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with reference to _albus_, white, from its colour.]

ALBE, ALE-BE, awl-b[=e]', _obs._ forms of ALBEIT.

ALBEIT, awl-b[=e]'it, _adv._ although it be: notwithstanding: even if, although. [All be it (that) = all though it be that]

ALBERT, al'bert, _n._ a short kind of watch-chain. [Named from Prince _Albert_, husband of Queen Victoria.]

ALBESCENT, al-bes'ent, _adj._ becoming white: whitish.--_n._ ALBES'CENCE.

[L. _albescens_, -_entis_, pr.p. of _albesc[)e]re_, to grow white--_albus_, white.]

ALBESPYNE, ALBESPINE, al'be-sp[=i]n, _n._ whitethorn, hawthorn. [O. Fr.

_albespine_, _aubespine_ (Fr. _aubepine_)--L. _alba spina_, white thorn.]

ALBIGENSES, al-bi-jen's[=e]z, a name applied to antisacerdotal sects in the south of France during the 12th and 13th centuries, infected with Manichaean heresy, and extirpated with the most horrible cruelties.

[The town _Albi_.]

ALBINO, al-b[=i]'no, _n._ a human being or animal whose skin and hair are abnormally white, and the pupil of the eye of pink colour:--_fem._ ALB[=I]'NESS:--_pl._ ALB[=I]'NOS.--_n._ AL'BINISM, state or condition of being an albino. [Sp. _albino_, whitish--L. _albus_, white.]

ALBITE, al'b[=i]t, _n._ a species of mineral of the felspar family, of a white colour, and forming a constituent of many kinds of rocks. [From L.

_albus_, white.]

ALBUGINEOUS, al-b[=u]-jin'e-us, _adj._ like the white of an egg or of the eye. [L. _albugo_, _albuginis_, whiteness, from _albus_, white.]

ALBUM, al'bum, _n._ among the Romans, a white tablet or register on which the praetor's edicts and such public notices were recorded: a blank book for the insertion of portraits, autographs, poetical extracts, memorial verses, postage-stamps, or the like.--_adj._ AL'BUM[=E]'AN, and _n._ AL'BUMESS, whimsical coinages of Charles Lamb. [L. _albus_, white.]

ALBUMEN, al-b[=u]'men, _n._ the white of eggs: a like substance found in animal and vegetable bodies.--_ns._ ALB[=U]'MIN, one of the classes of albuminoids, such as are soluble in water, or in dilute acids or alkalis; ALB[=U]'MINATE, one of a class of bodies in which albumin appears in weak combination with a base.--_v.t._ ALBUMINISE' (_phot._), to cover or impregnate with albumen: to coat paper with an albuminous solution.--_adj._ ALB[=U]'MINOUS, like or containing albumen: insipid. [L.--_albus_, white.]

ALBUMINOID, al-b[=u]'min-oid, _adj._ like albumen.--_n._ one of a class of nitrogenous compounds derived from animal tissues. [ALBUMEN, and Gr.

_eidos_, form.]

ALBURNUM, al-burn'um, _n._ in trees, the white and soft parts of wood between the inner bark and the heart-wood.--_adj._ ALBURN'OUS.

[L.--_albus_, white.]


ALCAIC, al-k[=a]'ik, _adj._ of or pertaining to the Greek lyrical poet, Alcaeus (_c._ 600 B.C.), or to the kind of verse invented by him. The most common form consists of an anacrusis, a trochee, a spondee, and two dactyls; a second, of a catalectic iambic pentameter, the third foot always being a spondee; a third, of two dactyls followed by two trochees. The most common arrangement was two lines of (1), followed by one of (2) and one of (3). Cf. Tennyson's 'O mighty-mouth'd inventor of harmonies.'

ALCAID, ALCAYDE, al-k[=a]d', _n._ a governor: a chief magistrate: a gaoler.

[Sp. and Port.--Ar. _alk[=a][=i]d_--_al_, the, _q[=a][=i]d_, a leader, _q[=a]da_, to lead.]

ALCALDE, al-kal'd[=a], _n._ a judge. [Sp.--Ar. _al-q[=a]d[=i]_.]

ALCATRAS, al'ka-tras, _n._ a name applied loosely to several large ocean birds, as the pelican, gannet, frigate-bird, and even the albatross. [Sp.

_alcatraz_, a white pelican.]

ALCHEMY, ALCHYMY, al'ki-mi, _n._ the infant stage of chemistry, as astrology was of astronomy.--A chief pursuit of the alchemists was to transmute the other metals into gold, and to discover the elixir of life.--_adj._ ALCHEM'IC--_n._ AL'CHEMIST, one skilled in alchemy. [Ar.

_Al-k[=i]m[=i][=a]_--_al_, the, and _k[=i]m[=i][=a]_--late Gr.

_ch[=e]meia_, 'transmution,' prob. as specially an Egyptian art, from _Khem_, the native name of Egypt; confused with Gr. _ch[=u]meia_, pouring, from _chein_, to pour, hence the old spellings _alchymy_, _chymistry_.]

ALCOHOL, al'k[=o]-hol, _n._ pure spirit, a liquid generated by the fermentation of sugar and other saccharine matter, and forming the intoxicating element of fermented liquors.--_adj._ ALCOHOL'IC, of or like alcohol.--_n._ ALCOHOLIS[=A]'TION.--_v.t._ AL'COHOLISE, to convert into alcohol, or saturate with it: to rectify.--_n._ AL'COHOLISM, a term employed to denote the symptoms of disease produced by alcoholic poisoning.--ABSOLUTE ALCOHOL, alcohol entirely free from water. [Ar.

_al-koh'l_--_al_, the, _koh'l_, fine powder of antimony used in the East to stain the eyelids.]

ALCOHOLOMETER, al-k[=o]-hol-om'e-t[.e]r, _n._ an instrument for ascertaining the strength of spirits.--_n._ ALCOHOLOM'ETRY, the process of such measurement. [ALCOHOL and METER.]

ALCORAN, al'k[=o]-ran, _n._ the Koran. [_Al_, the Arabic article.]

ALCOVE, al'k[=o]v, or al-k[=o]v', _n._ a recess in a room: any recess: a shady retreat. [Sp. _alcoba_, a place in a room railed off to hold a bed--Ar. _al_, the, _qobbah_, a vault.]

ALDEHYDE, al'd[=e]-h[=i]d, _n._ a volatile fluid with a suffocating smell, obtained by the oxidation of alcohol: a large class of compounds intermediate between alcohols and acids. [From _Al. dehyd._, a contr. for _Alcohol dehydrogenatum_.]

ALDER, awl'd[.e]r, _n._ a tree related to the birch, usually growing in moist ground. [A.S. _alor_; Ger. _erle_; L. _alnus_.]

ALDER-LIEFEST, awl-d[.e]r-l[=e]f'est, _adj._ (_Shak._) most beloved of all.

[The M. E. gen. pl. forms _alra_, _alre_, _aller_, _alder_, survived till about 1600; for _liefest_, see LIEF.]

ALDERMAN, awl'd[.e]r-man, _n._ in English and Irish boroughs, a civic dignitary next in rank to the mayor.--They are usually chosen for three years; those of London are chosen for life.--The name was assumed incongruously enough for superior members of the county councils set up in England in 1888: in Anglo-Saxon times, the governor of a shire until by Canute displaced by the earl; thenceforward, any head man of a guild.--_adjs._ ALDERMAN'IC, AL'DERMANLIKE, AL'DERMANLY, pompous and portly. [A.S. _ealdor_ (from _eald_, old), senior, chief; _ealdorman_, ruler, king, chief magistrate.]

ALDERN, awl'd[.e]rn, _adj._ made of alder.

ALDINE, al'd[=i]n, _adj._ applied to books printed by Aldus Manutius of Venice, in 16th century.

ALE, [=a]l, _n._ a beverage made from an infusion of malt by fermentation: a festival, so called from the liquor drunk.--_ns._ ALE'BERRY, a beverage made from ale; ALE'CONNER, an ale-taster, a civic officer appointed to test the quality of the ale brewed--A.S. _cunnere_, a trier; ALE'-HOUSE, a house in which ale is sold. [A.S. _alu_; Ice. _ol_.]

ALEATORY, [=a]'l[=e]-a-t[=o]-ri, _adj._ depending on the throw of the dice: dependent on certain contingencies. [L. _[=a]le[=a]t[=o]rius_, _[=a]lea_, a die.]

ALEE, a-l[=e]', _adv._ on the lee-side. [See LEE.]

ALEFT, a-left', _adv._ on or to the left hand.

ALEGAR, al'e-gar, _n._ sour ale. [ALE, and Fr. _aigre_--L. _acer_, sour.]

ALEGER, al'e-j[.e]r, _adj._ (_Bacon_) lively, cheerful. [O. Fr.

_alegre_--L. _al[=a]cr-em_.]

ALEGGE, an obsolete form of ALLEGE.

ALEMBIC, al-em'bik, _n._ a vessel used by the old chemists in distillation.

[Ar. _al_, the, _anb[=i]q_--Gr. _ambiks_, a cup.]

ALENGTH, a-length', _adv._ at full length. [A.S. pfx. _a-_, on, and LENGTH.]

ALERCE, a-lers', _n._ the wood of the sandarac-tree: the Chilian _Arbor vitae_--both of the pine family. [Sp.--Ar. _al arza_, cedar.]

ALERT, al-[.e]rt', _adj._ watchful: brisk.--_n._ a sudden attack or surprise.--_adv._ ALERT'LY.--_n._ ALERT'NESS.--UPON THE ALERT, upon the watch. [Fr.--It. _all' erta_, on the erect--_erto_, L. _erectus_, erect.]

ALEW, a-l[=u]' (_Spens._) an obsolete form of HALLOO.

ALEWIFE, [=a]l'w[=i]f, _n._ a fish of the same genus as the shad, about a foot in length, common on the east coast of North America. [Said to be a corr. of _aloofe_, the Indian name of a fish.]

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