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CHARY, ch[=a]r'i, _adj._ sparing: cautious.--_adv._ CHAR'ILY.--_n._ CHAR'INESS. [A.S. _cearig_--_cearu_, care.]

CHARYBDIS, kar-ib'dis, _n._ a dangerous whirlpool between Italy and Sicily, and opposite to Scylla, the two together providing a proverbial alternative of ruin hardly to be escaped.

CHASE, ch[=a]s, _v.t._ to pursue: to hunt: to drive away, put to flight.--_n._ pursuit: a hunting: that which is hunted: ground abounding in game.--_n._ CHASE'PORT, the porthole at the bow or stern of a vessel, through which the chase-gun is fired.--BEASTS OF CHASE, properly the buck, doe, fox, marten, and roe: wild beasts that are hunted generally.--WILD-GOOSE CHASE, any foolish or profitless pursuit. [O. Fr.

_chacier_, _chasser_--L. _capt[=a]re_, freq. of _cap[)e]re_, to take.]

CHASE, ch[=a]s, _v.t._ to decorate metal-work, whether hammered or punched up, by engraving the exterior.--_ns._ CHAS'ER, one who practises chasing; CHAS'ING, the art of representing figures in bas-relief by punching them out from behind, and then carving them on the front: the art of cutting the threads of screws. [Short for ENCHASE.]

CHASE, ch[=a]s, _n._ a case or frame for holding types: a groove. [Fr.

_chasse_, a shrine, a setting--L. _capsa_, a chest. See CASE.]

CHASERICULTURE, chas-er-i-kul't[=u]r, _n._ the combined industries of tea-growing and of silk-production. [A combination of Chinese _cha_, tea, _chasze_, the former tea valuers of Canton, and L. _sericum_, silk.]

CHASM, kazm, _n._ a yawning or gaping hollow: a gap or opening: a void space.--_adjs._ CHASMED; CHASM'Y. [Gr. _chasma_, from _chain-ein_, to gape; cf. CHAOS.]

CHASSE, shas, _n._ a dram or liqueur taken after coffee, to remove the taste.--Also CHASSE-CAFe [Fr. _chasse-cafe_--_chasser_, to chase, remove.]

CHASSe, shas'[=a], _n._ a kind of gliding step in dancing.--_v.t._ to make such a step: (_slang_) to dismiss. [Fr.]

CHASSEPOT, shas'po, _n._ the kind of bolt-action breechloading rifle adopted by the French army in 1866. [From Antoine Alphonse _Chassepot_, the inventor.]

CHASSEUR, sha-s[=a]r', _n._ a hunter or huntsman: one of a select body of French light troops, either infantry or cavalry; a domestic dressed in military garb in the houses of the great. [Fr. _chasser_, to hunt.]

CHASTE, ch[=a]st, _adj._ modest; refined; virtuous: pure in taste and style.--_adv._ CHASTE'LY.--_ns._ CHASTE'NESS, the quality of being chaste; CHAS'TITY, sexual purity: virginity: refinement of language: moderation.

[O. Fr. _chaste_--L. _castus_, pure.]

CHASTEN, ch[=a]s'n, _v.t._ to free from faults by punishing--hence to punish, to purify or refine: to restrain or moderate.--_p.adj._ CHAS'TENED, purified: modest.--_n._ CHAS'TENMENT.

CHASTISE, chas-t[=i]z', _v.t._ to inflict punishment upon for the purpose of correction: to reduce to order or to obedience.--_adj._ CHAST[=I]S'ABLE.--_n._ CHAS'TISEMENT.


CHASUBLE, chaz'[=u]-bl, _n._ a sleeveless vestment worn over the alb by the priest while celebrating mass. [O. Fr. _chesible_--Low L. _casubula_--L.

_casula_, a mantle, dim. of _casa_, a hut.]

CHAT, chat, _v.i._ to talk idly or familiarly:--_pr.p._ chat'ting; _pa.p._ chat'ted.--_n._ familiar, idle talk.--_n._ CHAT'TINESS.--_adj._ CHAT'TY, given to chat, talkative. [Short for CHATTER.]

CHAT, chat, _n._ a genus of small birds in the thrush family, of which the wheatear is a familiar example. [From the sound of their voice.]

CHATEAU, sha-t[=o]', _n._ a castle, a great country-seat, esp. in France (common in place-names, and connected with wines, as 'Chateau Lafitte,'

'Chateau Yqem,' &c.).--_ns._ CHATELAIN (shat'e-l[=a]n), a castellan; CHAT'ELAINE, a female castellan: an ornamental appendage, suitable to a lady chatelaine, consisting of short chains bearing keys, corkscrew, scissors, &c., attached to the waist-belt: a similar thing in miniature attached to the watch-chain.--CHaTEAU EN ESPAGNE, a castle in the air. [O.

Fr. _chastel_ (Fr. _chateau_)--L. _castellum_, dim. of _castrum_, a fort.]

CHATON, sha-tong', _n._ the head of a ring. [Fr.]

CHATOYANT, shat-oi'ant, _adj._ with a changing lustre, like a cat's eye in the dark. [Fr.]

CHATTA, chat'a, _n._ an umbrella. [Hind.]

CHATTEL, chat'l, _n._ any kind of property which is not freehold, distinguished further into _chattels-real_ and _chattels-personal_, the latter being mere personal movables--money, plate, cattle, and the like; the former including leasehold interests.--GOODS AND CHATTELS, all corporeal movables. [O. Fr. _chatel_--Low L. _captale_--L. _capitale_, &c., property, goods.]

CHATTER, chat'er, _v.i._ to talk idly or rapidly: to sound as the teeth when one shivers.--_ns._ CHATT'ERBOX, one who chatters or talks incessantly; CHATT'ERER, one that chatters: an idle talker: a significant popular name applied to the birds of a small family of finch-like perching birds, as the Bohemian wax-wing and the cedar bird of America; CHATT'ERING, noise like that made by a magpie, or by the striking together of the teeth: idle talk. [From the sound.]

CHATTY, chat'i, _n._ an earthen water-pot in India. [Hind.]

CHAUCERIAN, cha-s[=e]'ri-an, _adj._ pertaining to _Chaucer_, or like him.--_n._ a devoted student of Chaucer.--_n._ CHAU'CERISM, anything characteristic of Chaucer.

CHAUD-MELLe, sh[=o]d-m[=a]'l[=a], _n._ a fight arising in the heat of passion: the killing of a man in such a fight.--Also CHAUD'-MED'LEY. [O.

Fr. _chaude-mellee_, hot fight. See MeLeE.]

CHAUFE, CHAUFF (_Spens._). Forms of CHAFE.

CHAUFFER, chaw'f[.e]r, _n._ a metal box for holding fire, a portable furnace or stove. [See CHAFER.]

CHAUFFEUR, sh[=o]f-f[.e]r, _n._ a motor-car attendant. [Fr.]

CHAUSSES, sh[=o]s, or sh[=o]'sez, any closely fitting covering for the legs, hose generally: the defence-pieces for the legs in ancient armour.--_n._ CHAUSSURE', a general name for boots and shoes. [O. Fr.

_chauces_--L. _calcias_, pl. of _calcia_, hose.]

CHAUTAUQUAN, sha-taw'kwan, _adj._ pertaining to a system of instruction for adults by home reading and study under guidance, evolved from the _Chautauqua_ Literary and Scientific Circle, organised in 1878.

CHAUVINISM, sh[=o]'vin-izm, _n._ an absurdly extravagant pride in one's country, with a corresponding contempt for foreign nations--the French equivalent of the Jingoism of London music-halls.--_ns._ CHAU'VIN, CHAU'VINIST.--_adj._ CHAUVINIST'IC. [Fr. _chauvinisme_, from _Chauvin_, a figure in _La Cocarde tricolore_.]

CHAVENDER, chav'en-der, _n._ the chub or cheven.

CHAW, chaw, _n._ (_Spens._) the jaw--usually _pl._--_v.t._ to chew, still used of tobacco.--_n._ CHAW'-B[=A]'CON, a country clown, a rustic fellow.--CHAWED UP, destroyed. [See JAW.]

CHAWDRON, chaw'dron, _n._ (_Shak._) part of the entrails of an animal. [O.

Fr. _chaudun_.]

CHAY, a vulgar form of CHAISE.


CHEAP, ch[=e]p, _adj._ low in price: of a place where prices are low, as 'a cheap market:' of a low price in relation to the value: easily obtained: of small value, or reckoned at such.--_v.t._ CHEAP'EN, to ask the price of a thing: to make cheap, to lower the price of: to lower the reputation of: to beat down the price of.--_n._ CHEAP'ENER.--_adv._ CHEAP'LY.--_n._ CHEAP'NESS.--CHEAP JACK, or JOHN, a travelling hawker who pretends to give great bargains; CHEAP LABOUR, labour paid at a poor rate; CHEAP TRIP, an excursion by rail or steamer at a reduced fare; CHEAP-TRIPPER, one who goes on such a trip.--DIRT CHEAP, ridiculously cheap.--ON THE CHEAP, cheap or cheaply.--TO BE CHEAP OF ANYTHING (_Scot._), to get off with less than one deserved or expected, as of punishment. [Orig. _good cheap_, i.e. a good bargain; A.S. _ceap_, price, a bargain; A.S. _ceapian_, Ice. _kaupa_, Ger.

_kaufen_, to buy; Scot. _coup_--all borrowed from L. _caupo_, a huckster.]

CHEAT, ch[=e]t, _v.t._ to deceive, defraud, impose upon.--_v.i._ to practise deceit.--_n._ a fraud: one who cheats.--_ns._ CHEAT'ER, one who cheats: (_Shak._) an officer who collected the fines to be paid into the Exchequer; CHEAT'ERY (_coll._), cheating.--PUT A CHEAT UPON, to deceive.--TAME CHEATER, a decoy. [M. E. _cheten_, a form of _escheten_, to escheat.]

CHECK, chek, _v.t._ to bring to a stand: to restrain or hinder: to rebuke: to control an account, &c., by comparison with certified data, vouchers, &c.: to place in check at chess: to mark with a pattern of crossing lines.--_n._ a term in chess when one party obliges the other either to move or guard his king: anything that checks: a sudden stop, repulse, or rebuff: (_B._, _Shak._) a rebuke: a mark put against items in a list: an order for money (usually written CHEQUE): any counter-register used as security, a counterfoil: a token, of printed paper or metal, given to a railroad passenger to make secure the after-identification of his luggage, to a person leaving his seat in a theatre with the intention of returning, &c.: (_U.S._) a counter used in games at cards--hence 'to pass in one's checks' = to die: a pattern of cross lines forming small squares, as in a chessboard: any fabric woven with such a pattern.--_adj._ (_her._) divided into small squares by transverse, perpendicular, and horizontal lines.--_ns._ CHECK'-CLERK, a clerk who checks accounts, &c.; CHECK'ER, one who hinders or rebukes; CHECK'ER-BOARD, a board on which checkers or draughts is played; CHECK'-KEY, a latch-key; CHECK'MATE, in chess, a check given to the adversary's king when in a position in which it can neither be protected nor moved out of check, so that the game is finished: a complete check: defeat: overthrow.--_v.t._ in chess, to make a movement which ends the game: to defeat.--_ns._ CHECK'-REIN, a coupling rein, a strap hindering the horse from lowering its head; CHECK'-STRING, a string by which the occupant of a carriage may attract the driver's notice; CHECK'-TAK'ER, the collector of admission tickets at a theatre, railway-train, &c.; CHECK'-WEIGH'ER, one who on the part of the men checks the weight of coal sent up to the pit-mouth. [O. Fr. _eschec_, _eschac_ (Low L. _scaccus_, _sc[=a]chus_, It. _scacco_, Sp. _jaque_, Ger. _scach_), through Ar. from Pers. _sh[=a]h_, king--CHECKMATE being O. Fr. _eschec mat_--Ar. _sh[=a]h m[=a]t(a)_, 'the king is dead,' i.e. can make no further move.]

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