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CASSOLETTE, kas'[=o]-let, _n._ a censer: a perfume-box with perforated lid.

[Fr.,--Sp. _cazoleta_--_cazo_, a saucepan.]

CASSONADE, kas-o-n[=a]d', _n._ raw or unrefined sugar. [Fr.]

CASSOWARY, kas'[=o]-war-i, _n._ a genus of running birds, nearly related to the true ostrich, and nearer to the American rhea. [Malay _kasu[=a]r[=i]_ or _kasav[=a]r[=i]_.]

CAST, kast, _v.t._ to throw or fling: to throw off, shed, drop: to throw down: to throw together or reckon: to mould or shape: (_B._) to consider, to cast or throw up.--_v.i._ to warp:--_pa.t._ and _pa.p._ cast.--_n._ act of casting: a throw of anything, as the sounding-lead, a fishing-line: the thing thrown, esp. in angling: the distance thrown: a motion, turn, or squint, as of the eye: a chance: a mould: the form received from a mould: manner, stamp, or quality: a shade of colour, a degree of guilt, &c.: the assignment of the various parts of a play to the several actors: the company of actors to whom such have been assigned.--_n._ CAST'AWAY, one cast away, an outcast.--_adj._ worthless, rejected.--_adjs._ CAST (_B._), CAST'ED (_Shak._), cast off.--_ns._ CAST'ING, act of casting or moulding: that which is cast: a mould; CAST'ING-NET, a species of net for fishing; CAST'ING-VOTE, the voice or vote of the president of a meeting, by which he is enabled, when the other votes are equally divided, to cast the balance on the one side or the other; CAST'ING-WEIGHT, the weight which makes the balance cast or turn when exactly poised.--_adj._ CAST'-OFF, laid aside or rejected.--_n._ anything thrown aside.--_n._ CAST'-STEEL, steel that has been melted, cast into ingots, and rolled out into bars.--CAST ABOUT, to contrive, to look about, to search for, as game: (_B._) to turn, to go round; CAST A NATIVITY, to make an astrological calculation; CAST ANCHOR, to moor a ship; CAST AN EYE, A GLANCE, to look at; CAST A THING IN ONE'S TEETH, to bring a reproach against some one; CAST AWAY, to wreck, to waste; CAST DOWN, to deject or depress in mind: to turn the eyes downward; CAST LOOSE, to set loose or adrift; CAST UP, to throw up, to bring up anything as a reproach.--BE CAST (_law_), to be defeated.--THE LAST CAST, the last venture. [Scand.; as Ice. _kasta_, to throw.]

CASTALIAN, kas-t[=a]'li-an, _adj._ pertaining to _Castalia_, a fountain in Parnassus, sacred to Apollo and the Muses.


CASTANET, kas'ta-net, _n._ a musical instrument of percussion in the form of two hollow shells of ivory or hard wood, which are bound together by a band fastening on the thumb, and struck by the fingers to produce a trilling sound in keeping with the rhythm of the music--much used in Spain as an accompaniment to dances and guitars. [Sp. _castaneta_--L. _castanea_, a chestnut.]

CASTE, kast, _n._ a term applied chiefly to distinct classes or sections of society in India, and, in a modified sense, to social distinctions of an exclusive nature among other nations.--LOSE CASTE, to descend in social rank. [A name given by the Portuguese to the classes of people in India; Port. _casta_, breed, race.--L. _castus_, pure, unmixed.]


CASTIGATE, kas'tig-[=a]t, _v.t._ to chastise: to correct: to punish with stripes.--_ns._ CASTIG[=A]'TION, act of castigating: chastisement: severe punishment; CAS'TIG[=A]TOR, one who castigates.--_adj._ CAS'TIG[=A]TORY.

[L. _castig[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_, from _castus_, pure.]

CASTILIAN, kas-til'yan, _adj._ and _n._ of or belonging to _Castile_, a native of Castile, or the language thereof, standard Spanish.--CASTILE SOAP, a hard soap made with olive-oil and soda.


CASTLE, kas'l, _n._ a fortified house or fortress: the residence of a prince or nobleman, or a large country mansion generally: anything built in the likeness of such: a defensive tower borne on an elephant's back: a large ship, esp. of war.--_v.t._ to enclose or fortify with a castle.--_v.i._ (_chess_) to bring the castle or rook up to the square next the king, and move the king to the other side of the castle.--_n._ CAS'TELLAN, governor or captain of a castle.--_adj._ CAS'TELLATED, having turrets and battlements like a castle.--_n._ CAS'TLE-BUILD'ING, the act of building castles in the air or forming visionary projects.--_adj._ CAS'TLED, furnished with castles.--_n._ CAS'TLE-GUARD, the guard for the defence of a castle.--CASTLES IN THE AIR, or IN SPAIN, groundless or visionary projects.--THE CASTLE, Dublin Castle, the seat of the viceroy and the executive--_Castle influence_, &c. [A.S. _castel_--L. _castellum_, dim.

of _castrum_, a fortified place.]

CASTOR, kas'tor, _n._ the beaver: a hat made of its fur. [L.,--Gr.

_kast[=o]r_; cf. Sans. _kasturi_, musk.]

CASTOR, kast'or, _n._ a small wheel on the legs of furniture: a small vessel with perforated top for pepper, &c.--also CAST'ER. [From CAST.]

CASTOR-OIL, kas'tor-oil, _n._ a medicinal oil obtained from a tropical plant, the _Ricinus communis_. [Ety. dub.; prob. from _castor_ or _castoreum_, the unctuous substance obtained from two pear-shaped glands in the beaver, formerly much used in midwifery.]

CASTRAL, kas'tral, _adj._ belonging to the camp. [L. _castra_.]

CASTRAMETATION, kas-tra-me-t[=a]'shun, _n._ the act or art of encamping.

[L. _castra_, a camp, _met[=a]ri_, _-atus_, to measure off--_meta_, a boundary.]

CASTRATE, kas'tr[=a]t, _v.t._ to deprive of the power of generation, to remove the testicles, geld, emasculate: to take from or render imperfect.--_adj._ CAS'TRATED, expurgated.--_ns._ CASTR[=A]'TION, gelding, expurgation; CASTRATO (kas-tra't[=o]), a male singer castrated in boyhood so as to preserve a soprano or alto voice:--_pl._ CASTRA'TI. [L.

_castr[=a]re_, _-[=a]tum_.]

CASUAL, kash'[=u]-al, _adj._ accidental: unforeseen: occasional.--_n._ a chance or occasional visitor, labourer, pauper, &c.--_n._ CAS'UALISM, the belief that chance governs all things.--_adv._ CAS'UALLY, in a casual manner.--_n._ CAS'UALTY, that which falls out: an accident: a misfortune: (_pl._) losses of a military force by death, desertion, &c.: an incidental charge or payment.--CASUALTIES OF SUPERIORITY, in the feudal law of Scotland, such emoluments arising to the superior as depend on uncertain events--those of non-entry, relief or composition, and escheat alone remaining, but considerably modified by the Conveyancing Act of 1874.--CASUALTY WARD, the ward in a hospital in which accidents are treated; CASUAL WARD, a ward set apart for the use of those who are only occasionally in destitution. [L. _casualis_--_casus_. See CASE.]

CASUARINA, kas-[=u]-ar-[=e]n'a, _n._ a genus of Australian trees having thread-like, jointed, pendent branches, with small toothed sheaths at the joints, like the horse-tails--the _Swamp-oak_ and _She-oak_ belong to it, and its wood is the well-known _Beef-wood_.

CASUIST, kaz'[=u]-ist, _n._ one who studies and resolves cases of conscience.--_adjs._ CASUIST'IC, -AL, relating to cases of conscience.--_n._ CAS'UISTRY, the science or doctrine of cases of conscience, or the reasoning which enables a man to decide in a particular case between apparently conflicting duties. [Fr. _casuiste_--L. _casus_.

See CASE.]

CASULA, kas'[=u]-la, _n._ a chasuble.

CAT, kat, _n._ a common domestic animal kept to devour mice: a spiteful woman: a movable pent-house used for their protection by besiegers: a double tripod with six legs: a piece of wood tapering at each end, struck with the CAT-STICK in the game of _tip-cat_, this game itself: short for the CAT-O'-NINE'-TAILS, an instrument of punishment consisting of a whip with nine tails or lashes, with three or four knots on each, once used in the army and navy.--_v.t._ to raise the anchor to the cathead.--_ns._ CAT'AMOUNT, a common name in the United States for the cougar or puma--also called _Panther_, _Painter_, and _American lion_; CATAMOUN'TAIN, or CAT O'

MOUNTAIN, a leopard, panther, or ocelot: a wild mountaineer.--_adj._ ferocious, savage.--_adj._ CAT-AND-DOG, used attributively for quarrelsome.--_ns._ CAT'-BIRD, an American bird of the thrush family, so called on account of the resemblance of its note to the mewing of a cat; CAT'-CALL, a squeaking instrument used in theatres to express dislike of a play: a shrill whistle or cry.--_v.i._ to sound a cat-call.--_v.t._ to assail with such.--_adj._ CAT'-EYED, having eyes like a cat: able to see in the dark.--_n._ CAT'GUT, a kind of cord made from the intestines of animals, and used as strings for violins, harps, guitars, &c., the cords of clock-makers, &c.: the violin or other stringed instrument: a coarse corded cloth.--_adj._ CAT'-HAMMED, with thin hams like a cat's.--_ns._ CAT'HEAD, one of two strong beams of timber projecting from the bow of a ship, on each side of the bowsprit, through which the ropes pass by which the anchor is raised; CAT'-HOLE, one of two holes in the after part of a ship, through which hawsers may pass for steadying the ship or for heaving astern; CAT'HOOD, state of being a cat or having the nature of a cat; CAT'KIN, a crowded spike or tuft of small unisexual flowers with reduced scale-like bracts, as in the willow, hazel, &c.; CAT'-LAP, any thin or poor drink.--_adj._ CAT'-LIKE, noiseless, stealthy.--_ns._ CAT'LING, a little cat, a kitten: the downy moss on some trees, like the fur of a cat: (_Shak._) a lute-string; CAT'MINT, a perennial plant resembling mint, said to be so called from the fondness cats have for it; CAT'S'-CR[=A]'DLE, a game played by children, two alternately taking from each other's fingers an intertwined cord, so as always to maintain a symmetrical figure; CAT'S'-EYE, a beautiful variety of quartz, so called from the resemblance which the reflection of light from it bears to the light that seems to emanate from the eye of a cat; CAT'S-FOOT, a plant, called also _Ground-ivy_; CAT'-SIL'VER, a variety of silvery mica; CAT'S'-MEAT, horses'

flesh, or the like, sold for cats by street dealers; CAT'S'-PAW (_naut._), a light breeze: the dupe or tool of another--from the fable of the monkey who used the paws of the cat to draw the roasting chestnuts out of the fire; CAT'S'-TAIL, a catkin: a genus of aquatic plants of the reed kind, the leaves of which are sometimes used for making mats, seating chairs, &c.: a kind of grass.--_adj._ CAT'-WIT'TED, small-minded, conceited, and spiteful.--CATTED AND FISHED, said of an anchor raised to the cathead and secured to the ship's side.--BELL THE CAT (see BELL).--CARE KILLED THE CAT, even with his proverbial nine lives.--CHESHIRE CATS are proverbially notable for grinning, and KILKENNY CATS proverbially fight till each destroys the other.--RAIN CATS AND DOGS, to pour down heavily.--SEE WHICH WAY THE CAT JUMPS, to watch how things are going to turn before committing one's self.--TURN THE CAT IN THE PAN, to change sides with dexterity.--For GIB-CAT, TABBY-CAT, TOM-CAT, see under GIB, TABBY, &c. [A.S. _cat_; found also in Celt., Slav., Ar., Finn, &c.]

CAT, kat, _n._ an old name for a coal and timber vessel on the north-east coast of England.--_adj._ CAT'-RIGGED, having one great fore-and-aft mainsail spread by a gaff at the head and a boom at the foot, for smooth water only.


CATACAUSTIC, kat-a-kaws'tik, _adj._ (_geom._) belonging to caustic curves formed by reflection (see CAUSTIC). [Gr. _kata_, against, and CAUSTIC.]

CATACHRESIS, kat-a-kr[=e]'sis, _n._ (_rhet._) a figure by which a word is used in a sense different from, yet analogous to, its own: a harsh or far-fetched metaphor.--_adjs._ CATACHRES'TIC, -AL.--_adv._ CATACHRES'TICALLY. [L.,--Gr. _katachr[=e]sis_, misuse.]

CATACLYSM, kat'a-klizm, _n._ a flood of water: a deluge: great revolution.--_adj._ CATACLYS'MIC. [Gr. _kataklysmos_--_kata_, downward, _klyzein_, to wash.]

CATACOMB, kat'a-k[=o]m, _n._ a subterranean excavation used as a burial-place, esp. the famous Catacombs near Rome, where many of the early Christian victims of persecution were buried: any place built with crypt-like recesses for storing books, wine, &c.--_adj._ CAT'ACUMBAL. [It.

_catacomba_--Late L. _catacumbas_ (prob. from _ad catacumbas_), prob. from Gr. _kata_, downward, and _kymb[=e]_, a hollow.]

CATACOUSTICS, kat-a-kows'tiks, _n._ the part of acoustics which treats of echoes or sounds reflected. [Gr. _kata_, against, and ACOUSTICS.]

CATADIOPTRIC, -AL, kat-a-di-op'trik, -al, _adj._ pertaining to instruments by which rays of light are both reflected and refracted. [See CATOPTRIC.]

CATADROMOUS, kat-ad'rom-us, _adj._ of fishes, descending periodically for spawning to the lower parts of a river or to the sea. [Gr. _kata_, down, _dromos_, running.]

CATAFALQUE, kat-a-falk', _n._ a temporary structure of carpentry representing a tomb or cenotaph placed over the coffin during a lying-in-state: a tomb of state, a funeral car.--Also CATAFAL'CO.

[Fr.,--It. _catafalco_. See BALCONY and SCAFFOLD.]

CATALAN, kat'al-an, _adj._ of or belonging to _Catalonia_ or its language, a dialect of Provencal.--_n._ a native of Catalonia, or the language thereof.

CATALECTIC, kat-a-lek'tik, _adj._ incomplete: applied to a verse wanting one syllable at the end, or terminating in an imperfect foot. [Gr.

_katal[=e]ktikos_, incomplete--_katal[=e]gein_, to stop.]

CATALEPSY, kat'a-lep-si, _n._ a state of more or less complete insensibility, with absence of the power of voluntary motion, and statue-like fixedness of the body and limbs.--_adj._ CATALEP'TIC. [Gr., from _kata_, down, _lamban[=o]_, _l[=e]psomai_, I seize.]

CATALLACTIC, kat-al-ak'tik, _adj._ pertaining to exchange.--_adv._ CATALLAC'TICALLY.--_n._ CATALLAC'TICS, political economy as the science of exchanges. [Made up from Gr. _katalassein_, to exchange.]

CATALOGUE, kat'a-log, _n._ a list of names, books, &c.--_v.t._ to put in a catalogue:--_pr.p._ cat'aloguing; _pa.p._ cat'alogued.--_v.t._ CAT'ALOGUISE. [Fr.--Late L.--Gr. _katalogos_, from _kata_, down, _legein_, to choose.]

CATALPA, kat-al'pa, _n._ a genus of hardy trees native to the United States and Japan, marked by a low habit, profuse blossoms, and long cigar-like pendent pods.--The common Catalpa, known also as the _Bean-tree_, _Catawba_, _Indian bean_, and _Cigar-tree_, yields a durable wood; as also the western Catalpa or _Shawnee wood_. [From the native Ind. name.]

CATALYSIS, ka-tal'i-sis, _n._ (_chem._) the decomposition of a compound and the recomposition of its elements, by the presence of a substance which does not itself suffer change, as in fermentation.--_adj._ CATALYT'IC. [Gr.

_katalysis_--_kata_, down, _lyein_, to loosen.]

CATAMARAN, kat'a-mar-an', or kat-am'ar-an, _n._ a raft of three pieces of wood lashed together, the middle piece being longer than the others, and serving as a keel--on this the rower squats, and works a paddle--much used in the Madras surf: an old kind of fire-ship, long superseded; an ill-natured woman. [Tamil, 'tied wood.']

CATAMENIA, kat-a-m[=e]'ni-a, _n._ the menstrual discharge.--_adj._ CATAM[=E]'NIAL. [Gr. _katam[=e]nios_--_kata_, again, _m[=e]n_, _m[=e]nos_, a month.]

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