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CHAPERON, shap'e-r[=o]n, _n._ a kind of hood or cap: one who attends a lady in public places as a protector.--_v.t._ to attend a lady to public places.--_n._ CHAP'ERONAGE. [Fr., a large hood--_chape_, a hooded cloak--Low L. _cappa_. See CAPE.]

CHAPITER, chap'i-t[.e]r, _n._ the head or capital of a column. [Fr.

_chapitel_--Low L. _capitellum_, dim. of L. _caput_, the head.]

CHAPLAIN, chap'l[=a]n, or chap'lin, _n._ a clergyman attached to a ship of war, a regiment, a public institution, or private family.--_ns._ CHAP'LAINCY, CHAP'LAINRY, CHAP'LAINSHIP. [O. Fr. _chapelain_--Low L.

_capellanus_--_capella_. See CHAPEL.]

CHAPLET, chap'let, _n._ a garland or wreath for the head: a circlet of gold, &c.: a string of beads used in counting prayers, one-third of a rosary in length: anything in a string: a metal support of a cylindrical pipe.--_adj._ CHAP'LETED. [O. Fr. _chapelet_--_chape_, a head-dress.]

CHAPMAN, chap'man, _n._ one who buys or sells: an itinerant dealer, a pedlar: (_obs._) a purchaser.--_n._ CHAP'-BOOK, a name given to the books which were formerly sold by chapmen. [A.S. _ceap-man_--_ceap_, trade, and _mann_, man; cf. Ger. _kaufmann_, and see CHEAP.]

CHAPTER, chap't[.e]r, _n._ a main division of a book, or of anything: a subject or category generally: an assembly of the canons of a cathedral or collegiate church, or the members of a religious or military order: an organised branch of some society or fraternity.--_v.t._ to put into chapters: to take to task.--_n._ CHAP'TER-HOUSE.--CHAPTER-AND-VERSE, the exact reference to the passage of the authority for one's statements.--THE CHAPTER OF ACCIDENTS, the catalogue of unforeseen events.--TO THE END OF THE CHAPTER, throughout the whole subject. [O. Fr. _chapitre_--L.

_capitulum_, dim. of _caput_, the head. From the practice of reading to the assembled canons or monks a _capitulum_ or chapter of their rule, or of the Scriptures, the men themselves came to be called in a body the _capitulum_ or chapter, and their meeting-place the chapter-house.]

CHAPTREL, chap'trel, _n._ the capital of a pillar which supports an arch.

[Dim. of CHAPITER.]

CHAR, char, _n._ a small fish of the salmon kind, found in mountain lakes and rivers. [Prob. Celt.; cf. Gael, _ceara_, red, blood-coloured.]

CHAR, char, _v.t._ to roast or burn until reduced to carbon or coal, to scorch:--_pr.p._ char'ring; _pa.p._ charred.--_adj._ CHAR'RY, pertaining to charcoal. [Prob. formed from _char_-coal.]


CHAR-a-BANC, shar'-a-bang, _n._ a long light vehicle with transverse seats.


CHARACTER, kar'ak-t[.e]r, _n._ a letter, sign, figure, stamp, or distinctive mark: a mark of any kind, a symbol in writing, &c.: writing generally, handwriting: a secret cipher: any essential feature or peculiarity: nature: (_obs._) personal appearance: the aggregate of peculiar qualities which constitutes personal or national individuality: moral qualities especially, the reputation of possessing such: a formal statement of the qualities of a person who has been in one's service or employment: official position, rank, or status, or a person who has filled such: a person noted for eccentricity: a personality as created in a play or novel (_Shak._ CHAR'ACT).--_v.t._ to engrave, imprint, write: to represent, delineate, or describe.--_n._ CHARACTERIS[=A]'TION.--_v.t._ CHAR'ACTERISE, to describe by peculiar qualities: to distinguish or designate.--_ns._ CHAR'ACTERISM; CHARACTERIS'TIC, that which marks or constitutes the character.--_adjs._ CHARACTERIS'TIC, -AL, marking or constituting the peculiar nature.--_adv._ CHARACTERIS'TICALLY.--_adj._ CHAR'ACTERLESS, without character or distinctive qualities.--_ns._ CHAR'ACTERLESSNESS; CHAR'ACTERY, writing: impression: that which is charactered.--IN CHARACTER, in harmony with the part assumed, appropriate, as a CHARACTER ACTOR, one who tries to represent eccentricities. [Fr.

_caractere_--L. _character_--Gr. _charakt[=e]r_, from _charass-ein_, to cut, engrave.]

CHARADE, shar-ad', _n._ a species of riddle, the subject of which is a word proposed for solution from an enigmatical description of its component syllables and of the whole--the charade is often acted. [Fr.; ety. dub.

Littre gives Prov. _charrada_, chatter; Prof. Skeat quotes Sp. _charrada_, the speech of a clown.]

CHARCOAL, char'k[=o]l, _n._ charred wood or coal made by charring wood; the carbonaceous residue of vegetable, animal, or mineral substances when they have undergone smothered combustion. [The first element of the word is of doubtful origin.]

CHARE, ch[=a]r, CHAR, char, _n._ an occasional piece of work, an odd job: (_pl._) household work--in America usually CHORE.--_v.i._ to do odd jobs of work: to do house-cleaning.--_n._ CHAR'WOMAN, a woman hired by the day to do odd jobs of domestic work. [A.S. _cerran_, _cierran_, to turn.]

CHARET, char'et, _n._ (_Spens._) same as CHARIOT.

CHARGE, charj, _v.t._ to load, to put into, to fill (_with_): to load heavily, burden: to fill completely: to cause to receive electricity: to lay a task upon one, to enjoin, command: to deliver officially an injunction, as a judge to a jury, a bishop or archdeacon to his clergy, or a senior to a junior minister at a Presbyterian ordination: to bring an accusation against: to exact a sum of money from, to ask as the price.--_v.i._ to make an onset.--_n._ that which is laid on: cost or price: the load of powder, &c., for a gun: attack or onset: care, custody: the object of care, esp. a minister of religion's flock or parish: an accumulation of electricity in a Leyden jar: command: exhortation: accusation: (_pl._) expenses.--_adj._ CHARGE'ABLE, liable to be charged, imputable: blamable: (_B._) burdensome.--_n._ CHARGE'ABLENESS.--_adv._ CHARGE'ABLY.--_adj._ CHARGE'FUL (_Shak._), expensive.--_n._ CHARGE'-HOUSE (_Shak._), a common school where a fee was charged, in distinction to a free-school.--_adj._ CHARGE'LESS.--_n._ CHARG'ER, a flat dish capable of holding a large joint, a platter: a war-horse.--GIVE IN CHARGE, to hand over to the police. [Fr. _charger_--Low L. _carric[=a]re_, to load--L.

_carrus_, a wagon. See CAR, CARGO.]

CHARGe-D'AFFAIRES, shar'zh[=a]-da-f[=a]r', _n._ a fourth-class diplomatic agent, accredited, not to the sovereign, but to the department for foreign affairs--he also holds his credentials only from the minister: the person in charge for the time. [Fr.]


CHARIOT, char'i-ot, _n._ a four-wheeled pleasure or state carriage: a car used in ancient warfare: a light four-wheeled carriage with back-seats.--_v.t._ to carry in a chariot.--_v.i._ to ride in a chariot.--_n._ CHARIOTEER', one who drives a chariot.--_v.t._ and _v.i._ to drive or to ride in such. [Fr., dim. of _char_, a CAR.]

CHARISM, kar'izm, _n._ a free gift of grace.--_adj._ CHARISMAT'IC. [Gr.

_charisma_--_charis_, grace.]

CHARITY, char'i-ti, _n._ (_N.T._) universal love: the disposition to think favourably of others, and do them good: almsgiving: (_pl._) affections.--_adj._ CHAR'ITABLE, of or relating to charity: liberal to the poor.--_n._ CHAR'ITABLENESS.--_adv._ CHAR'ITABLY.--COLD AS CHARITY, an ironical phrase implying the coldness of much so-called charity, which should naturally be warm. [Fr. _charite_--L. _caritat-em_, _carus_, dear.]

CHARIVARI, shar'i-var'i, _n._ a French term used to designate a wild tumult and uproar, produced by the beating of pans, kettles, and dishes, mingled with whistling, bawling, groans, and hisses, expressive of displeasure against an individual--the 'rough music' not unknown in England as a popular protest against an unequal marriage, or the like. [Ety. dub.; the word, as suggesting derision, has been adopted as a name by satirical journals.]

CHARK, chark, _v.t._ to burn to charcoal.--_n._ charcoal, coke.

CHARLATAN, shar'la-tan, _n._ a mere talking pretender: a quack.--_adj._ CHARLATAN'IC.--_ns._ CHAR'LATANISM, CHAR'LATANRY. [Fr.,--It.

_ciarlatano_--_ciarlare_, to chatter, an imit. word.]

CHARLES'S WAIN, _n._ a name given to the seven bright stars in Ursa Major, the Plough. [A.S. _Carles waegn_, Carl being Charlemagne.]

CHARLEY, CHARLIE, char'li, _n._ a night-watchman: the small triangular beard familiar in the portraits of _Charles_ I.: the fox.--_n._ CHAR'LEY-PITCH'ER (_slang_), one who makes a living by the thimble-and-pea trick.

CHARLOCK, char'lok, _n._ a plant of the mustard family, with yellow flowers, that grows as a weed in cornfields. [A.S. _cerlic_.]

CHARLOTTE, shar'lot, _n._ a dish of apple marmalade covered with crumbs of toast.--CHARLOTTE RUSSE, a custard enclosed in a kind of sponge-cake.

CHARM, charm, _n._ a spell: something thought to possess occult power, a metrical form of words: attractiveness: a trinket worn on a watch-guard: the blended singing of birds, children, &c.: (_pl._) female beauty or other personal attractions: that which can please irresistibly.--_v.t._ to influence by a charm: to subdue by secret influence: to enchant: to delight, to allure.--_adj._ CHARMED, protected, as by a special charm.--_n._ CHARM'ER.--_adj._ CHARM'FUL, abounding with charms.--_p.adj._ CHARM'ING, highly pleasing: delightful: fascinating.--_adv._ CHARM'INGLY.--_adj._ CHARM'LESS, wanting or destitute of charms. [Fr.

_charme_--L. _carmen_, a song.]

CHARNECO, char'ne-ko, _n._ (_Shak._) a kind of sweet wine. [Prob. from the name of a village near Lisbon.]

CHARNEL, char'nel, _adj._ of, or pertaining to, a charnel or burial-place, as in 'charnel-vault,' &c.: sepulchral, death-like.--_n._ CHAR'NEL-HOUSE, a place where the bones of the dead are deposited. [O. Fr. _charnel_--Low L.

_carn[=a]le_--L. _carnalis_, _caro_, _carnis_, flesh.]

CHARON, k[=a]'ron, _n._ in Greek mythology, the ferryman who rowed the shades of the dead across the river Styx in the lower world: a ferryman generally. [Gr.]

CHARPIE, shar'p[=e], _n._ lint shredded down so as to form a soft material for dressing wounds. [O. Fr. _charpir_--L. _carp[)e]re_, to pluck.]

CHARPOY, char'poi, _n._ the common Indian bedstead, sometimes handsomely wrought and painted. [Hind. _cha[=a]rp[=a][=i]_--Pers.

_chih[=a]r-p[=a][=i]_, four feet.]

CHARQUI, char'k[=e], _n._ beef cut into long strips and dried in the sun--jerked beef. [Peruv.]

CHARR. Same as CHAR (1).

CHART, chart, _n._ a marine or hydrographical map, exhibiting a portion of a sea or other water, with the islands, coasts of contiguous land, soundings, currents, &c: an outline-map, or a tabular statement giving information of any kind.--_adjs._ CHART[=A]'CEOUS; CHART'LESS. [O. Fr.

_charte_--L. _charta_, a paper.]

CHARTER, chart'er, _n._ any formal writing in evidence of a grant, contract, or other transaction, conferring or confirming titles, rights, or privileges, or the like: the formal deed by which a sovereign guarantees the rights and privileges of his subjects, like the famous MAG'NA CHART'A, signed by King John at Runnymede, 15th June 1215, or the CHARTE of Louis XVIII. at the Restoration in 1814, or that sworn by Louis-Philippe, 29th August 1830: any instrument by which powers and privileges are conferred by the state on a select body of persons for a special object, as the 'charter of a bank:' a patent: grant, allowance: immunity.--_v.t._ to establish by charter: to let or hire, as a ship, on contract.--_p.adj._ CHART'ERED, granted or protected by a charter: privileged: licensed: hired by contract.

[O. Fr. _chartre_--L. _cartula_, _carta_.]

CHARTERHOUSE, chart'[.e]r-hows, _n._ a Carthusian monastery: the famous hospital and school instituted in London in 1611, on the site of a Carthusian monastery--now transferred--the 'masterpiece of Protestant English charity' in Fuller's phrase.--_ns._ CHAR'TREUSE, a Carthusian monastery, esp. the original one, the Grande Chartreuse near Grenoble in France: a famous liqueur, green, yellow, or white, long manufactured here by the monks from aromatic herbs and brandy: a kind of enamelled pottery: a pale greenish colour; CHAR'TREUX, a Carthusian: the Charterhouse School.

CHARTER-PARTY, chart'[.e]r-par'ti, _n._ the common written form in which the contract of affreightment is expressed--viz. the hiring of the whole or part of a ship for the conveyance of goods. [Fr. _charte-partie_, lit. a divided charter, as the practice was to divide it in two and give a half to each person. L. _charta part[=i]ta_.]

CHARTISM, chart'izm, _n._ a movement in Great Britain for the extension of political power to the working-classes, rising out of widespread national distress and popular disappointment with the results of the Reform Bill of 1832--its programme, the 'People's Charter,' drawn up in 1838, with six _points_: (1) Manhood Suffrage; (2) Equal Electoral Districts; (3) Vote by Ballot; (4) Annual Parliaments; (5) Abolition of Property Qualification; and (6) Payment of Members of the House of Commons.--_n._ CHART'IST, a supporter of chartism.

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