUT, ar'go-nawt, _n._ one of those who sailed in the ship _Argo_ in search of the golden fleece: also (_nat. hist._) a name of the nautilus, a mollusc of the octopod type.--_adj._ ARGONAUT'IC. [Gr. _Arg[=o]_, and _naut[=e]s_, a sailor.]

ARGOSY, ar'go-si, _n._ a large merchant-vessel richly laden, esp. those of Ragusa and Venice: also figuratively. [The forms _ragosie_, _rhaguse_, used equally with _argosie_, _argosey_, &c., point to the derivation from It.

_Ragusea_, a ship belonging to Ragusa, a great medieval port on the Adriatic, spelt in 16th-cent. English as _Aragouse_, _Arragosa_.]

ARGOT, ar'go, or ar'got, _n._ slang, originally that of thieves and vagabonds: cant. [Fr.; of unknown origin.]

ARGUE, arg'[=u], _v.t._ prove or evince: to prove by argument: to discuss: (_obs._) to accuse.--_v.i._ to offer reasons: to dispute (with _against_, _for_, _with_, _about_):--_pr.p._ arg'[=u]ing; _pa.p._ arg'[=u]ed.--_adj._ ARG'[=U]ABLE, capable of being argued.--_n._ ARG'[=U]ER, one who argues: a reasoner.--TO ARGUE (a person) INTO, or OUT OF, to persuade him into, or out of, a certain course of action. [O. Fr. _arguer_--L. _argut[=a]re_, freq. of _argu[)e]re_, to prove.]

ARGUFY, arg'[=u]-f[=i], _v.i._ to be evidence of something: to be of importance: to argue, wrangle.--_v.t._ to weary with wrangling. [Illiterate corr. of ARGUE.]

ARGUMENT, arg'[=u]-ment, _n._ a statement, or reason based on such, offered as proof: a series of reasons or a step in such: discussion: subject of a discourse: summary of the subject-matter of a book: (_obs._) matter of controversy.--_adjs._ ARGUMENT'ABLE, ARGUMENT'AL.--_n._ ARGUMENT[=A]'TION, an arguing or reasoning.--_adj._ ARGUMENT'ATIVE.--_adv._ ARGUMENT'ATIVELY.--_n._ ARGUMENT'ATIVENESS. [L. _argumentum_. See ARGUE.]

ARGUMENTUM, arg-[=u]-ment'um, _n._ an argument.--The following are forms of _indirect_ argument:--ARGUMENTUM AD HOMINEM, an appeal to the known prepossessions or previous admissions of an opponent; ARGUMENTUM AD IGNORANTIAM, an argument founded on the ignorance of an opponent; ARGUMENTUM AD INVIDIAM, an argument appealing to the prejudices of the person addressed; ARGUMENTUM AD JUDICIUM, an appeal to the common-sense of mankind; ARGUMENTUM AD VERECUNDIAM, an appeal to our reverence for some respected authority; ARGUMENTUM BACULINUM, the argument of the cudgel--most concise of arguments, an appeal to force; ARGUMENTUM PER IMPOSSIBILE, or _Reductio ad absurdum_, the proof of a conclusion derived from the absurdity of a contradictory supposition.--For the _Ontological_, _Cosmological_, _Teleological_, and _Moral_ arguments in Theism, see under these adjectives.

ARGUS, arg'us, _n._ any very quick-eyed or watchful person, from _Argus_, described in Greek mythology as having had a hundred eyes, some of which were always awake: a genus of gallinaceous birds, remarkable for magnificence of plumage--the only known species, the ARGUS PHEASANT, native to Sumatra, &c. [Gr.--_argos_, bright.]

ARGUTE, ar-g[=u]t', _adj._ shrill in sound: keen: shrewd.--_adv._ ARGUTE'LY.--_n._ ARGUTE'NESS. [L. _argutus_.]

ARGYRIA, ar-jir'i-a, _n._ silver poisoning. [Gr. _argyros_, silver.]

ARIA, [=a]'ri-a, _n._ an air or rhythmical song introduced in a cantata, oratorio, or opera, and intended for one voice supported by instruments.

[It., from root of AIR.]

ARIAN, [=a]'ri-an, _adj._ pertaining to _Arius_ of Alexandria (died 336), who denied the divinity of Christ.--_n._ one who adheres to the doctrines of Arius: a Unitarian.--_v.t._ A'RIANISE.--_n._ A'RIANISM, the doctrines of the Arians.

ARID, ar'id, _adj._ dry: parched.--_ns._ ARID'ITY, AR'IDNESS. [L.


ARIEL, [=a]'ri-el, _n._ a man's name in the Old Testament, variously explained as 'lion of God,' 'hearth of God:' in later demonology, a water-spirit: an angel: a spirit of the air. [Heb. _ari[=e]l_.]

ARIEL, [=a]'ri-el, _n._ a species of gazelle in Western Asia. [Ar.


ARIES, [=a]'ri-[=e]z, _n._ the Ram, the first of the signs of the zodiac, which the sun enters on 21st M_arch._ [L.]

ARIETTA, ar-i-et'ta, _n._ a little aria or air.--Also ARIETTE'. [It.

_arietta_, dim. of _aria_.]

ARIGHT, a-r[=i]t', _adv._ in a right way: rightly.

ARIL, ar'il, ARILLUS, a-ril'lus, _n._ a peculiar covering of the seed of some plants, formed by an expansion of the cord (_funiculus_) which attaches the ovule to the placenta, or of the placenta itself.--_adjs._ AR'ILLARY, AR'ILLATED, having an aril. [Low L. _arillus_.]

ARIMASPIAN, ar-im-as'pi-an, _adj._ pertaining to the _Arimaspi_, described by Herodotus as a one-eyed and fierce people inhabiting the most northern region in the world, waging perpetual warfare with the neighbouring griffins for their hoarded gold.

ARIOT, a-r[=i]'ot, _adv._ in riot, riotously.

ARIPPLE, a-rip'l, _adv._ in a ripple, rippling.

ARISE, a-r[=i]z', _v.i._ to rise up: to come up so as to be heard: to ascend: to come into view: to spring:--_pa.t._ arose'; _pa.p._ aris'en.

[Pfx. _a-_, up, out, and RISE.]

ARISTARCH, ar'is-tark, _n._ a severe critic. [From _Aristarchus_, a grammarian of Alexandria about 160 B.C.]

ARISTATE, a-ris't[=a]t, _adj._ (_bot._) having awns. [L. _arista_, an awn.]

ARISTOCRACY, ar-is-tok'ras-i, _n._ government by the men of best birth or condition: political power of a privileged order: the nobility or chief persons of a state: the upper classes generally, also the persons noted for superiority in any quality, taken collectively--also ARISTARCH'Y (_rare_).--_n._ ARISTOCRAT (ar'is-to-krat, or ar-is'-), one who belongs to or favours an aristocracy: a haughty person.--_adjs._ ARISTOCRAT'IC, -AL, belonging to aristocracy: gentlemanly, stylish.--_adv._ ARISTOCRAT'ICALLY.--_n._ ARISTOCRAT'ISM. [Gr. _aristos_, best, and _kratos_, power.]

ARISTOLOCHIA, ar-is-t[=o]-l[=o]'ki-a, _n._ a genus of shrubs, many climbers, specially abundant in tropical South America. [Gr.; _aristos_, best, _locheia_, child-birth, the roots of several species being formerly thought useful in parturition.]

ARISTOTELIAN, ar-is-to-t[=e]'li-an, _adj._ relating to _Aristotle_ or to his philosophy.

ARITHMANCY, ar'ith-man-si, _n._ divination by numbers.--Also ARITH'MOMANCY.

[Gr. _arithmos_, number, and _manteia_, divination.]

ARITHMETIC, ar-ith'met-ik, _n._ the science of numbers: the art of reckoning by figures: a treatise on reckoning.--_adj._ ARITHMET'ICAL.--_adv._ ARITHMET'ICALLY.--_n._ ARITHMETIC'IAN, one skilled in arithmetic--ARITHMETICAL PROGRESSION, a series of numbers that increase or diminish by a common difference, as 7, 10, 13, 16, 19, 22; or 12, 10, 9, 7, 6. To find the sum of such a series, multiply the sum of the first and last terms by half the number of terms. [Gr. _arithm[=e]tik[=e]_ (_techn[=e]_, art), relating to numbers--_arithmos_, number.]

ARITHMOCRACY, ar-ith-mok'ras-i, _n._ a democracy of mere numbers.--_adj._ ARITHMOCRAT'IC. [A coinage of Kingsley--Gr. _arithmos_, number, _kratia_, rule.]

ARITHMOMETER, ar-ith-mom'et-[.e]r, _n._ an instrument for working out arithmetical calculations. [Gr. _arithmos_, number, _metron_, measure.]

ARK, ark, _n._ a chest or coffer: in Jewish history, the wooden coffer in which the Tables of the Law were kept--hence TO TOUCH or LAY HANDS ON THE ARK, to touch irreverently what is sacred (2 Sam. vi. 6): a large floating vessel, like that in which Noah escaped the Deluge (Gen.

vi.-viii.).--_adj._ and _n._ ARK'ITE. [A.S. _arc_--L. _arca_, a chest--_arc[=e]re_, to guard.]

ARLES, arlz, or [=a]rlz, _n._ earnest money given in confirmation of a bargain, or of the engagement of a servant.--_ns._ ARLE'-PEN'NY, ARLES'-PEN'NY. [Scot. and northern Eng.; M. E. _erles_--O. Fr. _erres_ (mod. Fr. _arrhes_)--L. _arrha_.]

ARM, arm, _n._ the limb extending from the shoulder to the hand: anything projecting from the main body, as an inlet of the sea, a rail or support from a chair, sofa, or the like: one of the branches into which a main trunk divides: (_fig._) power.--_ns._ ARM'-CHAIR, a chair with arms; ARM'FUL; ARM'-HOLE, the hole in a garment through which the arm is put.--_adv._ ARM'-IN-ARM, with arms interlinked, in close communion.--_adj._ ARM'LESS.--_ns._ ARM'LET, a bracelet; ARM'-PIT, the pit or hollow under the shoulder.--AT ARM'S LENGTH, away from any friendliness or familiarity.--RIGHT ARM, the main support or assistant; SECULAR ARM, the secular or temporal authority, as distinguished from the spiritual or ecclesiastical.--WITH OPEN ARMS, with hearty welcome. [A.S.; cog. with L.

_armus_, the shoulder-joint, Gr. _harmos_, a joint.]

ARM, arm, _n._ a weapon: a branch of the military service:--_pl._ ARMS, weapons of offence and defence: war, hostilities: deeds or exploits of war: armorial ensigns.--_v.t._ ARM, to furnish with arms or weapons: to fortify.--_v.i._ to take arms.--_n._ AR'MATURE, armour: any apparatus for defence: a piece of iron connecting the poles of a bent magnet.--_adj._ ARMED (armd, or arm'ed), furnished with arms: provided with means of defence: (_bot._) having prickles or thorns: (_her._) having part of the body different in colour from the rest, as a beak, claws, &c. of a FIRE'ARMS, such weapons as employ gunpowder, as guns and pistols.--_n._ MAN'-AT-ARMS, a fully equipped and practised fighting SMALL'-ARMS, such as do not require carriages, as opposed to artillery.--ARMED TO THE TEETH, completely armed.--COLLEGE OF ARMS, the Heralds' College, which grants armorial bearings.--IN ARMS WITH, quartered with; OF ALL ARMS, of every kind of troops; STAND OF ARMS, a complete equipment of arms for one soldier.--THE ARMED EYE, strengthened with a magnifying-glass, as opp. to _naked eye_.--TO LAY DOWN ARMS, to surrender or submit; UP IN ARMS, in readiness to fight. [Through Fr. from L. _arma_; cog. with ARM.]

ARMADA, arm-[=a]'da, _n._ a fleet of armed ships, esp. the self-styled _Invincible_ Armada sent by Philip II. against England in 1588. [Sp.--L.

_armata_, _armare_, to arm.]

ARMADILLO, arm-a-dil'o, _n._ a small American edentate quadruped, having its body armed with bands of bony plates:--_pl._ ARMADILL'OS. [Sp., dim. of _armado_, armed.]

ARMAGEDDON, ar-mag-ed'on, _n._ the great symbolical battlefield of the Apocalypse, in which the final struggle between the powers of good and evil is to be fought out. [The name was no doubt suggested by the famous battlefield of _Megiddo_, in the plain of Esdraelon.]

ARMAMENT, arm'a-ment, _n._ forces armed or equipped for war: munitions of war, esp. the great guns with which a ship is armed. [L.


ARMENIAN, ar-m[=e]'ni-an, _adj._ belonging to _Armenia_, in Western Asia: belonging to the Armenian branch of the Christian Church.--_n._ a native of Armenia.

ARMET, ar'met, _n._ a helmet introduced about 1450 in place of the basinet, consisting of an iron cap, spreading over the back of the neck, having in front the visor, beaver, and gorget. [Fr.]

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