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APOPHLEGMATIC, a-po-fleg-mat'ik, _adj._ and _n._ promoting the removal of phlegm. [Gr. _apo-_, and PHLEGMATIC.]

APOPHTHEGM, APOTHEGM, a'po-them, _n._ a pithy saying, more short, pointed, and practical than the aphorism need be, e.g. 'God helps them that help themselves.'---_adjs._ APOPHTHEGMAT'IC, -AL, pertaining to the nature of an apophthegm, pithy, sententious.--_adv._ APOPHTHEGMAT'ICALLY.--_v.i._ APOPHTHEG'MATISE, to speak in apophthegms.--_n._ APOPHTHEG'MATIST. [Gr.

_apophthegma_--_apo_, forth, and _phthengesthai_, to utter.]

APOPLEXY, a'po-pleks-i, _n._ loss of sensation and of motion by a sudden stroke, generally applied by modern medical writers to rupture of a blood-vessel, with hemorrhage in the brain or its membranes, whether with or without consciousness--also figuratively.--_adjs._ APOPLEC'TIC, -AL, pertaining to or causing apoplexy: suffering from, or likely to suffer from, apoplexy.--_adv._ APOPLEC'TICALLY.--_n._ AP'OPLEX (_arch._), apoplexy.--_adj._ AP'OPLEXED (_Shak._), affected with apoplexy. [Gr.

_apopl[=e]xia_--_apo_, from, away, and _pl[=e]ss-ein_, to strike.]

APOSIOPESIS, a-po-si-o-p[=e]'sis, _n._ a figure by which the speaker suddenly stops as though unable or unwilling to proceed, e.g. Virgil, _aeneid_, i. 135, 'Quos ego----' [Gr.;--_apo-si[=o]pa-ein_, to keep silent, _apo_ and _si[=o]p[=e]_, silence.]

APOSTASY, APOSTACY, a-post'a-si, _n._ abandonment of one's religion, principles, or party: a revolt from ecclesiastical obedience, from a religious profession, or from holy orders.--_n._ APOST'ATE, one guilty of apostasy: a renegade from his faith from unworthy motives.--_adj._ false: traitorous: fallen.--_adjs._ APOSTAT'IC, -AL.--_v.i._ APOST'ATISE. [Gr. 'a standing away;' _apo_, from, _stasis_, a standing.]

A POSTERIORI, [=a] pos-t[=e]-ri-[=o]'ri, _adj._ applied to reasoning from experience, from effect to cause, as opposed to _a priori_ reasoning, from cause to effect: empirical: gained from experience. _Synthetic_ and _analytic_, _deductive_ and _inductive_, correspond in a general way to _a priori_ and _a posteriori_. [L. _a_ = _ab_, from, _posteriori_, abl. of _posterior_, comp. of _posterus_, after.]

APOSTIL, -ILLE, a-pos'til, _n._ a marginal note. [Fr. _apostille_. See POSTIL.]

APOSTLE, a-pos'l, _n._ one sent to preach the gospel: specially, one of the twelve disciples of Christ: the founder of the Christian Church in a country, e.g. Augustine, the apostle of the English; Columba, of the Scots; Boniface, of Germany, &c.: the principal champion or supporter of a new system, or of some cause: the highest in the fourfold ministry of the Catholic and Apostolic Church: one of the twelve officials forming a presiding high council in the Mormon Church.--_ns._ APOS'TLESHIP, the office or dignity of an apostle; APOST'OLATE, the office of an apostle: leadership in a propaganda.--_adjs._ APOSTOL'IC, -AL.--_ns._ APOSTOL'ICISM, profession of apostolicity; APOSTOLIC'ITY, the quality of being apostolic--APOSTLES' CREED, the oldest form of Christian creed that exists, early ascribed to the apostles, and indeed substantially, if not strictly, apostolic; APOSTLE SPOONS, silver spoons with handles ending in figures of the apostles, a common baptismal present in the 16th and 17th centuries; APOSTLES, TEACHING OF THE TWELVE--often called merely the _Didach[=e]_ (Gr.

'teaching')--the title of a treatise discovered in 1883 on Christian doctrine and government, closely connected with the last two books (vii.-viii.) of the _Apostolic Constitutions_.--APOSTOLIC CONSTITUTIONS and CANONS, notes of ecclesiastical customs held to be apostolical, written in the form of apostolic precepts, and erroneously ascribed by tradition to Clement of Rome; APOSTOLIC FATHERS, the immediate disciples and fellow-labourers of the apostles, more especially those who have left writings behind them (Barnabas, Clement of Rome, Ignatius, Hermas, Polycarp); APOSTOLIC SEE, the see of Rome; APOSTOLIC VICAR, the cardinal representing the Pope in extraordinary missions.--APOSTOLICAL SUCCESSION, the derivation of holy orders by an assumed unbroken chain of transmission from the apostles through their natural successors, the bishops--the theory of the Catholic Church: the assumption that a ministry so ordained enjoy the succession of apostolic powers and privileges. [Gr.; one sent away, _apo_, away, _stell-ein_, to send.]

APOSTROPHE, a-pos'trof-e, _n._ (_rhet._) a sudden turning away from the ordinary course of a speech to address some person or object present or absent, explained by Quintilian as addressed to a person present, but extended by modern use to the absent or dead: a mark (') showing the omission of a letter or letters in a word, also a sign of the modern Eng.

genitive or possessive case--orig. a mere mark of the dropping of the letter _e_ in writing.--_adj._ APOSTROPH'IC.--_v.t._ APOS'TROPHISE, to address by apostrophe. [Gr. _apo_, from, and STROPHE, a turning.]

APOTHECARY, a-poth'ek-ar-i, _n._ one who prepares and sells drugs for medicinal purposes--a term long since substituted by _druggist_, although still a legal description for licentiates of the Apothecaries' Society of London, or of the Apothecaries' Hall of Ireland. [Through Fr. and L. from Gr. _apoth[=e]k[=e]_, a storehouse--_apo_, away, and _tithe-nai_, to place.]

APOTHECIUM, ap-[=o]-th[=e]'si-um, _n._ the spore-case in lichens. [Gr.

_apoth[=e]k[=e]_, a storehouse. See APOTHECARY.]


APOTHEOSIS, a-po-th[=e]'o-sis, or a-po-the-[=o]'sis, _n._ deification, esp.

the formal attribution of divine honours to a deceased Roman emperor, or special object of the imperial favour--a logical corollary to the worship of ancestors, degenerating naturally by anticipation into the adoration of the living: the glorification of a principle or person: ascension to glory, release from earthly life: resurrection.--_v.i._ APOTH[=E]'OSISE, APOTH'EOSISE. [Gr.; _apotheo-ein_, _apo_, away from what he was, _theos_, a god.]

APOZEM, a'po-zem, _n._ a decoction or infusion. [Gr. _apozema_--_apo_, off, and _ze-ein_, to boil.]

APPAL, ap-pawl', _v.i._ (_Spens._) to wax faint, fail, decay.--_v.t._ and _v.i._ (_obs._) to dim, weaken: to terrify, dismay:--_pr.p._ appal'ling; _pa.p._ appalled'.--_p.adj._ APPAL'LING, shocking.--_adv._ APPAL'LINGLY.

[Perh. from O. Fr. _apalir_, _apallir_, to wax pale, also to make pale. See PALL and PALE.]

APPANAGE, APANAGE, ap'pan-[=a]j, _n._ the assignation or conveyance by the crown of lands and feudal rights to the princes of the royal family, a provision for younger sons, a dependency: any perquisite: an adjunct or attribute.--_p.adj._ AP'PANAGED, endowed with an appanage. [Fr.

_apanage_--L. _ad_, and _pan-is_, bread.]

APPARATUS, ap-par-[=a]'tus, _n._ things prepared or provided, material: set of instruments, tools, natural organs, &c.: materials for the critical study of a document. [L.; _ad_, to, _par[=a]tus_ (_par[=a]re_), prepared.]

APPAREL, ap-par'el, _n._ covering for the body, dress: aspect, guise: (_arch._) the rigging of a ship.--_v.t._ to dress, adorn:--_pr.p._ appar'elling or appar'eling; _pa.p._ appar'elled or appar'eled.--_ns._ APPAR'ELLING, APPAR'ELING. [O. Fr. _apareiller_, through obscure Low L.

forms from L. _par_, equal, like.]

APPARENT, ap-p[=a]r'ent, _adj._ that may be seen: evident: palpable: seeming, as opposed to what really is: (_Shak._) by ellipsis for heir-apparent.--_adv._ APPAR'ENTLY.--_ns._ APPAR'ENTNESS; HEIR'-APPAR'ENT, applied to one who will undoubtedly inherit if he survives the present possessor. [Through Fr. from L. _apparent-em_, _appar[=e]-re_.]

APPARITION, ap-par-ish'un, _n._ an appearance--of a visitor, a comet, the appearance in history: an immaterial appearance--of a spirit of the departed, as of a real being, a ghost: (_astron._) the first appearance of a celestial body after occultation.--_adj._ APPARI'TIONAL. [See APPEAR.]

APPARITOR, ap-par'it-or, _n._ an officer who attends on a court, or on a magistrate, to execute orders: still applied to the officer of an archiepiscopal, episcopal, archidiaconal, or other ecclesiastical court, sometimes to the beadle of a university bearing the mace: (_rare_) one who appears. [L. See APPEAR.]

APPAY, ap-p[=a]', _v.t._ See APAY.

APPEACH, ap-p[=e]ch', _v.t._ (_obs._) to accuse, censure, or impeach.--_n._ APPEACH'MENT. [O. Fr. _empechier_--L. _impedic[=a]re_, to catch by the feet--_in_, in, and _pedica_, a fetter. See IMPEACH.]

APPEAL, ap-p[=e]l', _v.i._ to call upon, have recourse to (with _to_): to refer (to a witness or superior authority): make supplication or earnest request to a person for a thing: to resort for verification or proof to some principle or person.--_v.t._ to remove a cause (to another court).--_n._ act of appealing: a supplication: removal of a cause to a higher tribunal.--_adjs._ APPEAL'ABLE; APPEAL'ING, relating to appeals.--_adv._ APPEAL'INGLY.--_n._ APPEAL'INGNESS. [O. Fr.

_apeler_--_appell[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_, to address, call by name; also to appeal to, impeach.]

APPEAR, ap-p[=e]r', _v.i._ to become visible: to present one's self formally before an authority or tribunal, hence to act as the representative or counsel for another: to be manifest: to be in one's opinion, to seem: to come into view, to come before the public, to be published (of a book): to seem though not real.--_ns._ APPEAR'ANCE, the act of appearing, e.g. in court to prosecute or answer a charge: the publication of a book: the effect of appearing conspicuously, show, parade: the condition of that which appears, form, aspect: outward look or show: a natural phenomenon: an apparition; APPEAR'ER, one that appears: one who puts in an appearance in court.--IT APPEARS (_impers._).--TO ALL APPEARANCE, so far as appears to any one; TO KEEP UP APPEARANCES, to keep up an outward show with intent to conceal the absence of the inward reality; TO PUT IN AN APPEARANCE, to appear in person. [Through Fr. from L.

_appar[=e]-re_--_ad_, to, _par[=e]re_, _paritum_, to come forth.]

APPEASE, ap-p[=e]z', _v.t._ to pacify: propitiate one who is angry: to quiet: to allay: to pacify by granting demands.--_adj._ APPEAS'ABLE.--_n._ APPEASE'MENT, the action of appeasing: the state of being appeased.--_adv._ APPEAS'INGLY. [O. Fr. _apese-r_, to bring to peace--L. _pac-em_, peace.]

APPELLANT, ap-pel'ant, _n._ one who makes an appeal from the decision of a lower court to a higher: one who makes earnest entreaty of any kind: (_obs._) one who challenges another to single combat: one of the clergy in the Jansenist controversy who rejected the bull Unigenitus issued in 1713, appealing to a pope 'better informed,' or to a general council.--_adj._ APPELL'ATE, relating to appeals. [See APPEAL.]

APPELLATION, ap-pel-[=a]'shun, _n._ that by which anything is called: a name, especially one attached to a particular person.--_adj._ APPELL[=A]'TIONAL.--_n._ APPELL'ATIVE, a name common to all of the same kind, as distinguished from a proper name: a designation.--_adj._ common to many: general: of or pertaining to the giving of names.--_adv._ APPELL'ATIVELY. [See APPEAL.]

APPEND, ap-pend', _v.t._ to hang one thing to another: to add.--_n._ APPEND'AGE, something appended.--_adj._ APPEND'ANT, attached, annexed, consequent.--_n._ an adjunct, quality.--_n._ APPENDIC[=I]'TIS, inflammation of the vermiform appendix of the caecum.--_adj._ APPENDIC'ULAR, of the nature of or belonging to an appendix.--_n._ APPENDICUL[=A]'RIA, a genus of Ascidians whose members retain the larval vertebrate characters which are lost in the more or less degenerate sea-squirts.--_adj._ APPENDIC'ULATE, furnished with appendages.--_n._ APPEND'IX, something appended or added: a supplement: an addition to a book or document, containing matter explanatory, but not essential to its completeness: (_anat._) a process, prolongation, or projection:--_pl._ APPEND'IXES, APPEND'ICES.--APPENDIX AURICULae, the appendix of the auricle of the heart; APPENDICES EPIPLOICae, saccular processes, containing fat attached to the serous covering of the large intestine; APPENDIX VERMIFORMIS, or VERMIFORM APPENDIX, a blind process terminating the caecum in man. [L. _ad_, to, _pend[)e]re_, to hang.]

APPENTICE, a-pen'tis, _n._ (_archit._) a pent-house.

APPERCEPTION, ap-er-sep'shun, _n._ the mind's perception of itself as a conscious agent: an act of voluntary consciousness, accompanied with self-consciousness.

APPERIL, a-per'il, _n._ (_Shak._) peril. [L. _ad_, and PERIL.]

APPERTAIN, ap-p[.e]r-t[=a]n', _v.i._ to belong to, as a possession, a right, or attribute.--_n._ APPER'TAINANCE.--_p.adj._ APPERTAIN'ING, proper, appropriate (with _to_).--_n._ APPERTAIN'MENT (_Shak._), that which appertains to any rank or dignity.--_adj._ APPER'TINENT, pertaining or belonging to.--_n._ (_Shak._) that which pertains to anything else.

[Through Fr. from L. _ad_, to, _pertin[=e]-re_, to belong. See PERTAIN.]

APPETENCY, ap'pet-ens-i, _n._ a seeking after: craving or appetite: desire, especially sensual desire--also AP'PETENCE.--_adj._ AP'PETENT. [L.

_appetent-em_, _appet[)e]re_--_ad_, to, _pet[)e]re_, to seek.]

APPETITE, ap'pet-[=i]t, _n._ physical craving, accompanied with uneasy sensation (hunger, thirst, sex): natural desire: inclination: desire for food: hunger (with _for_).--_adjs._ AP'PETIBLE, AP'PETITIVE.--_v.t._ AP'PETISE, to create or whet appetite.--_ns._ APPETISE'MENT; APPETIS'ER, something which whets the appetite.--_p.adj._ APPETIS'ING.--_adv._ APPETIS'INGLY. [Through Fr., from L. _appetitus_, _appet[)e]re_.]

APPLAUD, ap-plawd', _v.t._ to praise by clapping the hands: to praise loudly: to express loudly approval of anything: to extol.--_n._ APPLAUD'ER.--_p.adj._ APPLAUD'ING.--_adv._ APPLAUD'INGLY.--_n._ APPLAUSE', praise loudly expressed: acclamation.--_adj._ APPLAUS'IVE.--_adv._ APPLAUS'IVELY. [L. _applaud-[)e]re_--_ad_, to, _plaud[)e]re_, _plausum_, to clap. See EXPLODE.]

APPLE, ap'l, _n._ the fruit of the apple-tree.--_ns._ AP'PLE-BLIGHT, the rotting substances found on apple-trees, caused by the APPLE-APHIS (see APHIS); AP'PLE-JOHN (_Shak._) a variety of apple considered to be in perfection when shrivelled and withered--also JOHN'-AP'PLE; AP'PLE-PIE, a pie made with apples; AP'PLE-WIFE, AP'PLE-WOM'AN, a woman who sells apples at a stall.--APPLE OF DISCORD, any cause of envy and contention, from the golden apple inscribed 'for the fairest,' thrown by Eris, goddess of discord, into the assembly of the gods, and claimed by Aphrodite (Venus), Pallas (Minerva), and Hera (Juno). The dispute being referred to Paris of Troy, he decided in favour of Aphrodite, to the undying and fatal wrath of Hera against his city; APPLE OF SODOM, or Dead Sea fruit, described by Josephus as fair to look upon, but turning, when touched, into ashes: any fair but disappointing thing; APPLE OF THE EYE, the eyeball: something especially dear; APPLE-PIE ORDER, complete order. [A.S. _aeppel_; cf. Ger.

_apfel_, Ice. _epli_, Ir. _abhal_, W. _afal_.]

APPLIQUe, ap'lik-[=a], _n._ work applied to, or laid on, another material, either of metal-work or of lace or the like. [Pa.p. of Fr. _appliquer_.]

APPLY, ap-pl[=i]', _v.t._ to lay or put to: to administer a remedy: to bring a general law to bear on particular circumstances: (_obs._) to ascribe: to employ: to fix the mind on: to bring (a ship) to land.--_v.i._ to suit or agree: to have recourse to: to make request: (_Milton_) to assign or impute blame to:--_pr.p._ apply'ing; _pa.p._ appl[=i]ed'.--_adj._ APPL[=I]'ABLE, that may be applied: compliant, well disposed.--_ns._ APPL[=I]'ABLENESS; APPL[=I]'ANCE, anything applied: means used: (_Shak._) compliance.--_ns._ APPLICABIL'ITY, AP'PLICABLENESS.--_adj._ AP'PLICABLE, that may be applied: suitable.--_adv._ AP'PLICABLY.--_n._ AP'PLICANT, one who applies: a petitioner.--_adj._ AP'PLICATE, put to practical use, applied.--_n._ APPLIC[=A]'TION, the act of applying, e.g. the administration of a remedy: diligence: employment, use of anything in special regard to something else, as in the 'application' of a story to real life, the lesson or moral of a fable: close thought or attention: request: a kind of needlework, applique: (_obs._) compliance.--_adj._ AP'PLICATIVE, put into actual use in regard to anything: practical.--_adj._ and _n._ AP'PLICATORY, having the property of applying. [O. Fr.

_aplier_--L. _applic[=a]re_, _[=a]tum_--_ad_, to, _plic[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_, to fold.]

APPOGGIATURA, ap-pod-ja-t[=u]'ra, _n._ an Italian musical term, designating a form of embellishment by insertion of notes of passage in a melody. [It.

_appoggiare_, to lean upon. See APPUI.]

APPOINT, ap-point', _v.t._ to fix: to settle: assign, grant: to name to an office: to destine, devote: to equip (_obs._ except in _pa.p._.).--_p.adj._ APPOINT'ED, established: furnished.--_n._ APPOINT'MENT, settlement: engagement: direction: situation: arrangement: (_obs._) allowance paid to a public officer: (_pl._) equipments. [O. Fr. _apointer_, Low L.

_appunctare_--L. _ad_, to, _punctum_, a point. See POINT.]

APPORTION, ap-p[=o]r'shun, _v.t._ to portion out: to divide in just shares: to adjust in due proportion.--_n._ APPOR'TIONMENT. [L. _ad_, to, and PORTION.]

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