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AID, [=a]d, _v.t._ to help, assist.--_n._ help: assistance, as in defending an action: an auxiliary: subsidy or money grant to the king.--_n._ AID'ANCE, aid, help, support.--_adj._ AID'ANT, (_arch._) aiding, helping.--_n._ AID'ER, one who brings aid: a helper.--_adjs._ AID'FUL; AID'LESS.--COURT OF AIDS, the court that supervised the customs duties. [O.

Fr. _aider_--L. _adjut[=a]re_--_ad_, and _juv[=a]re_, _jutum_, to help.]

AIDE-DE-CAMP, [=a]d'-de-kong, _n._ an officer who carries the orders of a general on the field, and brings him intelligence:--_pl._ AIDES'-DE-CAMP.

[Fr., assistant on the field.]

AIERY, a variant of AERIE.

AIGRETTE, [=a]'gret, _n._ (_zool._) a small white heron: (_bot._) the down attached to vegetable seeds, as in the thistle: a plume composed of feathers, or of precious stones, like a heron's crest. [Fr. _aigrette_.]

AIGUILLE, [=a]-gw[=e]l', _n._ a sharp, needle-like peak of rock, applied esp. to many of the peaks near Mont Blanc: a slender boring-drill for blasting. [Fr. See AGLET.]


AIL, [=a]l, _v.i._ to feel pain: to be in trouble.--_v.t._ to trouble, afflict--_obs._ except in impers. phrase 'What ails you?'--_n._ trouble: indisposition.--_n._ AIL'MENT, pain: indisposition: disease. [A.S. _eglan_, to pain. See AWE.]

AILANTO, [=e]l-an'to, _n._ a lofty and beautiful tree, native to South-eastern Asia, but grown to shade public walks in France and Italy.

Its leaves give food to a species of silkworm--it is sometimes called the Vernis du Japon, or Japan Varnish, apparently by confusion with certain species of Rhus.--Also AILAN'TUS. [Native Amboyna name, meaning 'tree of the gods.']

AILETTE, [=a]l-let', _n._ an iron plate once worn by men-at-arms for defence on the shoulder. [Fr., dim. of _aille_--L. _ala_, a wing.]

AIM, [=a]m, _v.i._ to point at with a weapon: to direct the intention or endeavour (_at_): (_obs._) to conjecture.--_v.t._ to point, as a weapon or firearm.--_n._ the pointing of a weapon: the thing pointed at: design: intention.--_adj._ AIM'LESS, without aim.--_adv._ AIM'LESSLY.--_n._ AIM'WORTHINESS, good aim.--TO CRY AIM, in old writers, to encourage archers when shooting by crying 'aim,' hence to applaud or encourage. [O. Fr.

_esmer_, to reckon--L. _aestim[=a]re_, to estimate. See ESTIMATE.]

AIN'T, [=a]nt, a colloquial contracted form of _are not_--also AN'T = _aren't_, _are not_.--AN'T (_Shak._) occurs as a variant of _on't_ = _on it_, _of it_.

AIR, [=a]r, _n._ the fluid we breathe: the atmosphere: any special condition of atmosphere, as in 'the night-_air_,' 'to take the air:' a light breeze: publicity: the bearing of a person: outward appearance, manner, look: an assumed or affected manner: (_mus._) a rhythmical melody: a song, also specially a sprightly song: the soprano part in a harmonised composition, being that which gives it its character: (_pl._) affectation.--_v.t._ to expose to the air: to dry: to expose to warm air: (_obs._) to take an airing.--_ns._ AIR'-BATH, an arrangement for drying substances in air of any desired temperature; AIR'-BED, a bed for the sick, inflated with air; AIR'-BLAD'DER, in some fishes, an organ containing air, by which they maintain their equilibrium in the water; AIR'-BRAKE, a railway brake worked by compressed air.--_adj._ AIR'-BUILT, built in air: having no solid foundation.--_ns._ AIR'-CELL, a cavity containing air; AIR'-CUSH'ION, an air-tight cushion, which can be inflated; AIR'-DRAIN, an ample space at the foot of foundation walls, for the sake of dryness.--_adj._ AIR'DRAWN, drawn in air: visionary: (_Shak._) imaginary.--_ns._ AIR'-EN'GINE, an engine put in motion by air expanded by heat; AIR'-GAS, illuminating gas made by charging atmospheric air with vapour of petroleum or other hydrocarbon; AIR'-GUN, a gun which discharges bullets by means of compressed air.--_adv._ AIR'ILY, gaily.--_ns._ AIR'INESS, state of being airy; openness: liveliness; AIR'ING, exposure to the air or fire: a short excursion in the open air; AIR'-JACK'ET, a jacket with air-tight cavities, which being inflated renders a person buoyant in water.--_adj._ AIR'LESS, void of air: not having free communication with the open air.--_ns._ AIR'-LOCK, a small chamber for the entrance and exit of men and materials, at the top of the caisson or hollow cylinder used for founding the piers of bridges under water; AIR'-PUMP, an instrument for pumping the air out of a vessel; AIR'-SAC, an air-cell or air-space, esp.

in the bones of birds; AIR'-SHAFT, a passage for air into a mine; AIR'-SHIP, a navigable balloon; AIR'-SPACE, the cubic content of a room, hospital-ward, or the like, with reference to the respirable air contained in it.--_adj._ AIR'-TIGHT, so tight as not to admit air.--_n._ AIR'-VES'SEL, a vessel or tube containing air.--_adv._ AIR'WARDS, up in the air.--_adj._ AIR'Y, consisting of or relating to air: open to the air: like air: unsubstantial: light of heart: sprightly.--TO TAKE AIR, to get wind, to become publicly known. [Fr.--L. _aer_--Gr.]

AIRLING, [=a]r'ling, _n._ (_obs._) a thoughtless, gay person.

AIRT, [=a]rt, _n._ (_Scot._) direction, quarter. [Gael. _aird_, _ard_; Ir.


AISLE, [=i]l, _n._ any lateral division of any part of a church, whether of nave, choir, or transept. The word is often erroneously applied to the passage in a church between the pews or seats.--_adj._ AISLED, ([=i]ld), having aisles. [O. Fr. _ele_, _aisle_ (Fr. _aile_)--L. _axilla_, _ala_, a wing.]

AIT, [=a]t, _n._ a small island in a river or lake. [A.S. forms, _iget_, _igeoth_, supply the key to the word, but its history is obscure.]

AITCHBONE, [=a]ch'b[=o]n, _n._ the bone of the rump: the cut of beef over this bone. [Orig. _nache-_ or _nage_bone; O. Fr. _nache_, _nage_--L.

_nates_, buttock; _a nache_ became _aitch_, and erroneously _edge_-bone.]

AJAR, a-jar', _adv._ partly open. [A.S. _on_, on, _cyrr_, a turn.]

AJEE, AGEE, a-j[=e]', _adv._ (_Scot._ and _prov._) aside, off the straight, ajar. [Prep. _a_, and _gee_, to move to one side; _jee_, a call to a horse to move to one side.]

AJUTAGE, ADJUTAGE, ad'joo-t[=a]j, _n._ a tube adjusted to an orifice through which water is discharged. [Fr.--Fr. _ajouter_. See ADJUST.]

AKE, [=a]k, old form of ACHE.

AKEE, a-k[=e]', _n._ the fruit of a small African sapindaceous tree, now common in the West Indies.

AKIMBO, a-kim'bo, _adj._ with hand on hip and elbow bent outward. [Ety.

uncertain; Skeat suggests the Ice. _kengboginn_, bent into a crook, from _kengr_, a crook, twist, kink, and _boginn_, bowed. Others connect the _-kim_ with KEEN.]

AKIN, a-kin', _adj._ of kin: related by blood: having the same properties.

[OF and KIN.]

ALABASTER, al'a-bas-t[.e]r, _n._ a semi-transparent kind of gypsum or sulphate of lime: the fine limestone deposited as stalagmites and stalactites.--_adj._ made of alabaster.--_adj._ ALABAS'TRIAN. [Gr.

_alabastros_, said to be derived from _Alabastron_, a town in Egypt.]

ALACK, a-lak', _interj._ an exclamation denoting sorrow.

ALACK-A-DAY, a-lak'-a-d[=a], _interj._ (_rare_) an exclamation of sadness.

[Interj. _ah_, _lak_ (LACK), and DAY.]

ALACRITY, a-lak'ri-ti, _n._ briskness: cheerful readiness: promptitude. [L.

_alacris_, brisk.]

ALALIA, a-l[=a]'li-a, _n._ loss of speech. [Gr. _a_, priv., and _lalein_, to talk.]

ALAMEDA, a-la-m[=e]'da, _n._ a public walk or promenade between two rows of trees. [Sp.]

ALAMODE, a-la-m[=o]d', _adv._ and _adj._ according to the mode or fashion.--_n._ a light kind of glossy silk for scarfs, hat-bands, &c.--_n._ ALAMODAL'ITY (_rare_).--ALAMODE BEEF, beef larded and stewed with vegetables. [Fr. _a la mode_.]

ALAMORT, a-la-mort', _adj._ half-dead: in a depressed condition: dejected.

Sometimes erroneously ALL AMORT. [Fr. _a la mort_, to death. See MORTAL.]

ALAND, a-land', _adv._ on or to land: landed.

ALAR, [=a]'lar, _adj._ of, or having, wings.--Also A'LARY. [L. _ala_, a wing.]

ALARM, a-larm', _n._ notice of danger: sudden surprise with fear: a mechanical contrivance to arouse from sleep: a call to arms.--_v.t._ to call to arms: to give notice of danger: to fill with dread.--_adv._ ALARM'INGLY.--_n._ ALARM'IST, one who excites alarm: one given to prophesy danger.--_adj._ alarming. [Fr. _alarme_--It. _all' arme_, to arms--L. _ad_, to, _arma_, arms.]

ALARUM, al-ar'um, _n._ and _v.t._ same as ALARM--now used, except poetically, only of an _alarum-clock_.

ALAS, a-las', _interj._ expressive of grief.--ALAS THE DAY, ALAS THE WHILE (in old writers), ah! unhappy day, or time. [O. Fr. _ha las_, _a las_ (mod.

Fr. _helas_); _ha!_ and _las_, _lasse_, wretched, weary--L. _lassus_, wearied.]

ALATE, a-l[=a]t', _adv._ (_arch._) lately. [A.S. pfx. _a-_, on, and LATE.]

ALATE, al'[=a]t, _adj._ winged: (_bot._) bordered by a leafy expansion.--Also AL'ATED. [L. _alatus_--_ala_, a wing.]

ALB, alb, _n._ in R.C. churches, a white linen vestment with tight sleeves, reaching to the feet, worn by the officiating priest at the celebration of the eucharist, under the chasuble, cope, or dalmatic. [A.S. _albe_--Low L.

_alba_, L. _albus_, white.]

ALBACORE, al'ba-k[=o]r, _n._ a large species of the tunny fish, found in West Indian waters. [Port.--Ar. _al_, the, _bukr_, pl. _bak[=a]rat_, a young camel.]

ALBATA, al-b[=a]'ta, _n._ a white silvery alloy of nickel, zinc, and copper--also _British plate_ and _German Silver_. [L., _alb[=a]re_, to whiten, _albus_, white.]

ALBATROSS, al'ba-tros, _n._ a large, long-winged, web-footed sea-bird of remarkable powers of flight, found abundantly in the Southern Ocean, particularly near the Cape of Good Hope. [Corr. from ALCATRAS (q.v.), perh.

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