CROMLECH, krom'lek, _n._ a term applied in Brittany to a group of standing stones, a stone circle: formerly applied to a dolmen, with which it is still sometimes confounded in England (see DOLMEN). [W. _cromlech_--_crom_, curved, circular, and _llech_, a stone.]
CROMORNA, kr[=o]-mor'na, _n._ a clarinet-like reed-stop in an organ.
CRONE, kr[=o]n, _n._ an old woman, usually in contempt--sometimes an old man. [Perh. O. Fr. _carogne_, a crabbed woman; or Celt., as in Ir. _crion_, withered.]
CRONET, kr[=o]'net, _n._ the hair growing over the top of a horse's hoof.
CRONY, kr[=o]n'i, _n._ an old and intimate companion. [Ety. unknown.]
CROODLE, kr[=oo]d'l, _v.i._ to cower down, or cling close to anything.
[Prob. related to _Cuddle_.]
CROODLE, kr[=oo]d'l, _v.i._ (_Scot._), to coo like a dove, to coax.
CROOK, kr[=oo]k, _n._ a bend, anything bent: a curved tube used to lower the pitch of a cornet, &c.: the bending of the body in reverence: a staff bent at the end, as a shepherd's or bishop's: an artifice or trick: (_Spens._) gibbet.--_v.t._ to bend or form into a hook: to turn from the straight line or from what is right.--_v.i._ to bend or be bent.--_n._ CROOK'BACK (_Shak._), a hunchback.--_adj._ CROOK'BACKED; CROOK'ED, bent like a crook: not straight: deviating from rectitude, perverse.--_adv._ CROOK'EDLY.--_n._ CROOK'EDNESS.--_adjs._ CROOK'-KNEED; CROOK'-SHOUL'DERED.--A CROOK IN THE LOT, any trial in one's experience.
[Prob. Scand.; cf. Ice. _krokr_, Dan. _krog_.]
CROOL, krool, _v.i._ to mutter. [Imit.]
CROON, kr[=oo]n, _v.t._ (_Scot._) to utter a low, monotonous, inarticulate sound like a baby: to sing or hum in an undertone.--_n._ CROON'ING, a low murmuring sound. [Cf. Dut. _kreunen_, to groan.]
CROP, krop, _n._ all the produce of a field of grain: anything gathered or cropped: an entire ox-hide: the craw of a bird: (_archit._) a finial: a whip-handle: the cutting the hair short.--_v.t._ to cut off the top or ends: to cut short or close: to mow, reap, or gather.--_v.i._ to yield:--_pr.p._ crop'ping; _pa.p._ cropped.--_n._ CROP'-EAR, one having cropped or cut ears.--_adj._ CROP'FUL (_Milt._), satiated.--_ns._ CROP'PER, one who or that which crops: a plant which furnishes a crop: one who raises a crop for a share of it: a kind of fancy pigeon remarkable for its large crop; CROP'PING, act of cutting off: the raising of crops: (_geol._) an outcrop; CROP'PY, one of the Irish rebels of 1798 who cut their hair short in imitation of the French Revolutionists.--_adj._ CROP'-SICK, sick of a surfeit.--CROP OUT, to appear above the surface; CROP UP, to come up incidentally. [A.S. _crop_, the top shoot of a plant, the crop of a bird; Dut. _crop_, a bird's crop.]
CROPPER, krop'[.e]r, _n._ a fall; failure.--COME A CROPPER, to have a fall, perhaps from phrase 'neck and crop.'
CROQUET, kr[=o]'k[=a], _n._ a game in which two or more players try to drive wooden balls, by means of long-handled mallets, through a series of arches set in the ground. [North Fr. _croquet_, a dial. form of _crochet_, dim. of _croc_, _croche_, a crook.]
CROQUETTE, krok-et', _n._ a ball of minced meat or fish, seasoned and fried. [Fr. _croquer_, to crunch.]
CRORE, kr[=o]r, _n._ the sum of ten millions, or one hundred lacs. [Hind.]
CROSIER, CROZIER, kr[=o]'zh[.e]r, _n._ a cross mounted on a staff, borne before archbishops and patriarchs--often confounded with the pastoral staff.--_adj._ CR[=O]'SIERED. [O. Fr. _crocier_--Late L. _crociarius_--L.
_crux_, a cross.]
CROSS, kros, _n._ a gibbet on which malefactors were hung, consisting of two pieces of timber, one placed crosswise on the other, either thus [Latin cross] or [St Andrew's cross]: the instrument on which Christ suffered, and thus the symbol of the Christian religion: the sufferings of Christ: the atonement effected by these: a representation of the cross, a staff surmounted by a cross, a monument, model, or ornament in the form of a cross, esp. that in this form in the centre of a town at which proclamations are made, &c.: (_Scot._) a signal or call to arms sent throughout a district, being a cross of two sticks charred and dipped in blood (FIERY CROSS): the transverse part of an anchor, or the like: a surveyor's cross-staff: anything that crosses or thwarts: a crossing or crossway: adversity or affliction in general.--_v.t._ to mark with a cross, or to make the sign of the cross.--_ns._ CROSS'-AISLE, a transept aisle of a cruciform church; CROSS'-BEAR'ER, one who carries a cross in a procession; CROSS'-BUN, a bun marked with the form of a cross, eaten on Good-Friday; CROSS'ING, the making the sign of the cross; CROSS'-STITCH, a double stitch in the form of a cross; CROSS'LET, a little cross.--CROST, obsolete _pa.p._ of CROSS.--CROSS-AND-PILE, the obverse and reverse side of a coin, head and tail; CROSS OF CALVARY, the Latin cross or cross of crucifixion elevated on three steps; CROSS OF JERUSALEM, one having each arm capped by a cross-bar; CROSS OF LORRAINE, a cross with two horizontal arms, combining the Greek and Latin crosses; CROSS OF ST JAMES, a Latin cross figured as a sword; CROSS OF ST PATRICK, the saltier cross of Ireland (red on a white ground).--CROSS ONE'S MIND, to flash across the mind; CROSS THE PATH OF ANY ONE, to thwart him.--ANSATE CROSS (_crux ansata_), a common symbol of immortality in ancient Egypt; ARCHIEPISCOPAL CROSS, the pastoral staff surmounted by a cross; BUDDHIST CROSS, the gammadion or fylfot, with returned arms, a symbol found in prehistoric remains in Italy and elsewhere; CAPITAL CROSS, a Greek cross having each extremity terminated in an ornament like a Tuscan capital; CAPUCHIN-CROSS, a cross having each arm terminated by a ball; CELTIC CROSS, a type of cross found in Ireland and in the north and west of Scotland, varying from a cross incised on a flat slate to an elaborate cruciform monument--some crosses of this type show Scandinavian workmanship, and hence are often called RUNIC CROSSES; GREEK CROSS, an upright cross with limbs of equal length--the well-known CROSS OF ST GEORGE (red on a white ground); LATIN CROSS (_crux immissa_), an upright cross having the lower limb longer than the others; MALTESE CROSS, the badge of the knights of Malta, converging to a point in the centre, with two points to each limb; NORMAN CROSS, an elaborate memorial cross like a Gothic turret set on the ground, or on the base of a few steps, with niches for figures and pinnacles; PATRIARCHAL CROSS, a cross with two horizontal bars; ROUEN CROSS, a cross in fretwork, as a brooch or pendant; ST ANDREW'S CROSS (_crux decussata_), or CROSS SALTIER, a cross of two shafts of equal length crossed diagonally at the middle--the saltier cross of Scotland (white on a blue ground); ST ANTHONY'S CROSS (_crux commissa_), shaped like a [St Anthony's cross]; SOUTHERN CROSS, a constellation in the Antarctic region where the stars are in the form of a cross. [O. Fr. _crois_ (Fr.
_croix_)--L. _cruc-em_, orig. an upright post to which latterly a cross-piece was added.]
CROSS, kros, _adj._ lying across: transverse: oblique: opposite: adverse: ill-tempered: interchanged: dishonest: balancing, neutralising.--_adv._ across.--_n._ a crossing or mixing of breeds, esp. of cattle: something intermediate in character between two other things: dishonest practices, esp. in a sporting contest when one of the parties corruptly allows himself to be beaten.--_v.t._ to lay one body or draw one line across another: to cancel by drawing cross lines: to pass from side to side: to write across a bank-cheque the name of a banking company, or simply '& Co.' between the lines, to be filled up with the name of a banking company, through whom alone it may be paid: to obstruct: to thwart: to interfere with.--_v.i._ to lie or be athwart: to move or pass from place to place.--_n._ CROSS'-AC'TION (_law_), an action brought by the defender against the pursuer in the same cause.--_adjs._ CROSS'-ARMED, having the arms crossed: (_bot._) brachiate; CROSS'-BAND'ED, having the grain of the veneer run across that of the rail--of a hand-rail.--_n._ CROSS'-BAR, a transverse bar: a kind of lever.--_adj._ CROSS'-BARRED.--_ns._ CROSS'-BEAM, a large beam stretching across a building and serving to hold its sides together; CROSS'-BENCH, in the House of Lords, certain benches so placed, on which independent members sometimes sit; CROSS'-BILL, a bill brought by the defendant in a Chancery suit against the plaintiff; CROSS'-BILL, a genus of birds resembling bullfinches, linnets, &c., with the mandibles of the bill crossing each other near the points; CROSS'-BIRTH, a birth in which the child lies transversely in the uterus.--_v.t._ CROSS'BITE, to bite the biter.--_n.pl._ CROSS'-BONES, a figure of two thigh-bones laid across each other--together with the skull, a conventional emblem of death.--_ns._ CROSS'BOW, a weapon for shooting arrows, formed of a bow placed crosswise on a stock; CROSS'BOWER, -BOWMAN, one who uses a crossbow.--_adj._ CROSS'-BRED.--_ns._ CROSS'-BREED, a breed produced by the crossing or intermixing of different races; CROSS'-BREED'ING; CROSS'-BUTT'OCK, a particular throw over the hip in wrestling; CROSS'-CHEQUE (see CHEQUE).--_adj._ CROSS'-COUN'TRY, across the fields rather than by the road.--_n._ CROSS'-CUT, a short road across from one point to another.--_v.t._ to cut across.--_ns._ CROSS'CUT-SAW, a large saw worked by two men, one at each end, for cutting beams crosswise; CROSS'-DIVI'SION, the division of any group into divisions that cut across each other and produce confusion.--_adj._ CROSSED, marked by a line drawn crosswise, often denoting cancellation: folded: cruciate.--_n._ CROSS'-EXAMIN[=A]'TION.--_v.t._ CROSS'-EXAM'INE, to test the evidence of a witness by subjecting him to an examination by the opposite party.--_adj._ CROSS'-EYED, having a squint.--_ns._ CROSS'-FERTILIS[=A]'TION, the fecundation of a plant by pollen from another; CROSS'-FIRE (_mil._), the crossing of lines of fire from two or more points; CROSS'-GAR'NET, a T-shaped hinge.--_adjs._ CROSS'-GAR'TERED (_Shak._), wearing the garters crossed on the leg; CROSS'-GRAINED, having the grain or fibres crossed or intertwined: perverse: contrary: intractable.--_ns._ CROSS'-GRAIN'EDNESS; CROSS'-GUARD, the bar, at right angles to the blade, forming the hilt-guard of a sword; CROSS'-HATCH'ING, the art of shading by parallel intersecting lines; CROSS'-HEAD, a beam across the head of something, esp. the bar at the end of the piston-rod of a steam-engine; CROSS'ING, act of going across: the place where a roadway, &c. may be crossed: intersection: act of thwarting: cross-breeding.--_adj._ CROSS'-LEGGED, having the legs crossed.--_adv._ CROSS'LY.--_ns._ CROSS'NESS; CROSS'-PATCH, an ill-natured person; CROSS'-PIECE, a piece of material of any kind crossing another: (_naut._) a timber over the windlass, with pins for belaying the running rigging; CROSS'-PUR'POSE, a contrary purpose: contradictory conduct or system: an enigmatical game; CROSS'-QUAR'TERS, an ornament of tracery like the four petals of a cruciform flower: a quatrefoil.--_v.t._ CROSS'-QUES'TION, to question minutely, to cross-examine.--_ns._ CROSS'-REF'ERENCE, a reference in a book to another title or passage; CROSS'-ROAD, a road crossing the principal road, a bypath; CROSS'-ROW (same as CHRIST-CROSS-ROW); CROSS'-SEA, a sea that sets at an angle to the direction of the wind; CROSS'-SILL, a railroad sleeper lying under the rails transversely as a support to the stringer; CROSS'-SPRING'ER, a cross-rib in a groined vault; CROSS'-STAFF, a surveying instrument consisting of a staff surmounted with a brass circle divided into four equal parts by two intersecting lines; CROSS'-STONE, chiastolite: staurolite: harmotome; CROSS'-TIE, in a railroad, a timber placed under opposite rails as a support; CROSS'-TIN'ING, a mode of harrowing crosswise.--_n.pl._ CROSS'TREES, pieces of timber placed across the upper end of the lower-masts and top-masts of a ship.--_ns._ CROSS'-VAULT'ING, vaulting formed by the intersection of two or more simple vaults; CROSS'WAY, a way that crosses another; CROSS'-WIND, an unfavourable wind, a side-wind.--_adv._ CROSS'WISE, in the form of a cross: across.--CROSS AS TWO STICKS, particularly perverse and disagreeable.--CROSS THE PATH of any one, to thwart him; CROSS ONE'S MIND, to flash across the mind.
CROSSE, kros, _n._ the implement used in _lacrosse_.
CROSSETTE, kro-set', _n._ a small projecting part of an impost-stone at the extremity of an arch: a shoulder in an arch-stone fitting into the stone next to it. [Fr.]
CROTALARIA, kr[=o]-ta-l[=a]'ri-a, _n._ a genus of _Leguminosae_, the rattlewort. [Gr. _krotalon_, a rattle.]
CROTALIDae, kr[=o]-tal'i-d[=e], _n.pl._ a family of venomous serpents, including rattlesnakes, copper-heads, &c.
CROTALO, kr[=o]'ta-l[=o], _n._ a Turkish musical instrument, like the ancient cymbalum.
CROTCH, kroch, _n._ a fork, as of a tree: the bifurcation of the human body.--_adj._ CROTCHED. [Ety. obscure.]
CROTCHET, kroch'et, _n._ a hook: a note in music, equal to half a minim, [Crotchet]: a crooked or perverse fancy: a whim, or conceit.--_adjs._ CROTCH'ETED, CROTCH'ETY, having crotchets or peculiarities: whimsical.--_n._ CROTCH'ETEER, a crotchety person. [Fr. _crochet_, dim. of _croche_, a hook. See CROCHET.]
CROTON, kr[=o]'ton, _n._ a genus of tropical plants, producing a brownish-yellow oil, having a hot, biting taste.--_ns._ CR[=O]'TONATE, a salt formed by the union of crotonic acid with a base; CR[=O]'TON-OIL, a powerful purgative oil, expressed from the seeds of the _Croton tiglium_, also used externally.--CROTON'IC ACID, an acid obtained from croton-oil.
[Gr. _krot[=o]n_, a tick or mite, which the seed of the plant resembles.]
CROTTLES, krot'ls, _n.pl._ lichens used for dyeing. [Gael. _crotal_.]
CROUCH, krowch, _v.i._ to squat or lie close to the ground: to cringe: to fawn. [Possibly _crook_.]
CROUCHED-FRIARS = CRUTCHED-FRIARS. See CRUTCH.
CROUCH-WARE, krowch'-w[=a]r, _n._ a finely finished pottery made with an admixture of pipe-clay in Shropshire: the famous salt-glazed stoneware made at Burslem.
CROUP, kr[=oo]p, _n._ a severe disease in the throat of children, accompanied by a hoarse cough.--_v.i._ to cry or speak hoarsely.--_n._ CROUP'INESS.--_adjs._ CROUP'OUS, CROUP'Y. [A.S. _kropan_, to cry; Scot.
_roup_, _croup_, hoarseness; from the sound.]
CROUP, kr[=oo]p, _n._ the rump of a horse: the place behind the saddle.--_n._ CROUP'ON (_obs._), the croup: the human buttocks. [Fr.
_croupe_, a protuberance; allied to CROP.]
CROUPADE, kroo-p[=a]d', _n._ in the manege, a leap in which the horse draws up his hind-legs toward the belly. [Fr.]
CROUPER, kr[=oo]p'[.e]r, _n._ obsolete form of CRUPPER.
CROUPIER, kr[=oo]'pi-[.e]r, _n._ one who sits at the lower end of the table as assistant-chairman at a public dinner: a vice-president: he who watches the cards and collects the money at the gaming-table. [Fr., 'one who rides on the croup.']
CROUSE, kr[=oo]s, _adj._ (_Scot._) lively, pert.--_adv._ boldly, pertly.--_adv._ CROUSE'LY. [M. E. _cr[=u]s_; cf. Ger. _kraus_, Dut.
_kroes_, crisp, cross.]
CROUT, krowt, _n._ See SAUER-KRAUT.
CROW, kr[=o], _n._ a large bird, generally black, of the genus _Corvus_, which includes magpies, nut-crackers, jays, choughs, &c.: the cry of a cock: a crow-bar.--_v.i._ to croak: to cry as a cock, in joy or defiance: to boast, swagger (with _over_):--_pa.t._ crew (kr[=oo]) or crowed; _pa.p._ crowed.--_ns._ CROW'-BAR, a large iron bar mostly bent at the end, to be used as a lever; CROW'-BERR'Y, a small creeping shrub, producing small black berries; CROW'-FLOW'ER (_Shak._), perhaps the same as CROW'FOOT, a common weed, the flower of which is like a crow's foot, the buttercup: crow's-foot: a number of lines rove through a long wooden block, supporting the backbone of an awning horizontally; CROW'-KEEP'ER (_Shak._), a scarecrow; CROW'-QUILL, a pen made of the quill of a crow, &c., for fine writing or etching; CROW'S'-BILL, CROW'-BILL (_surg._), a kind of forceps for extracting bullets, &c., from wounds; CROW'S'-FOOT, one of the wrinkles produced by age, spreading out from the corners of the eyes: (_mil._) a caltrop; CROW'S'-NEST (_naut._), a shelter at the top-gallant mast-head of whalers for the man on the lookout.--_n.pl._ CROW'-STEPS (see CORBIE).--_n._ CROW'-TOE (_Milt._), probably the same as CROWFOOT.--AS THE CROW FLIES, in a straight line; EAT CROW, or BOILED CROW, to be forced to do something very disagreeable; HAVE A CROW TO PLUCK WITH, to have something to settle with some one. [A.S. _crawe_, a crow, _crawan_, to cry like a cock; imit.]
CROWD, krowd, _n._ a number of persons or things closely pressed together, without order: the rabble: multitude.--_v.t._ to gather into a lump or crowd: to fill by pressing or driving together: to compress.--_v.i._ to press on: to press together in numbers: to swarm.--_p.adj._ CROWD'ED.--CROWD SAIL, to carry a press of sail for speed. [A.S. _crudan_, to press.]
CROWD, krowd, _n._ (_obs._) an ancient musical instrument of the nature of the violin.--_n._ CROWD'ER (_obs._), a fiddler. [W. _crwth_, a hollow protuberance, a fiddle; Gael., Ir. _cruit_.]
CROWDIE, krowd'i, _n._ a mixture of meal and water: (_Scot._) brose. [Der.
CROWN, krown, _n._ the diadem or state-cap of royalty: regal power: the sovereign: honour: reward, as the 'martyr's crown:' the top of anything, esp. of the head: completion: accomplishment; a coin stamped with a crown, esp. the silver 5s. piece--used also as the translation of the old French _ecu_, worth from six francs (or livres) to three francs: a size of paper, because originally water-marked with a crown: (_archit._) a species of spire or lantern, formed by converging flying-buttresses.--_v.t._ to cover or invest with a crown: to invest with royal dignity: to adorn: to dignify: to complete happily.--_ns._ CROWN'-AG'ENT, a solicitor in Scotland who prepares criminal prosecutions; CROWN'-ANT'LER, the uppermost antler of the horn of a stag; CROWN'-COL'ONY, a colony whose administration is directly under the home government; CROWN DERBY PORCELAIN (see PORCELAIN).--_p.adj._ CROWNED, having or wearing a crown: rewarded: consummated.--_ns._ CROWN'ER (_Shak._), a corruption of coroner; CROWN'ET, a coronet: (_Shak._) that which crowns or accomplishes; CROWN'-GLASS, a kind of window-glass formed in circular plates or discs; CROWN'-IMP[=E]'RIAL, a plant, a species of fritillary; CROWN'ING.--_n.pl._ CROWN'-JEW'ELS, jewels pertaining to the crown or sovereign.--_ns._ CROWN'-LAND, land belonging to the crown or sovereign; CROWN'-LAW'YER, the lawyer who acts for the crown in criminal cases.--_adj._ CROWN'LESS.--_ns._ CROWN'LET, a small crown; CROWN'-LIV'ING, a church living in the gift of the crown; CROWN-OFFICE, the office for the business of the crown side of the King's Bench: the office in which the great seal is affixed; CROWN'-P[=A]'PER, in England, a printing-paper of the size 15 20 in.: in America, a writing-paper 15 19 in.; CROWN'-POST, the same as KING-POST (q.v.); CROWN'-PRINCE, the prince who succeeds to the crown; CROWN'-SAW, a circular saw made by cutting teeth round a cylinder; CROWN'-WHEEL, a wheel resembling a crown, with teeth or cogs set at right angles to its plane; CROWN'-WIT'NESS, a witness for the crown in a criminal prosecution instituted by it; CROWN'WORK (_fort._), an outwork composed of a bastion between two curtains, with demi-bastions at the extremes.--CROWN OF THE CAUSEWAY, the middle of the street. [O. Fr. _corone_ (Fr.
_couronne_)--L. _corona_; cf. Gr. _kor[=o]nos_, curved.]