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_apo_, away, _h[=e]lios_, sun, and _tropikos_, belonging to turning--_trep-ein_, to turn.]

APHEMIA, a-f[=e]m'i-a, _n._ loss of speech caused by difficulty in articulation due to paralysis. [Gr. _a_, neg., and _ph[=e]m[=e]_, voice, fame--_phanai_, to speak.]


APHESIS, af'es-is, _n._ the gradual loss of an unaccented vowel at the beginning of a word, as in _squire_ = _esquire_--a special form of Aphaeresis.--_adj._ APHET'IC. [Coined by Dr Murray. Gr.]

APHIS, [=a]'fis, _n._ a family of small 'plant-lice' belonging to the order of hemipterous insects, occurring in temperate regions as parasites on the roots, leaves, stems, &c. of plants. Some kinds are tended, protected, and imprisoned by ants for the 'honey-dew' which they secrete, hence called Ant-cows:--_pl._ APHIDES (af'i-d[=e]z).--_adj._ and _n._ APHID'IAN. [Ety.

unknown; one conjecture connects the word with Gr. _apheideis_, unsparing (_a_, neg., and _pheidomai_, to spare), from the remarkable rapidity of propagation.]

APHONY, af-on-i, _n._ loss of voice: dumbness--the more common form is APH[=O]'NIA.--_adjs._ APHON'IC, APHON'OUS, voiceless. [Gr. _a_, neg., _ph[=o]n[=e]_, voice.]

APHORISM, af'or-izm, _n._ a concise statement of a principle in any science: a brief, pithy saying: an adage.--_v.t._ and _v.i._ APH'ORISE, to coin or use aphorisms.--_ns._ APH'ORISER; APH'ORIST, a writer of aphorisms.--_adj._ APHORIS'TIC, in the form of an aphorism.--_adv._ APHORIST'ICALLY. [Gr. _aphorizein_, to mark off by boundaries--_apo_, from, and _horos_, a limit.]

APHRODISIAC, af-ro-diz'-i-ak, _adj._ exciting to sexual intercourse.--_n._ that which excites to sexual intercourse.--_adj._ APHRODIS'IAN, belonging to Venus, devoted to sensual love. [Gr. _aphrodisiakos_--_Aphrodit[=e]_, Venus, the goddess of love.]

APHTHae, af'th[=e], small whitish ulcers on the surface of a mucous membrane. [Gr. _aphtha_, mostly in pl. _aphthai_, usually connected with _hapt-ein_, to set on fire.]

APHYLLOUS, a-fil'us, _adj._ (_bot._) destitute of leaves. [Gr. _a_, neg., _phyllon_, a leaf.]

APIARY, [=a]p'i-ar-i, _n._ a place where bees are kept.--_adjs._ APIAR'IAN, AP'IAN, relating to bees or bee-keeping.--_n._ AP'IARIST, one who keeps an apiary: one who studies the habits of bees. [L. _apiarium_--_apis_, a bee.]

APICAL, ap'ik-al, _adj._ relating to the apex, or top.--_adv._ AP'ICALLY.

[See APEX.]


APICIAN, a-pish'yan, _adj._ relating to _Apicius_, the Roman epicurean in the time of Tiberius: luxurious and expensive in diet.

APICULTURE, [=a]'pi-cult-[=u]r, _n._ bee-keeping. [L. _apis_, bee, and _cultura_, keeping--_col[)e]re_, to keep.]

APIECE, a-p[=e]s', _adv._ for each piece, thing, or person: to each individually.--_adv._ APIEC'ES (_obs._), in pieces.

APINCH, a-pinsh', _adv._ pinching, so as to pinch. [Prep. _a_, and PINCH.]

APLACENTAL, ap-la-sen'tal, _adj._ having no placenta. [_a_ and PLACENTAL.


APLOMB, a-plom', _n._ the perpendicular, perpendicularity: self-possession, coolness. [Fr. _aplomb_, perpendicular position--_a plomb_, according to plummet.]


APLUSTRE, ap-lus't[.e]r, _n._ the ornament rising above the stern of ancient ships, often a sheaf of volutes. [L.--Gr. _aphlaston_.]

APNOEA, ap-n[=e]'a, _n._ a cessation of breathing. [Gr. _apnoia_.]

APOCALYPSE, a-pok'al-ips, _n._ the name of the last book of the New Testament containing the 'revelation' granted to St John: any revelation or disclosure.--_ns._ APOC'ALYPST, APOC'ALYPT, a revealer of the future.--_adjs._ APOCALYPT'IC, -AL.--_adv._ APOCALYPT'ICALLY.--_n._ APOCALYPT'IST, the writer of the Apocalypse.--APOCALYPTIC NUMBER, the mystical number 666, spoken of in the Apocalypse. The best solution of the riddle is Neron Kesar--Hebrew form of the Latin Nero Caesar. The vowels _e_ and _a_ are not expressed in the ancient Hebrew writing: accordingly NeRON KeSaR gives

N R O N K S R 50 + 200 + 6 + 50 + 100 + 60 + 200 = 666.

[Gr.; a revelation, an uncovering--_apo_, from, _kalypt-ein_, to cover.]

APOCARPOUS, ap-o-kar'pus, _adj._ (_bot._) having the carpels distinct. [Gr.

_apo_, from, _karpos_, fruit.]

APOCATASTASIS, a-po-ka-tast'a-sis, _n._ (_theol._) the final restitution of all things, when at the appearance of the Messiah the kingdom of God shall be extended over the whole earth--an idea extended by Origen to imply the final conversion and salvation of all created beings, the devil and his angels not excepted. [Gr.; _apo-kathistanai_, to set up again.]

APOCOPATE, a-pok'o-p[=a]t, _v.t._ to cut off the last letter or syllable of a word:--_pr.p._ apoc'op[=a]ting; _pa.p._ apoc'op[=a]ted.--_ns._ APOCOP[=A]'TION; APOCOPE (a-pok'op-[=e]), _n._ the cutting off of the last letter or syllable of a word. [Gr. _apo_, off, _koptein_, to cut.]

APOCRYPHA, a-pok'rif-a, _n._ as applied to religious writings = (1) those suitable for the initiated only; (2) those of unknown date and origin; (3) those which are spurious--the term generally means the fourteen books or parts of books known as the Apocrypha of the Old Testament--found in the Septuagint but not the Hebrew or Palestinian canon:--(1) First, or Third, Esdras; (2) Second, or Fourth, Esdras; (3) Tobit; (4) Judith; (5) the parts of Esther not found in Hebrew or Chaldee; (6) The Wisdom of Solomon; (7) The Wisdom of Jesus, the son of Sirach, or Ecclesiasticus; (8) Baruch; (9) The Song of the Three Holy Children; (10) The History of Susannah; (11) Bel and the Dragon; (12) The Prayer of Manasses, king of Judah; (13) First Maccabees; (14) Second Maccabees. The Apocryphal books of the New Testament, as the Protevangelium of James, the Gospel of Thomas, the Gesta Pilati, &c., stand on quite a different footing, never having been accepted by any as canonical, or in any way authoritative: hidden or secret things.--_adj._ APOC'RYPHAL, of doubtful authority. [Gr., 'things hidden'--_apo_, from, _krypt-ein_, to hide.]

APODAL, ap'od-al, _adj._ without feet: without ventral fins. [Gr. _a_, neg., _pous_, _podos_, a foot.]

APODEICTIC, a-po-d[=i]k'tik, _adj._ a logical term signifying a proposition which is necessarily true--demonstrative without demonstration, beyond contradiction--opp. to _Dialectic_.--_adj._ APODEIC'TICAL.--_adv._ APODEIC'TICALLY. [Gr. _apodeiktikos_--_apodeiknunai_ (_apo_ and _deiknunai_), to show off, demonstrate.]

APODIABOLOSIS, a-po-di-a-bol'o-sis, _n._ (_rare_--_Hare_) lowering to the rank of a devil. [Gr. _apo_, and _diabolos_, devil. Formed like APOTHEOSIS.]

APODOSIS, a-pod'o-sis, _n._ (_gram._) the consequent clause in a conditional sentence, as opp. to the _Protasis_. [Gr.; _apo_, back, _didonai_, to give.]

APODYTERIUM, a-po-di-t[=e]r'i-um, _n._ the apartment in an ancient bath where the clothes were deposited. [Gr.; _apodyein_ (_apo_, from, and _dy-ein_), to undress.]

APOGEE, ap'o-j[=e], _n._ properly the greatest distance of the earth from any of the heavenly bodies (the earth being regarded as the centre of the universe in the old Ptolemaic astronomy), now restricted to the sun and moon, the sun's apogee corresponding to the earth's aphelion, and the moon's being the point of its orbit farthest from the earth: the highest point, climax--opp. to _Perigee_.--_adjs._ APOGae'IC, APOG[=E]'AN; APOGEOTROP'IC, turning away from the ground (of leaves, &c.).--_adv._ APOGEOTROP'ICALLY.--_n._ APOGE[=O]T'ROPISM. [Gr. _apogaion_; _apo_, from, _g[=e]_, the earth.]

APOGRAPH, a'po-graf, _n._ an exact copy. [Gr. _apographon_, a copy--_apo-graph-ein_, to write off, copy.]

APOLAUSTIC, a-po-law'stik, _adj._ devoted to the search of enjoyment.--_n._ the philosophy of the pleasurable. [Gr. _apolaustikos_--_apolau-ein_, to enjoy.]

APOLLINARIANISM, a-pol-i-n[=a]'ri-an-izm, _n._ the doctrine that the _Logos_, or divine nature in Christ, took the place of the rational human soul or mind, and that the body of Christ was a spiritualised and glorified form of humanity--taught by Apollinaris the younger, Bishop of Laodicea in Syria (died 390 A.D.), condemned as denying the _true_ human nature of Christ by the second Oecumenical Council at Constantinople (381).--_adj._ APOLLIN[=A]'RIAN.

APOLLONIAN, a-po-l[=o]n'i-an, _adj._ having the characteristics of Apollo, sun-god of the Greeks and Romans, patron of poetry and music: named from _Apollonius_ of Perga, who studied conic sections in the time of Ptolemy Philopator.--Also APOLLON'IC.

APOLLONICON, a-pol-[=o]n'i-kon, _n._ a chamber organ of vast power, supplied with both keys and barrels, first exhibited in 1817. [Formed from _Apollonic_, as _harmonicon_ from _harmonic_.]

APOLLYON, a-pol'yun, _n._ the destroyer: Satan (same as ABADDON, Rev. ix.

11). [Gr. _apolly[=o]n_, destroying utterly; _apolly-ein_, _apo-_, and _ollynai_, to destroy.]

APOLOGETIC, -AL, a-pol-oj-et'ik, -al, _adj._ excusing: regretfully acknowledging: said or written in defence.--_adv._ APOLOGET'ICALLY.--_n._ APOLOGET'ICS, that branch of theology concerned with the defence of Christianity. It falls under the two heads of _natural_ and _revealed_ theology--in the former it proves the existence of God, of the soul in man, a future state; in the latter, the canonicity, inspiration, and trustworthiness of Scripture.

APOLOGUE, a'pol-og, _n._ a fable, parable, or short allegorical story, intended to serve as a pleasant vehicle for some moral doctrine--applied more particularly to one in which the actors are animals or inanimate things, e.g. the apologue of Jotham in Judges, ix. 7-15. [Fr.--Gr.

_apologos_, a fable--_apo_, from, _logos_, speech.]

APOLOGY, a-pol'oj-i, _n._ something spoken to ward off an attack: a defence or justification: frank acknowledgment of an offence: a poor substitute (with _for_; _of_ is obsolete).--_v.i._ APOL'OGISE, to make excuse: to express regret for a fault (with _for_).--_n._ APOL'OGIST, one who makes an apology: a defender by argument. [Gr.; _apo_, from, _-logia_, speaking--_leg-ein_, to speak.]

APOMORPHIA, a-po-morf'i-a, _n._ an alkaloid prepared from morphia by heating hydrochloric acid--a rapid and powerful emetic. [Gr. _apo_, from, and MORPHIA.]

APOOP, a-p[=oo]p', _adv._ on the poop, astern.

APOPETALOUS, ap-o-pet'al-us, _adj._ (_bot._) having distinct or free petals. [Gr. _apo_, away, and _petalon_, a leaf.]

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